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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2015

Alan Wong and Bernie Carducci

The purpose of this paper is to determine relationships between financial risk tolerance and the personality traits of sensation-seeking, locus of control, ambiguity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine relationships between financial risk tolerance and the personality traits of sensation-seeking, locus of control, ambiguity tolerance, and financial dishonesty.

Design/methodology/approach

A pretested questionnaire was used to gather information from 255 respondents. With risk tolerance as a criterion variable and the four personality traits as predictor variables, a regression procedure was performed to determine which variables contributed to the variability of the criterion variable and the extent of such contribution. An analysis was also done to find out whether gender, age, GPA, and academic standing had an influence on each personality trait’s contribution to risk tolerance.

Findings

Risk tolerance is directly related to sensation-seeking and the link is so strong that it is not mitigated by the effects of gender, age, GPA, and college academic standings. As for locus of control, the more one believes one has control over one’s outcome, the higher risk one can tolerate. Surprisingly, there is no relationship between risk and ambiguity tolerances. Dishonesty also does not affect risk tolerance behavior. However, the relationship is found to exist among younger individuals and those with lower GPA, possibly due to not having reached an adequate level of matured or critical reasoning yet.

Originality/value

The relationship between risk tolerance and sensation-seeking is an established fact but whether the relationship still holds across several demographic groups is part of this study’s focus. Although much has been done on risk tolerance, very little has been done on its relationship to locus of control, ambiguity tolerance, and financial dishonesty.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1980

A. MUIR and M.W. WARNER

Tolerance automata are defined and a decomposition theory for such entities is sought. It is shown that two major procedures of the classical algebraic theory produce…

Abstract

Tolerance automata are defined and a decomposition theory for such entities is sought. It is shown that two major procedures of the classical algebraic theory produce difficulties in the tolerance case. A weaker approach, employing the idea of inertial tolerance, is presented. Finally, an explicit example is given which illustrates both the difficulties encountered and the theorems proved in the text.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1981

M.W. WARNER

Suitable ways of putting tolerance structures onto automata are sought. Inertial tolerance on the state set is discussed, but for black box automata an observed or even…

Abstract

Suitable ways of putting tolerance structures onto automata are sought. Inertial tolerance on the state set is discussed, but for black box automata an observed or even inertial tolerance on the output set is thought to be more appropriate. Tolerance inductions and coinductions are used to tolerate the remaining two sets in each case. A general definition of a tolerance automaton is suggested and the morphisms of the category defined. The particular case of an (M‐R) automaton is considered and required to yield a stable tolerance structure. Some illustrative examples are given.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Chuanyuan Zhou, Zhenyu Liu, Chan Qiu and Jianrong Tan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel mathematical model to present the three-dimensional tolerance of a discrete surface and to carry out an approach to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel mathematical model to present the three-dimensional tolerance of a discrete surface and to carry out an approach to analyze the tolerance of an assembly with a discrete surface structure. A discrete surface is a special structure of a large surface base with several discrete elements mounted on it, one, which is widely used in complex electromechanical products.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometric features of discrete surfaces are separated and characterized by small displacement torsors according to the spatial relationship of discrete elements. The torsor cluster model is established to characterize the integral feature variation of a discrete surface by integrating the torsor model. The influence and accumulation of the assembly tolerance of a discrete surface are determined by statistical tolerance analysis based on the unified Jacobian-Torsor method.

Findings

The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model in comprehensive tolerance characterization of discrete surfaces are successfully demonstrated by a case study of a phased array antenna. The tolerance is evidently and intuitively computed and expressed based on the torsor cluster model.

Research limitations/implications

The tolerance analysis method proposed requires much time and high computing performance for the calculation of the statistical simulation.

Practical implications

The torsor cluster model achieves the three-dimensional tolerance representation of the discrete surface. The tolerance analysis method based on this model predicts the accumulation of the tolerance of components before their physical assembly.

Originality/value

This paper proposes the torsor cluster as a novel mathematical model to interpret the tolerance of a discrete surface.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Chuanyuan Zhou, Zhenyu Liu, Chan Qiu and Jianrong Tan

The conventional statistical method of three-dimensional tolerance analysis requires numerous pseudo-random numbers and consumes enormous computations to increase the…

Abstract

Purpose

The conventional statistical method of three-dimensional tolerance analysis requires numerous pseudo-random numbers and consumes enormous computations to increase the calculation accuracy, such as the Monte Carlo simulation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel method to overcome the problems.

Design/methodology/approach

With the combination of the quasi-Monte Carlo method and the unified Jacobian-torsor model, this paper proposes a three-dimensional tolerance analysis method based on edge sampling. By setting reasonable evaluation criteria, the sequence numbers representing relatively smaller deviations are excluded and the remaining numbers are selected and kept which represent deviations approximate to and still comply with the tolerance requirements.

Findings

The case study illustrates the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in that it can reduce the sample size, diminish the computations, predict wider tolerance ranges and improve the accuracy of three-dimensional tolerance of precision assembly simultaneously.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method may be applied only when the dimensional and geometric tolerances are interpreted in the three-dimensional tolerance representation model.

Practical implications

The proposed tolerance analysis method can evaluate the impact of manufacturing errors on the product structure quantitatively and provide a theoretical basis for structural design, process planning and manufacture inspection.

Originality/value

The paper is original in proposing edge sampling as a sampling strategy to generating deviation numbers in tolerance analysis.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Raufhon Salahodjaev

The purpose of this study is to extend related literature on life satisfaction. In particular, the author explores the link between tolerance, governance and life…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extend related literature on life satisfaction. In particular, the author explores the link between tolerance, governance and life satisfaction inequality in a sample of 81 countries. While studies have shown that tolerance and governance are separately linked to subjective well-being, no study has shown their mutual relationship to life satisfaction inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the existing link between tolerance and quality of institutions, in this study, the author explores the relationship between tolerance and life satisfaction inequality and the mediating role of governance. This research could be embedded in the framework of ballooning research exploring the effect of societal values on institutions and life satisfaction.

Findings

The empirical findings suggest more tolerant societies are more likely to have more even levels of life satisfaction, but this correlation is completely mediated by governance. Quality of institutions thus seem to be one of the core channels by which societies that value tolerance achieve more equal distribution of happiness. The author also finds that while GDP per capita evens out happiness, income inequality increases the gap in life satisfaction within society.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first that relies on most up-to-date cross-country data to explore a novel channel through which tolerance may be linked to subjective well-being. In particular, in this study, the author posits that tolerance may have been linked to subjective well-being indirectly via its impact on quality of institutions (governance).

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2010

Christine Beresniova

In 1991 Lithuania reclaimed its independence from the Soviet Union and subsequently enlisted its education system as a tool for imparting the democratic skills and…

Abstract

In 1991 Lithuania reclaimed its independence from the Soviet Union and subsequently enlisted its education system as a tool for imparting the democratic skills and worldviews necessary for EU accession. However, the internalization of new democratic norms proved to be more complicated than the unidirectional transmission expected by many elites, as students, parents, and politicians played a part in the way that educational reforms were understood, implemented, embodied, and even resisted. Although tolerance education was initially included in Lithuanian reforms with little fanfare, there has been an increasingly visible backlash against it, as some now see its existence as an encroachment on the right of “Lithuanians” to develop a strong national identity after 60 years of occupation. By analyzing key educational policies in Lithuania, as well as international barometers for social tolerance, this chapter finds that the embrace of intolerance by many individuals and elites in Lithuania is not just a proclivity for prejudice, but a tool for challenging the boundaries of EU expectations to define the values and norms of an independent nation-state.

Details

Post-Socialism is not Dead: (Re)Reading the Global in Comparative Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-418-5

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Hollie J. Mackey and Jacqueline A. Stefkovich

There is a lack of empirical evidence to support the claim that zero-tolerance policies decrease violent incidents in schools or improve school safety. The message behind…

Abstract

There is a lack of empirical evidence to support the claim that zero-tolerance policies decrease violent incidents in schools or improve school safety. The message behind the policies clearly indicates that violence in schools is not tolerable under any circumstances; however, there is no correlation between the message and the outcomes from policy implementation. The literature on school order and safety suggests that zero tolerance is the simplest and least effective approach with a myriad of unintentional consequences that have a negative impact on education, not just for an individual student but for the system as a whole (American Psychological Association, 2006; Casella, 2003). This chapter examines the role of the school leader, the historical background of school safety, the role of the school leader as a learner, the legislative events that led to the development of zero-tolerance policies, and outline the unintended consequences of zero-tolerance policies in relation to leadership and learning. An alternative approach to school discipline is proposed – namely a restorative justice approach, which may work towards alleviating many of these unintended consequences.

Details

Global Perspectives on Educational Leadership Reform: The Development and Preparation of Leaders of Learning and Learners of Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-445-1

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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2019

Michael Tapia, Kimberly S. Nei, Karen Fuhrmeister and Matthew R. Lemming

Sales personnel play a key role in the success of organizations. These individuals present services/products to clients, manage accounts, build relationships, maintain…

Abstract

Sales personnel play a key role in the success of organizations. These individuals present services/products to clients, manage accounts, build relationships, maintain existing business relationships, and must be available for frequent interactions with clients. Business operations are linked to external entities through these activities, suggesting sales groups play a critical role in the success of an organization. As a representative to the external market, sales personnel are subject to unique stressors due to role-specific requirements. These stressors can impact the ability of sales professionals to effectively engage with customers and manage the volatility of financial performance, especially in commission-based compensation structures. Thus, organizations can find utility in identifying sales candidates with higher levels of stress tolerance, who can handle negative client interactions, overcome lulls in sales conversions, and avoid the impact of occupational stressors on long-term sales performance. Research suggests that organizations can use personality to predict stress tolerance as a component of sales performance. To provide organizations with insights into sales-specific coping behaviors associated with stress tolerance, the authors (1) discuss stress inducing factors (stressors) associated with sales role performance, (2) review the individual differences associated with stress tolerance, (3) present personality relationships with sales performance and stress tolerance, and (4) present job-analytic support for stress tolerance competencies relevant to sales performance and criterion-related validity evidence linking personality characteristics to those behaviors. The authors conclude with a discussion around the potential for applied uses of personality in identifying sales personnel with greater likelihoods of exhibiting stress tolerant behaviors in the workplace.

Details

Examining the Role of Well-being in the Marketing Discipline
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-946-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Zehorit Dadon-Golan, Adrian Ziderman and Iris BenDavid-Hadar

A major justification for the state subsidy of university education at public institutions (and, in some countries, of private universities too) is the economic and social…

Abstract

Purpose

A major justification for the state subsidy of university education at public institutions (and, in some countries, of private universities too) is the economic and social benefits accruing to society as whole from a significantly university-educated workforce and citizenship. Based upon a broad range of research findings, a particular societal benefit emanating from higher education relates to good citizenship: that it leads to more open mindedness and tolerant political attitudes. We examined these issues using a representative sample of students from Israeli universities to clarify the extent to which these outcomes would be paralleled in the Israeli setting, where the university experience differs markedly from that found typically in the West.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a comparison of political tolerance levels between first- and final-year students enrolled in regular undergraduate study programs (of four days a week or more). However since a change in tolerance is likely to be contingent also on the amount of time that the student spends on campus during the study year, we introduce, as a control group, students enrolled in compressed study programs (of three days a week or less) and compare changes in their tolerance levels with tolerance changes of students enrolled in regular programs. Research questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students at three universities from the three major districts in Israel–north, south and center. The achieved sample size was 329 students.

Findings

Using Difference-in-Differences techniques, we looked for any changes in students' general political tolerance, over the course of their studies. Surprisingly, we found no such effect on political tolerance attitudes. Israeli students are older and often married and though nominally full-time students, they often hold down a full-time job. Thus they come and go to attend lectures but do not otherwise spend much time on campus. Given the somewhat perfunctory nature of the university experience for most Israeli students, it does not to lead to more open-minded and tolerant political attitudes.

Practical implications

Some broader, practical applications of the research, beyond the Israeli case, are presented, particularly related to distance learning and to the impact of COVID-19. Attention is given to more recent “Cancel culture” developments on university campuses.

Originality/value

The results have wider implications, to other university setting in other countries. Changes in political attitudes may occur in university settings where campus life is well developed, with opportunities for student interaction, formally in extra-curricular events or through social mixing outside the lecture hall. Where the university experience is more minimally confined to attendance at lectures these desirable outcomes may not be forth coming. These findings are relevant to other university frameworks where campus attendance is marginal, such as in open university education and, even more explicitly, in purely internet-based higher education study.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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