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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. GDM is defined as glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset or first…
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. GDM is defined as glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The purpose of this paper is to produce information on prevalence, screening and diagnosis, pathophysiology and dietary, medical and lifestyle management of GDM.
This literature review aimed to document and record the results of the most updated studies published dealing with dietary, medical and lifestyle factors in managing GDM.
The prevalence of GDM differs worldwide based on population characteristics, race/ethnicity and diagnostic criteria. The pathophysiology of GDM is multifactorial and it is likely that genetic and environmental factors are associated with the occurrence of GDM. Medical nutritional therapy remains the mainstay of GDM management and aerobic and resistance physical activities are helpful adjunctive therapy when euglycemia is not attained by the medical nutritional therapy alone. When diet and exercise fail to achieve glycemic control, pharmacological agents such as insulin therapy and oral hypoglycemic medications are prescribed. Plasma glucose measurement is an essential part of glycemic control during pregnancy, as well as glycemic control can be evaluated using indicators of glycemic control such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin and fructosamine.
This review is a comprehensive review that illustrates the effect of healthy diet, medical therapy and lifestyle change on improving GDM condition.
The present designs of industrial robots or mechanical handling units generally fall into two categories, the simple pick‐and‐place units with two fixed positions per…
The present designs of industrial robots or mechanical handling units generally fall into two categories, the simple pick‐and‐place units with two fixed positions per axis, or the more sophisticated type such as Unimate with a very large number of positions per axis and a large memory. Whilst the latter devices are essential for complex operations such as spot welding, paint spraying or palletising there are many applications where only a small number of positions per axis are required, e.g. press loading, conveyor transferring, assembly operations. This paper describes a positioning system that falls between the above two general categories in that it allows a number of positions on each axis to be selected. A detailed description is given of the positioning system which basically consists of a number of mechanical stops attached to indexable bars such that there are a minimum number of 6 positions per axis. These stops are positioned as required and include a fine positioning adjustment. It is found that this system gives a positioning accuracy far greater than those commonly used with robots. The design of the hydraulic system and the control system for the fast to slow traverse are given together with test results obtained from a prototype system. The method of programming and the advantages and disadvantages are specified in a final discussion. In particular how the system can be used in fairly complex operations such as palletising is discussed.
Purpose – To show the properties of performance measurement and management systems (PMMS) used dialogically and the association between the dialogic use of PMMS and the…
Purpose – To show the properties of performance measurement and management systems (PMMS) used dialogically and the association between the dialogic use of PMMS and the characteristics of the organizational relationships between parent companies and foreign subsidiaries.
Design/Methodology/Approach – Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to large foreign subsidiaries of multinational firms operating in various industries. Hypotheses regarding factors associated with the extent to which PMMS are used dialogically between parent companies and foreign subsidiaries were tested based on responses to 136 usable questionnaires (45% response rate).
Findings – PMMS are used more dialogically within relationships between parent companies and subsidiaries characterized by subsidiary strategic role and organizational interdependence. Measurement diversity and perceived comprehensiveness of PMMS are higher if PMMS are used more dialogically. Finally, the dialogic use of PMMS is positively associated with subsidiary size and the emphasis on collaboration in the parent company’s national culture.
Originality/Value – In contrast to prior management accounting research that is focused on the outcomes of different styles of use of PMMS, this study shows organizational characteristics and PMMS properties associated with the dialogic use of PMMS. Moreover, this study advances the traditional view of the international business literature that conceives PMMS as bureaucratic systems employed by parent companies to coercively control foreign subsidiaries.
Purpose – This study investigates the interplay between strategic performance measurement and management accounting to gain a deeper understanding of how strategic…
Purpose – This study investigates the interplay between strategic performance measurement and management accounting to gain a deeper understanding of how strategic measures of performance evolve with the managerial accounting practices.
Design/Methodology/Approach – The study explored the performance measures used at a bank focused on the development and sustainability initiatives in Africa. Thirty-two semistructured interviews were conducted with directors, managers, and analysts from nine different categories of job families.
Findings – Analysis shows that managers assimilate a comprehensive, multifaceted measurement system to understand the creation and delivery of sustainable value. The results show that the managerial accounting practices adapt to incorporate an integrated set of performance measures that afford sustainable value to the stakeholders. The findings provide rich insights into how the managers adapt their information assimilation practices to the changing demands of the different stakeholders and adopt practices which innovate measures of performance that are aligned to the strategic goals. Finally, the findings illustrate that the interplay between strategic performance and managerial accounting practices has the potential to improve or inhibit sustainable development.
Originality/Value – Little is known about how performance measures evolve, and how they interplay with the managerial accounting practices within organizations. This study reveals that the interplay of strategic performance measurement and managerial accounting can only be understood in the confluence of organizational change and sustainability. While acknowledging the need to embrace change and sustainability simultaneously, the study offers insights into the dynamics of change – the duality of emergent managerial accounting practices and the evolution of strategic performance measurement systems.
Against the backdrop of digital gaming, this chapter presents a cutting-edge, immersive, online video simulation of events that follow the calendar of a year in a…
Against the backdrop of digital gaming, this chapter presents a cutting-edge, immersive, online video simulation of events that follow the calendar of a year in a chronically low-performing middle school in the United States. The traditional approach to preparing educational leaders has been harshly criticized by those who have, at times, shared in sustaining the traditional approach. The time is right for innovation. The intention of this simulation is to engage potential educational leaders in the professional development of their leadership skills. These skills are designated in a range of standards-based documents generated by the individual states in the United States, as well as at the national level by the Educational Leadership Policy Standards: 2008 document issued by the Council of Chief State School Officers. A highly sophisticated back-end to this simulation gathers evidence of both engagement and learning. The online format empowers anytime/anywhere learning in a mistake-tolerant educational setting at minimal incremental cost.
The average American works for the majority of his or her adult lifetime. During those years there is a steady stream of income to keep up with living expenses. Most…
The average American works for the majority of his or her adult lifetime. During those years there is a steady stream of income to keep up with living expenses. Most people look forward to that wondrous day when they can retire, relax and enjoy the rest of their life without going to work everyday. Pension plans, 401(k) and IRA’s are some of the ways working men and women prepare for this time in their life when they no longer have a weekly paycheck to rely on. Some are provided for by their companies, some are paid into by the worker, and some are a combination of both, but all are ways that each and every person can help to plan for their retirement so that that time can truly be an enjoyable one.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contextualize the outcomes of competence development as a restructuring strategy in a company that was significantly affected…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contextualize the outcomes of competence development as a restructuring strategy in a company that was significantly affected by the economic recession in 2008.
In the context of restructuring, increased globalization has expanded international competition that in turn has put additional pressure on organizational transformation, restructuring, reorganization and rationalization.
The result indicates that the experience of learning, commitment and job satisfaction have decreased between T1 and T2 (no difference regarding self-efficacy).
From this study, the authors can conclude that the outcomes of competence development programs are not easily interpreted. Depending on the purpose of the intervention, the results can be interpreted in different ways. It is important to approach the issue of competence development with a wise degree of skepticism.
– The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence that family factors have on an individual’s intention to be self-employed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence that family factors have on an individual’s intention to be self-employed.
The authors selected, from Swedish national registers, all full siblings born between 1945 and 1960 and their biological children, who were born before 1985. The authors created one family database consisting of male individuals (n=1,204,436) and one family database consisting of female individuals (n=1,349,904). The authors defined the outcome variable during the years 2003-2010. Separate analyses were conducted for each of the four outcome variables: all self-employed individuals, owners of limited liability companies, sole traders and hybrids. The authors used multi-level logistic analysis for this study.
The study demonstrates that the influence that family factors have on an individual’s choice of company type is strong; however, it varies depending on intentions transferred within the family.
The authors divide self-employment into three distinct parts based on the company type, which enables a sophisticated analysis of self-employed individuals and of the transference of intentions to be self-employed within families. The authors contribute to the understanding of why individuals become self-employed by examining the impact of family factors on the intention of an individual to choose different types of company.
A finite‐element model for calculating the die temperatureprofile for a hot‐forging operation is presented. The workpieceis modelled as a thermo‐viscoplastic material…
A finite‐element model for calculating the die temperature profile for a hot‐forging operation is presented. The workpiece is modelled as a thermo‐viscoplastic material, while the dies are considered undeformable. Heat transfer between the dies and the workpiece is modelled using an iteratively coupled, fixed‐point calculation of the temperature in each domain. Transfer of temperature boundary conditions across contact interfaces is performed for non‐coincident meshes, using a boundary integration point contact analysis. Two industrial‐type examples are presented. In the first example, the effectiveness of the transfer of the temperature boundary conditions for a non steady‐state forging process is evaluated and determined to be satisfactory. Then weakly‐ and strongly‐coupled temperature resolutions are compared. It was found that the strongly‐coupled resolution may be necessary in order to obtain reasonably accurate results. In the second example, the weakly‐coupled resolution is compared to a constant‐temperature die approach for a relatively slow forging process, which shows the influence of the die temperature on the flow of the material.
Over the past 30 years, researchers have documented effective, theory‐based programmes and practices that improve the health and well‐being of children. In order to…
Over the past 30 years, researchers have documented effective, theory‐based programmes and practices that improve the health and well‐being of children. In order to produce measurable improvements in public health, such practices must be institutionalised; however, there are a number of barriers to translating what we know from science to what we do in practice. In the present article, we discuss a number of those barriers, including: cultural differences between those who espouse a public health, prevention science approach versus those who espouse a strengths‐building, health promotion approach; practical difficulties in documenting the evidence base for existing or newly developed programmes and practices; and inflexibility of standardised programmes and resulting insensitivity to local contexts. We discuss common ground between prevention and promotion perspectives and highlight emerging methods that facilitate the adoption of science‐based practice into community‐based services.