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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Yin Cheong Cheng and Timothy W.W. Yuen

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the worldwide discussion of conceptualization, multiple functions and management of national education in an era of…

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1348

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the worldwide discussion of conceptualization, multiple functions and management of national education in an era of globalisation by proposing a new comprehensive framework for research, policy analysis and practical implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of the diversity in definitions of national education, the controversies in policy and implementation of national education are discussed. The different interpretations of national education stem from different assumptions and perspectives. Each of them seems too confining in globalisation. To overcome the controversies, this paper calls for a re-conceptualisation of national education from a broader perspective.

Findings

The conceptualisation of broad-based national education is premised on two fundamental principles. First, national education which is meant for development is a process by which humankind moves forward at multiple levels including the personal, local, national and global levels. Second, national education nowadays must be understood against a globalised context, in which there are multiple, complex and dynamic developments at play including technological, economic, social, political, cultural and learning developments of not only individuals and local communities within the nation but also the global world beyond the nation. In brief, broad-based education serves multiple functions at multiple levels. With national identity understood in a broader perspective, the multiplicity and complexity of national education may be better addressed. Identifying with one’s own nation is a dynamic and complicated process in which interaction and integration between the different levels and different functions of civic identities are involved. The approaches to management, implementation and pedagogy of broad-based national education are also discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The new framework of conceptualisation and the comparison between the characteristic profiles of broad-based and narrow-based national education provide new implications and possibilities not only for policy and implementation but also for research involving multiple functions and multiple levels.

Originality/value

The new perspectives associated with the broad-based national education will contribute to future research worldwide in this area.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Alan C.K. Cheung, Timothy W.W. Yuen, Celeste Y.M. Yuen and Yin Cheong Cheng

The main purpose of the present paper is twofold: to examine and compare the current strategies and policies that are employed by the UK, Australia and Singapore and to…

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4122

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of the present paper is twofold: to examine and compare the current strategies and policies that are employed by the UK, Australia and Singapore and to recommend appropriate strategies and policies to higher education institutions and the Hong Kong government and elsewhere that are interested in expanding their efforts in recruiting the growing number of students from other countries who are planning to study overseas.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this project were obtained primarily from documents and in‐depth interviews. Documents include government reports, policy addresses, official statistics, etc. The in‐depth interviews were conducted in Hong Kong as well as in the four studied cities – Mumbai, New Delhi, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur. Interviewees included government officials, academics, higher education institutions’ representatives, consultant generals, and officials from policy bodies.

Findings

It is clear from the findings of this present study that a set of favorable policies and strategies at the national level was behind the success of these competitors. Such policies are not confined to educational policies but are extended to population and employment policies.

Research limitations/implications

Though the study examined policies and strategies employed by three countries, findings from the study may generate useful information to countries that may be interested in exporting their higher education to Asian markets.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that if Hong Kong is to attain success in becoming an international exporter of education services, it may need to adopt favorable policies at institute and system level, and in so doing it can definitely benefit by carefully studying the strategies and policies employed by these three competitors.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined and compared strategies and policies employed by these three key major players of higher education services. This study provides some useful strategies and policy recommendation to education decision makers in Hong Kong and elsewhere that may be interested in entering Asian markets.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Alan C.K. Cheung, Timothy W.W. Yuen, Celeste Y.M. Yuen and Yin Cheong Cheng

The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market…

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3221

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this project were obtained primarily by questionnaire survey and interviews. The research team collected 1,370 questionnaires and conducted a total of 121 individual and focus group interviews in the four studied cities – Mumbai, New Delhi, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur.

Findings

The study found that there was a high unmet demand for higher education overseas and that the visibility of Hong Kong's higher education was relatively weak in these Asian markets. In order to capture the continued rise of students in Asia, higher education institutions and the Hong Kong government need to work together to analyze the potential markets critically and employ marketing strategies sensibly. Several key recommendations have been provided based on the findings.

Research limitations/implications

The study was undertaken in a few key cities in these three target markets. However, findings from the study may generate insights into other cities with similar characteristics in these countries and the Asian regions.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that decision makers at the institutional level and government level seeking to enter these markets must pay attention to the importance of market segmentation and the 4P variables in formulating their marketing strategies.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined the current condition of higher education services in these three emerging Asian markets. The study provides some useful marketing information to education decision makers in Hong Kong and elsewhere who may be interested in formulating marketing strategies in these markets.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Timothy W.W. Yuen, Alan C.K. Cheung and Ping Man Wong

To prepare Hong Kong students to face a rapidly changing twenty‐first century, the Hong Kong Government implemented a major curriculum reform entitled Learning to Learn …

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1443

Abstract

Purpose

To prepare Hong Kong students to face a rapidly changing twenty‐first century, the Hong Kong Government implemented a major curriculum reform entitled Learning to Learn – The Way Forward in Curriculum Development. This reform has shaped the direction of Hong Kong's school education since 2001. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the reform from the perspectives of the major stakeholders, namely principals, teachers, and students.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper was written based on the data obtained from a large‐scale study that covered over 250 primary and secondary schools, or about 20 per cent of the total population in Hong Kong. Both qualitative (focus group interviews) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey) were employed in the study.

Findings

The findings indicated that moderate progress has been made in students’ overall performance in generic skills, positive values and attitudes, language proficiency, and over the key learning areas. On the other hand, the progress made in secondary schools was perceived to be less than that made in primary schools. The views of frontline teachers could also be different from senior teachers and principals as to the degree of achievement. There also existed a gap as the progress reported for critical thinking and self learning abilities might be less favourable when compared to those reported for IT, reading habits and healthy lifestyle.

Originality/value

The original findings and policy suggestions of the paper are of reference value to curriculum policy planners, researchers and educators.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Brian Roberts

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597

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Timothy Wai Wa Yuen, Chi Keung Eric Cheng, Chunlan Guo and Yan Wing Leung

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between the civic mission of schools and students on participation in school governance through an empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between the civic mission of schools and students on participation in school governance through an empirical study. It articulates the importance of school mission on nurturing citizenship of high school students.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a mixed method with questionnaire survey in the first phase and qualitative interviews in the second phase. Quantitative data were obtained from a survey completed by 3,209 students and 495 teachers (including principals) from 51 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Qualitative data were collected from 41 individual interviews with principals and teachers and 17 focus group interviews with 56 students in five case study schools.

Findings

Both students and teachers believed that good citizenship qualities should include students’ participation in school governance. Schools in general took up the civic mission to nurture good and participatory citizens. A mission of nurturing students to become good and participatory citizens made a significant and positive contribution toward achieving students’ actual participation in school governance. However, students’ actual impact on major school policies was minimal. A paradox existed whereby students, knowing their influence over managerial issues was much circumscribed, still gave it a higher rating than their teachers.

Originality/value

The paper contributes an empirical model for school leaders to develop school vision for promoting student participation in school governance. Based on a large-scale research supported by public funding, the paper contributes an empirical model for school leaders to develop school vision for promoting student participation in school governance. It further adds to the literature on relationship between citizenship education, civic mission of school and student participation in governance.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Hei-Hang Hayes Tang, King Man Eric Chong and Wai Wa Timothy Yuen

National identification among young people and the issues about how national education should be conducted have been the significant topics when the Hong Kong Special…

Abstract

Purpose

National identification among young people and the issues about how national education should be conducted have been the significant topics when the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region was entering its third decade of the establishment. This paper was written based on data the authors obtained upon participation in a project organized by the Centre for Catholic Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The project was carried out after the official curriculum, known as the Moral and National Education Curriculum Guide, was shelved due to popular resentment. The project aimed at capturing the timely opportunity for substantial resources available for school-based operation of moral and national education and developing an alternative curriculum about teaching national issues and identification for Catholic Diocese and Convent primary schools to adopt. This paper aims to investigate the nature of this Catholic Project and examines the extent to which it is a counterhegemonic project or one for teaching to belong to a nation (Mathews, Ma and Lui, 2007). It assesses the project’s possible contribution to citizenship and national education in Hong Kong, since the withdrawal of the Moral and National Education Curriculum Guide.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors of this paper worked in an education university of Hong Kong and were invited to be team members of this Catholic Project. The role comprised proposing topics for teacher training, conducting seminars, giving comments to teaching resources, observing and giving feedback to schools that tried out the teaching and designing/implementing an evaluative survey and conducting follow-up interviews with involved parties such as teachers and key officials of the Catholic Centre. Given this, the research involved can be perceived as action research. This paper was written up with both the qualitative and quantitative data the authors collected when working the project.

Findings

This paper reported a Catholic citizenship training project with the focus on a Catholic school project on preparing students to understand the nation by learning national issues analytically. The ultimate goal was to ensure teachers in Catholic primary schools could lead the students to examine national issues and other social issues from the perspective of Catholic social ethics. Though the project arose after the failure of the government to force through its controversial national education programme, this paper found that instead of being an alternative curriculum with resistance flavour, the project was basically a self-perfection programme for the Catholic. It was to fill a shortfall observed of Catholic schools, namely, not doing enough to let students examine social and national issues with Catholic social ethics, which, indeed, had a good interface with many cherished universal values. In the final analysis, the project is not a typical national education programme, which teaches students to belong to a nation but an innovative alternative curriculum transcending the hegemony-resistance ideological tensions as advanced by western literature (for example, Gramsci, 1971; Freire, 1970; and Apple, 1993).

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature of Hong Kong studies and citizenship education studies. The results of such an innovative endeavour, which captures and capitalizes the opportunity and resources for developing a national education curriculum in school-based manner. Attention was paid to the endeavour’s nature and its possible contribution to the knowledge, policies and practices of citizenship and national education in Hong Kong amidst deep social transformations. In particular, the paper can add to the specific literature about Hong Kong’s citizenship and national education development since the withdrawal of the Moral and National Education Curriculum Guide. Using an empirical example of Asian schooling and society, analysis of this paper illustrates the way in which development of an alternative curriculum is more innovative and interesting, transcending the hegemony-resistance ideological tensions.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Timothy Wai Wa Yuen, Yan Wing Leung and Sally Jie Qing Lu

Liberal Studies (LS), as a compulsory subject for senior secondary students (S4-6) who sit for the Diploma of Secondary Education, was introduced in 2007. There has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Liberal Studies (LS), as a compulsory subject for senior secondary students (S4-6) who sit for the Diploma of Secondary Education, was introduced in 2007. There has been increased discussion about merits of the subject. This paper was written based on a study the researchers conducted with LS teachers and students to probe the role LS may play in relation to civic education. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a qualitative methodology and a series of in-depth interviews were carried out with real LS teachers and students to tap their views about LS from their lived experience.

Findings

Findings suggest that LS, if conducted appropriately, can be one of vehicles of civic education particularly in such matters related to enhancing social awareness and the ability to partake in public affair debates. It can also be of potential use to nurturing civic virtues in support of democratic discussion. On the other hand, its relationship with real social and political participation by students was not confirmed.

Originality/value

This paper represents one of the first to explore about LS’s possible role in civic education with real grounded data. The paper will be of reference value to readers interested in civic education and teachers, students and policy planners of the subject.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Quality Services and Experiences in Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-384-1

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Timothy Wai Wa Yuen, Alan Chi Keung Cheung and Ping Man Wong

Mainland Chinese students (hereafter called Mainland students) are a major source of international student applications. Some countries have initiated policies to enable…

Abstract

Purpose

Mainland Chinese students (hereafter called Mainland students) are a major source of international student applications. Some countries have initiated policies to enable Mainland students to stay and work after graduation. Additions to the literature, particularly more country-specific studies, are much needed to cast light on the employment issues for such Mainland students overseas. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by focussing on Mainland students who have completed teacher education programmes in Hong Kong and then served as teachers in Hong Kong schools (Mainland teachers). The incentives that attracted them to stay and work in Hong Kong and the challenges they faced were examined. Their future plans were also probed.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a mixed methodology. Data collection comprised both a questionnaire survey and interviews. The semi-structured interviews provided opportunities for respondents to explain their answers, to narrate and widen the scope of data to areas hitherto unanticipated by the researchers.

Findings

Mainland teachers were attracted to stay on in Hong Kong to work for both intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. They were in fact settlers. They found the programmes they had taken to be practical and believed that they had acquired a niche situation in the teaching profession. Working and living in Hong Kong was satisfying, but some experienced social distance from local colleagues.

Originality/value

The paper can be read with reference to countries that recruit Mainland students and there is a possibility that some of them may stay behind to work. It sheds light on the selection criteria of such students, on ways to enrich their programmes, as well as their employment, living and social integration issues.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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