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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Bernd Hövel and Tom Verbrugge

To demonstrate a method of selecting base materials for lead‐free processing based on the kinetics of decomposition.

Abstract

Purpose

To demonstrate a method of selecting base materials for lead‐free processing based on the kinetics of decomposition.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the calculation of Arrhenius kinetic parameters from common “time to delamination” data (T260). Delamination is correlated to a certain conversion into the decomposition reaction. With both of these parameters, various soldering scenarios are analysed.

Findings

The findings highlight the fact that conventional FR‐4 materials are only good for a few reflow cycles. A higher number of reflow cycles can only be fulfilled with RoHS compliant base materials. However, rework and repair may even shift those more thermally resiliant materials over the limit. The peak temperatures are over proportionally responsible for delamination failures and need to be controlled carefully.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in its ability to provide guidance on the selection of base materials to comply with various soldering processes. A model has been developed that is able to predict failure limit for a given base material and a given process.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Kevin Davis

This paper reviews experience with credit union demutualisation to date in the light of increasing discussion about whether demutualisation is a likely (or inevitable…

Abstract

This paper reviews experience with credit union demutualisation to date in the light of increasing discussion about whether demutualisation is a likely (or inevitable) future stage in the evolutionary process. It is argued that the credit union industry faces an inherent demutualisation bias which emerges as the sector develops maturity. Contributing factors include the emergence of professional management pursuing personal objectives, together with the economic realities of technological change, financial liberalisation, increased competition, and prudential regulation based on minimum capital requirements. Demutualisation incentives may partially reflect the unsuitability of the mutual form of governance in larger, more sophisticated financial institutions, but there is also a significant risk of demutualisation based on wealth expropriation motives. Alternative policies and strategies which might avoid this demutualisation bias are examined.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 31 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

Heidi Wechtler

The purpose of this paper is to examine the motives of female childless self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) in deciding to work abroad, so far under-researched.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the motives of female childless self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) in deciding to work abroad, so far under-researched.

Design/methodology/approach

The study departs from prior research in using a new methodological approach, i.e. the analysis of online diaries (blogs) to explore the motives of a specific population to relocate.

Findings

The emergent model of motivations is based upon four main dimensions that emerged from the socially constructed experience of these single childless female SIEs: escape as main motivation, confrontation to reality, identity reconstruction and purpose of expatriation.

Originality/value

The findings reveal new elements of motivations to move abroad such as the complete absence of the notion of career from the blog posts, replaced, however, by a feminist and existentialist reflection.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2011

Brian R. Grossman

Purpose – Medicaid funding for long-term services and supports (LTSS) is a key avenue for community access for people with disabilities and others. Between 1997 and 2009…

Abstract

Purpose – Medicaid funding for long-term services and supports (LTSS) is a key avenue for community access for people with disabilities and others. Between 1997 and 2009, the boundaries of community access were redrawn and redefined with the introduction of a series of 13 bills to change how Medicaid requires states to fund LTSS. Although they did not successfully pass into law, their presence is felt in the language of the Community First Choice (CFC) Option, part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010. This chapter documents and analyzes the changes in the concept of community access as reflected across these bills and the CFC.

Methodology – The text of these 13 bills and the CFC were compared with attention to structure, order, and meaning. Documents were hand coded and electronically searched. Codes were entered into atlas.ti for comparison and analysis.

Findings – Four significant changes in the conceptualization of community access emerged: (1) who deserves access to community, (2) what community access entails, (3) why people deserve access to community, and (4) how community access should be organized. With the exception of the reasons why people deserve access to community, the expanded concept of community access illustrated across these bills is reflected in the text of CFC.

Originality/value of the chapter – This chapter contributes to the limited literature that documents and analyzes the historical development of community access across policy documents. In addition, it highlights the relevance of incremental analysis to understanding social change through the legislative process.

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2017

Monica B. Fine, Kimberly Gleason and Michael Mullen

Increasingly, marketing managers are asked to consider the financial implications, in terms of both book and market values, when making strategic decisions. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Increasingly, marketing managers are asked to consider the financial implications, in terms of both book and market values, when making strategic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of marketing expenditures in explaining the variation in the aftermarket performance of a sample of firms conducting initial public offerings (IPOs).

Design/methodology/approach

Theories from marketing and finance – market-based assets (MBA) theory and signaling theory respectively – serve as the conceptual basis of this paper. The results of this study, based on a sample of 2,103 IPOs covering the 1996 to 2008 time period, suggest that increased marketing spending positively impacts aftermarket (i.e. stock price) performance.

Findings

The authors find that while short-run aftermarket performance is positively and significantly impacted by pre-IPO marketing spending, long-run firm performance measures do not appear to be impacted by pre-IPO marketing spending. Further, pre-IPO marketing spending does not incrementally reduce underpricing or improve long-run performance when the IPO takes place during extreme market conditions such as recessions or hot markets, and these results are important to the shareholders and potential investors in the firm.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically this paper advances the literature on the marketing-finance interface by extending the MBA and signaling theories. For practice, the results indicate that spending more money on marketing before the IPO and disclosing this information produces positive bottom-line results for the firm.

Originality/value

While Luo (2008) documents a significant relationship between the firms’ pre-IPO marketing spending and IPO underpricing, few studies explore the impact of marketing spending on stock price performance beyond the first day of trading. This paper makes three unique contributions. First, the authors extend Luo’s study by investigating the effect of marketing expenditures on underpricing during extreme market conditions. Second, the authors are the first to examine IPO performance in the long-run as well as the short-run. Finally, the authors assess how long-run performance is impacted by marketing spending during extreme market conditions. The findings of this study has implications for managers and shareholders of firms considering going public through a traditional IPO.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Karin A. Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts and Belinda Winder

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs.

Findings

Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focussed the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person.

Practical implications

These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focussed programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending.

Social implications

As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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