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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Kayoumars Irandoost, Milad Doostvandi, Todd Litman and Mohammad Azami

This paper aims to present a critical analysis of placemaking by the urban poor based on the Right to the City, Henri Lefebvre’s influential theory regarding the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a critical analysis of placemaking by the urban poor based on the Right to the City, Henri Lefebvre’s influential theory regarding the production of space and placemaking.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reflects Lefebvre’s production of space and the right to the city theories and containing three main pillars including holism, the urban and praxis, and the use of spatial dialectics. Also, for collecting information in this research, along with scrutiny of documents and books, residents of the poor settlements of Sanandaj have also been interviewed.

Findings

In Sanandaj, urban poor who lack formal housing reclaim the Right to City by creating informal settlements. Such settlements, such as Shohada, Baharmast and Tagh Taghan, cover 23% of the city’s area but house 69% of the urban population.

Originality/value

This research seeks to understand placemaking in urban slums by low-income inhabitants using Henry Lefebvre’s critical theory of social production of space and the Right to the City. This case study examines the city of Sanandaj, Iran, where most residents are poor and live in cooperative informal settlements. It illustrates how the urban poor, as marginalized inhabitants, overcome the constraints of conventional planning and property ownership to creatively and cooperatively develop communities that reflect their needs. This indicates a schism between formal and informal sectors.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Todd Litman

This chapter develops a comprehensive framework for evaluating planning decisions that affect walking conditions (“walkability”) and walking activity. It identifies…

Abstract

This chapter develops a comprehensive framework for evaluating planning decisions that affect walking conditions (“walkability”) and walking activity. It identifies various walking economic impacts (benefits and costs), describes methods for measuring those impacts, and discusses how to apply this information, based on the literature. The chapter finds that walking plays a unique and important role in an efficient and equitable transportation system, including affordable basic mobility, exercise and recreation, and access to other modes including public transit and parked cars. Walking is typically the second most common travel mode by trip mode share, and is particularly important for physically, economically and socially disadvantaged people. Improving walkability, increasing walking activity, and creating more walkable communities provides various economic, social, and environmental benefits. Conventional planning tends to undervalue many of these benefits, resulting in less support for walking than is optimal. Decision-makers increasingly want more comprehensive evaluation which considers a wider range of planning objectives and impacts. More comprehensive benefit analysis tends to justify more support for walking, and could lead to better planning decisions. Improving walking conditions helps create a more diverse, efficient, and equitable transport system which responds to changing demands and future needs. Walking is particularly important for disadvantaged people who tend to rely on walking for basic mobility, many of whom are constrained if walking conditions are poor. The analysis presented in this chapter is significantly more comprehensive than generally used in planning, and if used could lead to improved planning and enhanced walking.

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

Abstract

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

William Riggs and Ruth L. Steiner

This chapter introduces how the built environment and walking are connected. It looks at the interrelationships within the built environment, and how those are changing…

Abstract

This chapter introduces how the built environment and walking are connected. It looks at the interrelationships within the built environment, and how those are changing given planning and policy efforts to facilitate increased walking for both leisure activity and commuting. Using a broad review and case-based approach, the chapter examines this epistemological development of walking and the built environment over time, reviews the connections, policies and design strategies and emerging issues. The chapter shows many cases of cities which are creating a more walkable environment. It also reveals that emerging issues related to technology and autonomous vehicles, vision zero and car-free cities, and increased regional policy may play a continued role in shaping the built environment for walking. This dialogue provides both a core underpinning and a future vision for how the built environment can continue to influence and respond to pedestrians in shaping a more walkable world.

Abstract

Details

Land Use and Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044891-6

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Abstract

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Abstract

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

David Besanko, Johannes Horner and Ed Kalletta

Describes the events leading up to the imposition of the London congestion charge. Views about the congestion charge, both pro and con, are presented. Also discusses, in…

Abstract

Describes the events leading up to the imposition of the London congestion charge. Views about the congestion charge, both pro and con, are presented. Also discusses, in general terms, the economics of traffic congestion, pointing out that an unregulated market for driving will not reach the social optimum. Contains sufficient data to estimate the deadweight loss in an unregulated market and the reduction of the deadweight loss due to the imposition of the congestion charge in 2003.

To provide a good illustration of how an unregulated market with negative externalities can lead to an overprovision of a good (in this case driving). Also, to show how an externality tax (in this case, London's congestion charge) can lead to an improvement in social welfare.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

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