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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

Todd J Maurer, Kimberly A Wrenn and Elizabeth M Weiss

A model of stereotypical beliefs that older workers have difficulty learning and developing and are not motivated to learn is presented. Three categories of antecedents of…

Abstract

A model of stereotypical beliefs that older workers have difficulty learning and developing and are not motivated to learn is presented. Three categories of antecedents of the stereotypical beliefs are addressed: (1) experience with stereotype-consistent behaviors and promulgation of the stereotype by others; (2) perceived learning and development inhibitors internal to the older worker; and (3) perceived learning and development inhibitors external to the older worker. Potential consequences of the stereotypical beliefs for older workers and employing organizations are also explored. Individuating information and knowledge of within-older-group differences are posited to attenuate the influence of group-based stereotypes. Processes and tactics within organizations that should increase this information and knowledge are presented. The proposed model provides a framework to help guide future research on this topic and also some suggestions for managing a work place where these beliefs may exist.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Todd J. Maurer, Frank G. Barbeite, Elizabeth M. Weiss and Michael Lippstreu

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce new measures of stereotypical beliefs about older workers' ability and desire for learning and development and test…

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce new measures of stereotypical beliefs about older workers' ability and desire for learning and development and test relationships with key antecedents and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – In a sample of workers over 40 years of age from across the US workforce, a two‐wave survey study was unique in that it examined stereotypes held by aging workers themselves in relation to their own behavior. Findings – The psychometric qualities of the scales were positive and findings tied the stereotype measures to important outcome constructs involving retirement, interest in development, and self‐efficacy/concept for development. Relationships of the stereotype measures also existed with antecedent variables, including experience with the stereotyped behavior and general beliefs about changes with aging. Research limitations/implications – These are critical constructs for managerial psychology in the coming decades, and the findings and measures presented here can contribute to future research, not only on older workers themselves but also on younger workers' stereotypes and behavior toward older workers, which were not addressed here. Practical implications – The measures can be used as diagnostic tools and the findings offer potential ideas for organizational policy or interventions to target stereotypes. Originality/value – Because employee development is increasingly important and the workforce is rapidly aging, there is a need to understand development behavior by aging workers. While stereotypes can be a problem in this area, there is a lack of measures of these stereotypes and there is no research on the stereotypes by aging workers themselves.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

David G. Allen earned his Ph.D. from the Beebe Institute of Personnel and Employment Relations at Georgia State University. He is an assistant professor of Management in…

Abstract

David G. Allen earned his Ph.D. from the Beebe Institute of Personnel and Employment Relations at Georgia State University. He is an assistant professor of Management in the Fogelman College of Business and Economics at the University of Memphis. His current research interests include the flow of people into and out of organizations, and technology implications for human resource management.Michelle M. Arthur is an assistant professor in the Anderson Schools of Management at the University of New Mexico. She received her Ph.D. in Labor and Industrial Relations from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research focuses on diversity supporting human resource practices and firm-level outcomes.Murray R. Barrick is the Stanley M. Howe Leadership Chair at the Henry B. Tippie College of Business at the University of Iowa. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Akron in Industrial-Organizational Psychology. He was recognized with the “Outstanding Published Paper Award” in 1992 by the Scholarly Achievement Award Committee of the Human Resources Division of the Academy of Management, and in 2001, was the recipient of the Owens Scholarly Achievement Award from the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). In addition, in 1997, he was elected a fellow of SIOP. He also serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and has served on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Management.Ronald M. Bearden received his MS in Quantitative Psychology from the University of Wisconsin. He is currently a Personnel Research Psychologist with the Navy Personnel Research, Studies, & Technology (NPRST) Department, working in the area of selection and classification. He is the principal investigator for the Navy’s efforts to develop a mulitifaceted non-cognitive assessment battery that will be utilized for identifying Navy personnel likely to perform well in the recruiting environment. He has over twenty years of experience working in the area of large-scale Navy selection and classification research programs.Walter C. Borman received his Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of California (Berkeley). He is currently CEO of Personnel Decisions Research Institutes and is a professor of Industrial-Organizational Psychology at the University of South Florida. He is a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and in 1994–1995 served as President of the Society. Borman has written more than three hundred books, book chapters, journal articles, and conference papers. He recently co-edited the I/O volume of the Handbook of Psychology (Borman, Ilgen & Klimoski, 2003), and, with two PDRI colleagues, wrote the personnel selection chapter for the 1997 Annual Review of Psychology. He also has served on the editorial boards of several journals in the I/O field, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Performance, and the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Dr. Borman’s areas of interest are performance measurement, personnel selection, job analysis, and assessment centers.Kenneth G. Brown is an assistant professor and Huneke Faculty Research Fellow at the Henry B. Tippie College of Business at the University of Iowa. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from Michigan State University. Ken does research and consulting in the areas of technology-delivered training and knowledge transfer. For work in this area, Ken received the 2002 American Society of Training and Development and the 2003 Society of Human Resource Management Research Awards. He currently serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Management.Alison Cook is a doctoral candidate in Organizational Behavior at Purdue University. Her primary research interests include individual-level and firm-level outcomes of the work-family interface. Her other interests include organizational justice, gender, and diversity research.Brian R. Dineen received his Ph.D. in Human Resource Management/Organizational Behavior from the Max M. Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University in 2003. Prior to his time in graduate school, he served four years as a Division Officer in the U.S. Navy. He is currently an assistant professor of Management in the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky. His primary areas of interest include Internet-based recruitment and selection and the impact of team fluidity on team processes and outcomes. His work has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Public Personnel Management, and Journal of Management (forthcoming), and he has presented at national conferences such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the Academy of Management.William L. Farmer received his Ph.D. in Quantitative Psychology (with sub-specialization in Industrial-Organizational) from the University of Oklahoma. He is currently a Personnel Research Psychologist with the Navy Personnel Research, Studies, & Technology (NPRST) Department, working in the area of selection and classification. He is the program manager/principal investigator for the Navy’s efforts to develop a mulitifaceted non-cognitive assessment battery that will be utilized to improve the quality of enlisted selection and classification. He has over ten years of experience working in the area of large-scale employee selection programs.Kerri L. Ferstl earned her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from the University of Minnesota. She is a senior research associate in the Minneapolis office of Personnel Decisions Research Institutes. She has worked with many public and private sector clients designing and implementing customized human resource tools for use in selection, development, promotion, and performance appraisal. Her work has appeared in Personnel Psychology and the Journal of Vocational Behavior.Rodger W. Griffeth earned his Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina. He is the Freeport-McMoran Chair of Human Resource Management at the University of New Orleans. His primary research interest is investigating employee turnover processes.Jerry W. Hedge earned his doctorate in I/O Psychology in 1982 from Old Dominion University. He has been involved in personnel research for more than 25 years. He has worked with both public and private sector clients designing, implementing, and evaluating numerous tools, systems, and techniques. He has extensive experience in job analysis and competency modeling; performance measurement; selection system development and validation; training program design, development and evaluation; and attitude assessment. Dr. Hedge is currently an independent consultant; during his career he has been employed by both public and private organizations, most recently serving as President and COO for Personnel Decisions Research Institute. Over the years, Dr. Hedge has stayed actively involved in conducting applied research, publishing his research in books and journals, and presenting regularly at professional conferences. He is a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the American Psychological Association.Jennifer D. Kaufman earned her master’s and Ph.D. degrees in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from Tulane University. She has worked with law enforcement, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Army while employed as a Research Scientist with Personnel Decisions Research Institutes. As a Customer Leader now with DeCotiis Erhard Inc., Dr. Kaufman continues to partner with customers to develop selection and performance management systems. Dr. Kaufman received her Master’s degree and Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from Tulane University. Throughout her academic career, Dr. Kaufman has received academic awards, honors and fellowships, and was chosen for a two-year appointment as the Industrial/Organizational Psychology representative for the American Psychological Association’s Science Student Council which reports directly to the Board of Scientific Affairs. In addition, Dr. Kaufman’s research has been published in academic journals and books. Her research has also been presented at numerous national conferences such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the Academy of Management, and the Interdisciplinary Conference on Occupational Stress and Health.Timothy A. Judge is the Matherly-McKethan Eminent Scholar in Management at the University of Florida. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Tim’s research interests are in the areas of personality and individual differences, leadership and influence behaviors, internal and external staffing, and job attitudes. He is a SIOP and American Psychological Association Fellow. In 1995, Tim received the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and in 2001, he received the Larry L. Cummings Award for mid-career contributions from the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. Tim currently sits on 6 editorial boards, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.Todd J. Maurer received his Ph.D. in industrial-organizational psychology from the University of Akron. He was employed at Georgia Institute of Technology and will join the faculty of Georgia State University in Fall 2003 as Professor of Management. In 2002 he won the Sidney A. Fine Award for Research on Analytic Strategies to Study Jobs from the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP) and was elected to Fellow of SIOP in 2003. He has consulted or conducted applied research on issues including aging workers, employee testing and selection, learning and development, performance appraisal, job analysis, and legal concerns. Some of the research he has conducted has been supported by private organizations, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health and SIOP. He has served on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology and Journal of Management.Raymond A. Noe is the Robert and Anne Hoyt Designated Professor of Management in the Department of Management and Human Resources at The Ohio State University. He received his BS in Psychology from The Ohio State University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Psychology from Michigan State University. Professor Noe’s teaching and research interests are in Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, and Training and Development. He has published articles on training motivation, employee development, work and non-work issues, mentoring and team processes in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Personnel Psychology. Professor Noe is currently on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Business and Psychology. Professor Noe has authored three textbooks, Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, and Employee Training and Development, all published with Irwin McGraw-Hill. He has received awards for his teaching and research excellence, including the Herbert G. Heneman Distinguished Teaching Award, the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contribution and election as a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the American Society for Training & Development Research Award in 2001.Robert W. Renn holds a doctorate in Business Administration from Georgia State University’s College of Business Administration. He is an associate professor of Management in the Fogelman College of Business and Economics at the University of Memphis. His dissertation research focused on job design and his current research interests center on improving work motivation and work performance through self-regulation, goal setting, performance feedback, and work design.Christina E. Shalley is a professor of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management in the DuPree College of Management at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She received her Ph.D. in Business Administration from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests include investigating the effects of various social and contextual factors on employees’ creativity and examining ways to structure jobs and the work environment to support creative and innovative work. She has published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. She also serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Management.Kennon M. Sheldon is an associate professor of Social Psychology at the University of Missouri-Columbia. His primary research interests concern goals, motivation, psychological well-being, creativity, and the resolution of social dilemmas. He received a $30,000 Templeton Prize in 2002 for his contributions to the emerging field of “positive psychology.” Ken has published one book, Self-Determination Theory in the Clinic: Motivating Physical and Mental Health (Yale University Press, 2003), and has another book in press, Approaching Consilience: Exploring Optimal Human Being (Erlbaum Press, to appear in 2004).Bennett J. Tepper is a professor in and chair of the Department of Management in the Belk College of Business Administration at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He received his Ph.D. in Organizational Psychology from the University of Miami and served on the faculty of the University of Kentucky where he held Ashland Oil and Gatton Research Professorships. His research on organizational justice, leadership, and prosocial and antisocial organizational behavior has appeared in various outlets including the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Applied Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.Daniel B. Turban is a professor of Management at the University of Missouri. He earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from the University of Houston. His current research interests include self-determination theory, recruitment processes and applicant attraction, and dyadic relationships in organizations. Dan has served on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology and Academy of Management Journal.Connie R. Wanberg is currently the Carlson Professor of Human Resources and Industrial Relations and an adjunct professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from Iowa State University in 1992. Her research has focused on issues such as unemployment, job-search behavior, career indecision, organizational change, employee socialization, and employee development, and has been funded by a variety of agencies including National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Labor, and the Society for Human Resource Management Foundation. She has consulted with a variety of government organizations and is on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology.Elizabeth M. Weiss received her Master’s degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2001 and is working on her Ph.D. Her research interests include employee learning and development and the role of technology in social science research. Her work on these and related topics has been published in Computers in Human Behavior and Behavior and Information Technology, and is soon to appear in Journal of Applied Psychology and Journal of Applied Social Psychology. She is currently working in the field of performance improvement and training development.Elizabeth T. Welsh is a Ph.D. student in Human Resources and Industrial Relations at the University of Minnesota. She also has a Masters in Business Administration from UCLA. Before returning to school, she was Vice-President of Human Resources for a software company. She has been a consultant and worked at companies including First Boston and Microsoft. Her research interests include employee development and staffing.Kimberly A. Wrenn earned her Master’s degree and is a Ph.D. candidate in Industrial-Organizational Psychology at Georgia Institute of Technology. She has published research in the areas of employee development and selection. She is employed at Management Psychology Group where she has conducted job/task analysis, test development, selection system development and validation, and 360-degree surveys.Kelly L. Zellars is an assistant professor of Management at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She received her bachelor’s and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Notre Dame, her M.S.T. from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and her Ph.D. in Business Administration from Florida State University. Dr. Zellars has focused her research interests in the areas of job stress and burnout, personality, and perceptions of fairness. She has published in journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Applied Social Psychology.Jing Zhou is an associate professor of Management and Mays Fellow in the Management Department at the Mays Business School at Texas A&M University. She received her Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests include contextual factors that promote or inhibit employee creative performance. She has published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Personnel Psychology. Currently, she serves on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology and Journal of Management. Beginning in fall 2003, she will join the Jones Graduate School of Management at Rice University as an associate professor of Management.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Todd J. Maurer and Michael Lippstreu

A prevailing notion in the management development literature is that support for employee development by organizations is positively associated with organizational…

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Abstract

Purpose

A prevailing notion in the management development literature is that support for employee development by organizations is positively associated with organizational commitment by employees. This paper aims to examine whether learning and performance goal orientations of employees act as moderators of this effect. The authors hypothesized that support for development would have differential effects on commitment depending on the goal orientations of employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained in a sample of 651 employees from across the US workforce using a two‐wave internet survey sampling method.

Findings

The authors found that perceived support for development is positively related to commitment for some workers; however, individual learning and performance orientations act as moderators. For some individuals, support for development by an organization will not be associated with greater commitment and might even be negatively associated with commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The data are self‐reported; however, methodological steps were taken to reduce risk of a negative impact on results.

Practical implications

The notion that support for employee development enhances organizational commitment is widely accepted, and significant resources are sometimes devoted to leveraging development as a source of competitive advantage in recruiting and employee retention. The findings show the importance of understanding individual differences in this context because they may make a difference in how development affects commitment. Options are discussed for organizations in which learning and development are required and not all people are oriented toward learning.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates that it is important to understand psychological differences in employees to effectively understand and manage an employee development initiative to have optimal impact.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Todd J. Maurer and Jerry K. Palmer

Within a large telecommunications company, this study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand managers’ intentions to improve their skills following…

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3354

Abstract

Within a large telecommunications company, this study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand managers’ intentions to improve their skills following peer/subordinate feedback. Survey responses from 127 managers who had just received their feedback results showed that three types of variables were associated with managers’ intentions to improve their skills. First, perceived favorable outcomes or benefits of improvement had differential relationships with intentions for on‐ and off‐the‐job strategies for improvement. Second, and independent of perceived benefits, perceived social pressures for improvement were associated with intentions to improve, illustrating that “voluntary” development behavior can be related to both perceived rewards (a pull) and social pressures (a push). Third, ratees’ perceived control over their own improvement was also related to intentions, illustrating the important role that this factor may play in development. In two subsequent waves of feedback, actual improvement in the managers’ peer/subordinate ratings following initial feedback was also examined in relation to intentions. Suggestions for future research are also offered.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Kenneth S. Shultz

The dual forces of an increasing dependency ratio and lower labor market participation on the part of mature individuals does not bode well for the American and European…

Abstract

The dual forces of an increasing dependency ratio and lower labor market participation on the part of mature individuals does not bode well for the American and European Communities. To begin to better understand such macro influences, changing demographic trends in the U.S. and European community with regard to the aging population and workforce participation are reviewed. In addition, recent research which continues to dispel the myth of a negative relationship between age and job performance is reviewed. A more informative way of looking at possible relationships between age and job performance is presented. A variety of contingent work arrangements and flexible employment policies are reviewed as a potential solution to the decreased supply of skilled labor for employers and the need for continued income and community involvement on the part of mature individuals. In addition, a call for a redefinition of how we currently view retirement is sounded. We conclude with recommendations for both employers and mature individuals on dealing with the issues presented.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 3 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

Abstract

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Yu-Yin Wang, Tung-Ching Lin and Crystal Han-Huei Tsay

Though prior research has recognized business skills as one of the keys to successful information system development, few studies have investigated the determinants of an…

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2283

Abstract

Purpose

Though prior research has recognized business skills as one of the keys to successful information system development, few studies have investigated the determinants of an IS developer’s behavioral intention to learn such skills. Based on the motivation-ability-role perception-situational factors (i.e. the MARS model), the purpose of this paper is to argue that the intention of IS developers to acquire business skills is influenced by learning motivation (M), learning self-efficacy (A), change agent role perception (R), and situational support (S).

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected from 254 IS developers are analyzed using the partial least squares technique.

Findings

Results show that a developer’s intention to learn business skills is positively influenced by intrinsic learning motivation and both absolute and relative learning self-efficacy. Furthermore, in comparison to two other change agent roles, the advocate role leads to a significantly higher level of learning intention. Finally, work and non-work support positively influence both extrinsic and intrinsic learning motivation. Notably, non-work support has a greater impact on both absolute and relative learning self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

Though many of the proposed hypotheses were supported, results showed several interesting and unexpected findings. First, regarding the change agent role perception, people who perceived themselves as advocates displayed a higher level of intention to learn business skills than did those who identified with the other two roles (i.e. traditionalist and facilitator). Second, when compared to extrinsic learning motivation, intrinsic learning motivation contributed more to the intention to learn business skills. Third, the study contributes to the literature by finding that, in terms of direction and magnitude, the two types of self-efficacy have similar influence on an IS developer’s behavioral intention to learn business skills. Finally, work support was found to have a positive impact on both extrinsic and intrinsic learning motivation. However, it was interesting to note that work support did not lead to significantly higher levels of relative and absolute learning self-efficacy.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide several critical implications for practitioners seeking to encourage IS developers to learn b-skills. First, organizations should strongly encourage IS developers to take on the advocate role in ISD projects, and urge them to acquire business skills through formal education and on-the-job training. Second, organizations should also help IS developers understand how learning business skills is important for their future work and potential self-growth, rather than focusing solely on extrinsic benefits such as promotion or remuneration. Third, organizations can also make use of the strategies to enhance IS developer’s learning self-confidence and beliefs, which will, in turn, increase their intention to learn business skills. Finally, support from others is influential in the formulation of positive work attitudes and behaviors, so organizations will benefit when employees are well supported.

Originality/value

While prior research has emphasized the importance of business skill possession for IS developers during the system development process, few studies have explored the factors affecting an IS developer’s behavioral intention to learn those business skills. This study intends to bridge this gap by investigating factors that drive IS developers’ intention to learn business skills. The findings of this study are useful to researchers in the development and testing theories related to IS developer learning behavior, and to practitioners to facilitate business skill learning for their IS development staff.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

V. Kumar, Ashley Goreczny and Todd Maurer

The purpose of this study is to understand how a salesperson’s preset goals, customer satisfaction levels and past performance affect the extent of goal achievement, as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand how a salesperson’s preset goals, customer satisfaction levels and past performance affect the extent of goal achievement, as well as how job-specific attitudes and emotions affect the relationship between preset goals and goal achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a modeling framework with both main, moderating and mediating effects, using transaction data and survey results from a telecommunications firm.

Findings

The results indicate that preset goals and customer satisfaction, interestingly, have an inverted-U relationships with goal achievement. Further, attitudes and emotions regarding workplace conduciveness and workplace ethics and diversity, reduce the effect preset goals have on goal achievement. However, attitudes and emotions regarding workplace philosophy strengthens the effect preset goals have on goal achievement, whereas with disagreement, this relationship diminishes.

Research limitations/implications

Two of the primary limitations of this study are: one, because of the cross-sectional nature of the study, there is limited opportunity to control for unobserved heterogeneity; and two, performance goal achievement, though is important for the firm, is one of many potential goals that affect a salesperson. For example, customer satisfaction goals or a one-time special event goals could play a role. Therefore, only using performance goal achievement could be a limitation of this study.

Originality/value

This study contributes to academic literature in three ways. First, it demonstrates the diminishing effect of customer satisfaction on goal achievement. Second, it identifies an inverse U-shaped relationship between preset goals and goal achievement. Finally, it examines how attitudes and emotions regarding workplace culture (conduciveness, ethics and diversity and philosophy) affect the relationship between preset goals and goal achievement.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Todd Maurer, Nikolaos Dimotakis, Greg Hardt and A.J. Corner

We introduce a new approach to developmental reflection in which the focus is on differences in how people reflect. When reflecting on challenging experiences, people…

Abstract

Purpose

We introduce a new approach to developmental reflection in which the focus is on differences in how people reflect. When reflecting on challenging experiences, people achieve better development when they tend to look for causes of what happened within changeable personal characteristics, and they subsequently focus on the improvement of those personal characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Supervisors and subordinates with leadership responsibilities in diverse jobs in varied industries provided survey data (444 individuals in a psychometric testing sample, and 419 paired subordinate/supervisor dyads in a model-testing sample).

Findings

The reflection difference construct had the expected factor structure, reliability, and was distinguishable from eight conceptually related variables in the literature. Reflection differences were predicted by the theoretically relevant job, person, and situational variables and were associated with development and performance outcomes.

Practical implications

The reflection construct might be used for prediction to identify the individuals who are likely to get the most from challenging experiences and improve. Further, by identifying predictors of reflection, ideas for enhancing reflection are provided. Also, by uncovering specific underlying dimensionality of reflection, this offers specific targets for interventions beyond generally encouraging people to reflect.

Originality/value

This study establishes support for: (1) the new theoretical framing of reflection differences, (2) a new preliminary model of antecedents and outcomes, and (3) an initial scale for future research and practice that can be more explicit about understanding and addressing underlying differences in how people reflect.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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