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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Amanda Bateman

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of non-verbal, embodied actions within the dispute process. In doing so, this chapter offers insight into children's co-construction of disputes and has practical implications for early childhood teachers.

Methodology – Ethnomethodology (EM), conversation analysis (CA) and membership categorization analysis (MCA) are applied to the current study of children's disputes in order to offer insight into the sequences of social organization processes evident in children's disagreements.

Findings – This chapter presents a detailed analysis of the everyday disputes which four-year-old children engage in during their morning playtime at a primary school in Wales, UK. It reveals the children's use of physical gestures to support their verbal actions in order to maximize intersubjectivity between the participants. This joint understanding was necessary during the social organization process.

Practical implications – Managing children's physical disputes within an educational context is recognized as a very difficult aspect of a teacher's routine as the timing and level of intervention are so subjective (Bateman, 2011a). This chapter offers insight into the organization of physical disputes between young children, and so enables teachers to make an informed decision in their practice.

Details

Disputes in Everyday Life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-877-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

M. Anaam Hashmi

Outlines the development of Mercosur (South American economic bloc) and considers the assertion that it protects inefficient Brazilian industries and has failed to create…

Abstract

Outlines the development of Mercosur (South American economic bloc) and considers the assertion that it protects inefficient Brazilian industries and has failed to create extra trade. Analyses selected 1990‐1997 data for Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay to show that trade and foreign investment have increased since its formation in 1991; and compares the impact on trading patterns and trade balances for all four countries. Admits that Mercosur has some way to go in establishing a common market and has not increased exports to the rest of the world to the extent expected, but regards it as a qualified success.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Olivier Klein, Camila Arnal, Sarah Eagan, Philippe Bernard and Sarah J. Gervais

In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the mode of compensation (tips vs. no tips) could play a causal role in the perceived legitimacy of sexual harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental study (N = 161), the authors manipulated the source of income of a fictional female bartender (fixed income vs. smaller fixed income + tips) as well as whether she or her boss chose her (sexualized) clothing. The authors then asked male participants in an online survey to imagine being her customer and to form an impression of her.

Findings

The bartender was viewed as more sexualized, more manipulative and sexual behaviors toward her were perceived as more legitimate when she received tips. Further, the effect of tipping on the legitimacy of sexual behaviors was mediated by perceptions that she was manipulative. The target was perceived as more manipulative when she chose her clothes than not.

Research limitations/implications

The study is an online scenario study and, as a consequence, assesses only judgments rather than actual behaviors.

Practical implications

Encouraging fixed salaries rather than tipping could reduce the occurrence of sexual harassment.

Social implications

The present work suggests that tipping may play a detrimental role in service workers' well-being by contributing to an environment in which sexual harassment is perceived as legitimate.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study showing that mode of compensation can increase the objectification of workers and legitimize sexually objectifying behaviors toward them.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Maria Aggestam and Caroline Wigren-Kristoferson

The purpose of this study is to examine how women entrepreneurs are building embeddedness into male-gendered fields and how they are creating embedding in such fields in practice.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how women entrepreneurs are building embeddedness into male-gendered fields and how they are creating embedding in such fields in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative methodology and three indicative case stories within gastronomic industry are illustrated and analysed.

Findings

The contribution of this study lies in the examination of the multifaceted embedding building process from dis-embedded, marginalised and suppressed position by women entrepreneurs. This was achieved with the help of building embedding through two strategies: sameness, that is, becoming one of the boys and then becoming a challenger, thereby enhancing their professional position.

Research limitations/implications

The study is subject to limitations; a small sample is not suited for the generalizability of results. The most important implication of this study is the identification of the process of building embeddedness as the most critical resource for women’s entrepreneurship that should be supported by the scholarly and business community.

Originality/value

The theoretical framework developed for this study laid the foundation for developing literature on the embeddedness of women’s entrepreneurship and how the process of creating embedding becomes instrumental in business ownership.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Rajashi Ghosh, Ray K. Haynes and Kathy E. Kram

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how an adult development perspective can further the understanding of developmental networks as holding environments for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how an adult development perspective can further the understanding of developmental networks as holding environments for developing leaders confronted with challenging experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

The article utilizes constructive developmental theory (C‐D theory) to explore and address the implications of an adult development lens for leader development, especially as they confront complex leadership challenges that trigger anxiety.

Findings

Theoretical propositions suggest different kinds of holding behaviors (e.g. confirmation, contradiction, and continuity) necessary for enabling growth and effectiveness for leaders located in different developmental orders.

Research limitations/implications

Propositions offered can guide future researchers to explore how leaders confronted with different kinds of leadership challenges sustain responsive developmental networks over time and how the developers in the leader's network coordinate to provide confirmation, contradiction, and continuity needed for leader development.

Practical implications

Leaders and their developers should reflect on how developmental orders may determine which types of holding behaviors are necessary for producing leader effectiveness amidst challenging leadership experiences. Organizations should provide assessment centers and appropriate training and development interventions to facilitate this reflection.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates the important role that developmental relationships play in leadership effectiveness and growth over time. Individuals and organizations are urged to attend to the quality and availability of high quality developmental relationships for purposes of continuous learning and development.

Originality/value

This article re‐conceptualizes developmental networks as holding environments that can enable leader's growth as an adult and, hence, increase their effectiveness as leaders amidst complex leadership challenges.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2006

Kelly Tian and Russell Belk

Through an analysis of data from depth interviews with modern American consumers, we examine whether and how individuals quest for life's meaning through consumption. Our…

Abstract

Through an analysis of data from depth interviews with modern American consumers, we examine whether and how individuals quest for life's meaning through consumption. Our analysis identifies three worldviews that are differently related to the experience of transcendence through consumption. A rationalist worldview is revealed as being unrelated to such a pursuit. It contrasts two magical worldviews held by most informants in which consumption objects are infused with supernatural and metaphysical beliefs that animate life's meaning for them. Our discussion highlights how recognition of magical worldviews contributes to consumer theory, methods, and concepts of investigation.

Details

Research in Consumer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 0-7623-1304-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Kylie A. Peppler and Maria Solomou

Using a systems‐based approach to creativity and a sociocultural constructionist approach to learning, this study aims to highlight how creative ideas emerge within a

Abstract

Purpose

Using a systems‐based approach to creativity and a sociocultural constructionist approach to learning, this study aims to highlight how creative ideas emerge within a community and spread amongst its members.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a design‐based approach to research, this study took place within the social media environment, Quest Atlantis. Chat data were collected from 85 participants and screenshots were taken of the virtual architecture designed and built by players in the Quest Atlantis environment, in an effort to explore the nature of creativity and collaborative learning within the context of virtual 3D architectural construction.

Findings

The findings illustrate the rise and spread of creativity in online communities and also point to the social and cultural nature of creativity.

Research limitations/implications

This study, the first of its kind, focuses on how creativity operates within a single community in order to draw implications about digital creativity more broadly.

Practical implications

Implications for designing virtual and physical communities to promote creativity are discussed.

Originality/value

Documenting and analyzing an entire creative system in the everyday world can be a challenging endeavor. Social media, by contrast, offer an opportunity to document, describe, and analyze creativity, extend Csikszentmihalyi's work into the realm of social media and push back on current conceptions of digital creativity.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1975

Tina Tietjen

The Industrial Society‐in spite of its name—has for many years been concerned with the retail trade, and now has a thriving retail department headed up by Tina Tietjen…

Abstract

The Industrial Society‐in spite of its name—has for many years been concerned with the retail trade, and now has a thriving retail department headed up by Tina Tietjen. Some very distinguished retail companies utilise the Society's training services, as she explains in this article.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 3 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Gun Abrahamsson and Jonas Gerdin

Based on an institutional perspective, this study explores the role of management accounting (MA) in promoting or impeding changes in the employees' conceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on an institutional perspective, this study explores the role of management accounting (MA) in promoting or impeding changes in the employees' conceptions of shopfloor worker responsibility in a company trying to implement a continuous improvement (CI) working practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An ethnographically inspired research method is needed where weekly CI meetings in two workgroups were observed over a period of eight months and in‐depth interviews with managers and operators were conducted regularly.

Findings

The study reveals that active and skilful exploiters of inconsistencies within social arrangements may use MA as one important way of transforming a traditional vertical view of worker responsibility into a more horizontally‐oriented view by: creating collective reflection and reasoned analysis of the limits of the present order, and visualising and justifying an alternative model(s) of social behaviour. However, the study also shows that MA may contribute to the reinforcement of a vertical view by the use of group‐level measures strictly as a one‐way performance monitoring device.

Originality/value

The study highlights that “contradictions” between social orders may not only nurture institutional stability, but may also be a necessary (although not sufficient) condition for institutional change.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Anja Svejgaard Pors

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relational consequences of electronic patient records based on co-produced data from pregnant women’s IT supported…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relational consequences of electronic patient records based on co-produced data from pregnant women’s IT supported self-reporting. The analysis unfolds how the clinical encounter between patient and professional is reconfigured in the digitized society.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a grounded theory analysis based on observations and interviews in an antenatal care unit. The study draws on empirical material generated through observations of the clinical encounters between pregnant women and midwifes, interviews with managers and midwifes, field notes and policy documents.

Findings

The author argues that the use of technology and co-produced data displace tasks and relations between healthcare professional and patient. The analysis shows that four modes of organizational patient involvement are enacted: involvement in administrative tasks, involvement in professional resistance, individualized involvement, and homogenized involvement of patients that tends to categorize the pregnancy roughly as either “normal” or “abnormal.”

Originality/value

This study contributes to qualitative research in digitization and patient involvement in health organization studies by showing how digital technology distributes the midwife’s autonomy, tasks and knowledge about the patient with both intended and unintended consequences. The argument goes beyond the prevalent prescriptive approaches to e-government and co-production, instead providing a critical analytical perspective on the promises of delivering efficient and patient-centered healthcare.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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