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Book part

Michael P. Lerman, Timothy P. Munyon and Jon C. Carr

Although scholarly inquiry into entrepreneurial stress has existed for nearly 40 years, little is known about how events drive stress responses in entrepreneurs, and how…

Abstract

Although scholarly inquiry into entrepreneurial stress has existed for nearly 40 years, little is known about how events drive stress responses in entrepreneurs, and how entrepreneur coping responses impact their well-being, relationships, and venture performance. In response to these deficiencies, the authors propose a stress events theory (SET) which they apply to an entrepreneurial context. The authors begin by providing a brief review of existing literature on entrepreneurial stress, which highlights unique stressors and events that entrepreneurs encounter. The authors then introduce event systems theory as developed by Morgeson, Mitchell, and Liu (2015). From this foundation, the authors develop SET, which describes how entrepreneurs react to particular event characteristics (novelty, disruptiveness, criticality, and duration). Additionally, the authors propose that how entrepreneurs interpret events drives coping choices, and that the accuracy of these coping choices subsequently differentiates the quality of entrepreneur well-being, interpersonal relationships, and venture-related consequences. The authors conclude with a discussion of contributions and areas of future research using our proposed theory.

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Entrepreneurial and Small Business Stressors, Experienced Stress, and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-397-8

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Book part

Timothy P. Munyon, James K. Summers, Robyn L. Brouer and Darren C. Treadway

Coalitions are informal and interdependent groups of actors operating within organizations, yet their effects in organizations are not widely understood. In this paper, we…

Abstract

Coalitions are informal and interdependent groups of actors operating within organizations, yet their effects in organizations are not widely understood. In this paper, we develop a model of coalition formation and functioning inside organizations. By extrapolating the behavioral intentions (i.e., altruistic or antagonistic) and compositional differences (i.e., supplementary or complementary) among these informal group structures, we classify coalitions into four forms (i.e., lobby, cartel, circle, and alliance), theorizing how each coalition form affects work role innovation, resource allocations, and work performance. Our conceptualization helps clarify previous theoretical inconsistencies and establish an agenda for the study of coalitions at work. Furthermore, this paper provides insights into the ways that coalitions support or impede the organization’s objectives.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

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Book part

James K. Summers, Timothy P. Munyon, Annette L. Ranft, Gerald R. Ferris and M. Ronald Buckley

Executives exert a pervasive influence on the organizations they lead. As such, scholars have long considered how to calibrate the risks inherent in executive decision…

Abstract

Executives exert a pervasive influence on the organizations they lead. As such, scholars have long considered how to calibrate the risks inherent in executive decision making, often relying on incentives and compensation to calibrate executive risk behavior. However, there are shortcomings that reduce the efficacy of this approach, largely because incentives and compensation do not alter the work environment itself, which play a significant role influencing executive risk behavior. Consequently, in this chapter, we propose a conceptualization that integrates executive risk-taking with work design, framing three central features of the strategic leader job and work environment that may be manipulated to channel and shape executive risk-taking. Specifically, accountability, discretion, and relationships are proposed as the key higher-order characteristics of the executive work context, and they are examined with respect to optimal calibration in order to maximize both executive performance and well-being, as well as organizational coordination and control. Implications of this conceptualization and directions for future research are discussed.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-172-4

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Book part

Gerald R. Ferris, Rachel E. Kane, James K. Summers and Timothy P. Munyon

This chapter examines the role of political skill in relation to employee psychological and physiological health and well-being. First, we begin by providing a review of…

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of political skill in relation to employee psychological and physiological health and well-being. First, we begin by providing a review of the current research on the relationship of political skill to stress and strain; additionally, areas in this literature that are in need of greater theoretical specification are identified. A multi-mediation organizing framework is proposed, which suggests that political skill impacts intrapsychic (i.e., constructs residing within an individual such as control, self-esteem) and interpersonal processes (i.e., authenticity, trustworthiness, affability, and humility), which subsequently influence the development and maintenance of work relationships, networks, and coalitions, and ultimately affects individual psychological and physiological health and well-being. The implications of this framework, and directions for future research, are discussed.

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The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Article

Jason Stoner, Pamela L. Perrewé and Timothy P. Munyon

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that discerns when and how extra role behaviors result in positive versus negative outcomes for individuals and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that discerns when and how extra role behaviors result in positive versus negative outcomes for individuals and organizations. The focus is on how employees' citizenship identities shape extra‐role behaviors which include both organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and contextual performance behaviors (CPBs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses role identity theory as the theoretical lens to develop the model of extra‐role behaviors, distinguishing between OCBs and CPBs.

Findings

While extra‐role behaviors are generally associated with positive organizational functioning, these behaviors also have been linked to negative individual outcomes, such as work‐family conflict, role overload, and reduced task performance. Based on previous research and theory, a conceptual model is developed that explains when extra‐role behaviors will occur, when and why these behaviors will be internalized as an identity, and how identities affect whether employees engage in OCBs or CPBs. Further, the paper examines the influence of these extra‐role behaviors on long term positive and negative outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The main research implication of this paper is the use of role identity theory to further understanding of the nature of extra‐role behaviors.

Originality/value

The paper aims to offer a comprehensive theoretically based model to explain OCBs and incorporates research conducted to date to develop the model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

Timothy P. Munyon, Denise M. Breaux, Laci M. Rogers, Pamela L. Perrewé and Wayne A. Hochwarter

Building on reciprocity and crossover theory, this paper aims to examine how mood crossover from one partner in a relational dyad influences the likelihood of reciprocal…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on reciprocity and crossover theory, this paper aims to examine how mood crossover from one partner in a relational dyad influences the likelihood of reciprocal mood crossover from the other partner.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey sample of 180 dual‐career married couples, the paper explores this phenomenon for both positive and negative mood crossover from husbands to wives and wives to husbands.

Findings

The data supported the paper's four hypotheses. Mood crossover was found to operate in a similar fashion for both husbands and wives after controlling for negative and positive affectivity, work and home demands, work autonomy, and support from the organization, non‐work friends, and spouse. Specifically, when wives (husbands) reported positive (negative) mood crossover from their husbands (wives), their husbands (wives) also reported positive (negative) mood crossover from them.

Research implications/limitations

The findings suggest positive and negative mood crossover is reciprocated among individuals in a dual‐career marriage context. This implies that the effects of positive and negative crossover may be magnified through relational interactions at home. However, the design of this study is not sufficient to determine the causality of this relationship.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the positive and negative work experiences of one partner in a relationship affect the well being and moods of their partner at home. Consequently, organizations may consider wellness or positive reinforcement programs to encourage positive crossover between the domains of work and home.

Originality/value

This study examines how individuals in a dual‐partner reciprocate the negative and positive crossover of moods of their partner from work to home.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article

Gerhard Blickle, Jochen Kramer, Ingo Zettler, Tassilo Momm, James K. Summers, Timothy P. Munyon and Gerald R. Ferris

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether political skill is equally effective in its prediction of job performance for different job demands.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether political skill is equally effective in its prediction of job performance for different job demands.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses self‐report sources of employee performance and self‐report of political skill after several weeks along with three ratings of target individuals' job demands.

Findings

Results support the hypothesis that Holland's enterprising category (i.e. because of its job demands and requisite job competencies to be effective) will moderate the relationship between political skill and job performance, demonstrating stronger predictability under high enterprising job demands.

Research limitations/implications

The present results suggest that political skill is a better predictor of job performance under situations of high enterprising job demands than under conditions of low enterprising job demands. Furthermore, social and conventional job demands do not significantly moderate the political skill‐job performance relationships, implying that these job demands act as an important boundary condition.

Practical implications

Politically skilled individuals are more likely to succeed in environments (e.g. enterprising jobs) where they have the opportunity to exercise interpersonal influence, and where that interpersonal influence is directly related to their performance.

Originality/value

This paper makes several contributions to theory and practice in vocational achievement and political skill. Perhaps, most significant is the identification of job demands as a boundary condition in the political skill‐job performance relationship.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Abstract

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Entrepreneurial and Small Business Stressors, Experienced Stress, and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-397-8

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Book part

Samantha K. Baard holds a University Distinguished Fellowship in Michigan State University's Ph.D. program in organizational psychology. Her research interests include…

Abstract

Samantha K. Baard holds a University Distinguished Fellowship in Michigan State University's Ph.D. program in organizational psychology. Her research interests include individual and team adaptability, leadership, motivation, cross-cultural differences, and stress. She is also examining, from a statistical and methodological perspective, the dynamic processes of motivation, feedback, and performance. As a University Scholar at George Mason University, she investigated the interactive effects of leadership and motivation on individual performance. She spent three years working as a research fellow at the Consortium of Research Fellows Program where she worked with the U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences studying team effectiveness, cross-cultural competence, leadership, and motivation. She has served as a guest lecturer at several colleges, and has presented her research at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology's Annual Conference.

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Abstract

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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