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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Timothy G. Hawkins, Cory Yoder and Michael J. Gravier

The fear of receiving a bid protest is said to affect acquisition strategies, yet it has not been empirically explored. Based on the Public Value Framework and interviews…

Abstract

The fear of receiving a bid protest is said to affect acquisition strategies, yet it has not been empirically explored. Based on the Public Value Framework and interviews with contracting personnel, this research tests a model of antecedents to and consequences of the fear of a protest. Survey data was obtained from a sample of 350 contracting personnel. The fear of protest is mitigated by having sufficient procurement lead time and by source selection experience, and increased by protest risk. Fear of protest increases compromised technical evaluations, added procurement lead time, and transaction costs, while it decreases contracting officer authority and is associated with source selection method inappropriateness. Compromised technical evaluations, in turn, decrease contractor performance while contracting officer authority increases contractor performance. Thus, findings suggest that, indeed, the tail is wagging the dog. The research concludes with several managerial implications, study limitations and future research directions.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Karen A.F. Landale, Rene G. Rendon and Timothy G. Hawkins

The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of supplier selection method on key procurement outcomes such as procurement lead time (PLT), supplier performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of supplier selection method on key procurement outcomes such as procurement lead time (PLT), supplier performance and buyer team size.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of 124 archival contract records from the US Department of Defense. A multiple regression model and multivariate analysis of covariance/analysis of covariance models were used to test the effects of source selection method on pertinent procurement outcomes.

Findings

The trade-off (TO) source selection method increases PLT, as does the number of evaluation factors and the number of proposals received. Substantially larger sourcing teams are also associated with the TO source selection method. Nonetheless, the TO method results in better supplier performance.

Practical implications

TO source selections yield superior supplier performance than low-bidder methods. However, they are costly in terms of time and personnel. Any assessment of supplier value should consider not only the price premium for higher performance but also the transaction costs associated with the TO method.

Originality/value

Very little research addresses a buying team’s evaluation of supplier-offered value ex ante and whether that value assessment materializes into actual value-added supplier performance. Low bidder tactics are pervasive, but price (i.e. sacrifice) is only one component of value. Benefits from superior supplier performance may yield greater overall value. If value is critical to the buyer, a TO source selection method – versus a low-bidder approach – is the appropriate tool because of higher supplier performance ex post.

Details

Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-6439

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Timothy G. Hawkins, Michael J. Gravier and Suman Niranjan

The purpose of this study is to better understand the effectiveness of buyers’ defensive measures to thwart bid protests in government procurements.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to better understand the effectiveness of buyers’ defensive measures to thwart bid protests in government procurements.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 240 sourcing professionals concerning government source selections is used to analyze a logistic regression model exploring 6 antecedents of bid protests.

Findings

This research implicates the importance of oral presentations of offers, the type of value procured (i.e. services), protest experience, the quantity of document revisions, transaction costs and cost reimbursement contracts in receiving a bid protest.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to explore sourcing strategy decisions that can contribute to the receipt of a bid protest. It adds clarity to an understudied market of business – the public sector.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2014

Timothy G. Hawkins, Mark E. Nissen and Rene G. Rendon

Knowledge-based services (KBS) comprise a major portion of services acquired by public organizations. However, their procurement is not well managed; consequently…

Abstract

Knowledge-based services (KBS) comprise a major portion of services acquired by public organizations. However, their procurement is not well managed; consequently, inefficiencies abound. Therefore, this study explores whether and how KBS can be sourced more efficiently by examining best practices and precepts from knowledge management theory. A spend analysis of one agencyʼs spend is used to identify the types of KBS procured. Interviews from 12 cases are then used to identify best practices and cost drivers in sourcing KBS. Twenty one recommendations for improving efficiency in sourcing KBS are offered. The findings suggest that potential is available from demand reduction strategies, and that public policy governing the procurement of knowledge is needed. The research concludes with theoretical implications and suggestions for future research.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2014

Timothy G. Hawkins and William A. Muir

Public procurement officials are bound by extensive policies, procedures, and laws. However, procurement professionals perpetually struggle to comply with these vast…

Abstract

Public procurement officials are bound by extensive policies, procedures, and laws. However, procurement professionals perpetually struggle to comply with these vast requirements — particularly in the acquisition of services. The purpose of this research is to explore knowledge-based factors affecting compliance of service contracts. A regression model using data acquired via survey from 219 U.S. Government procurement professionals reveals that the extent of compliance is affected by buyer experience, personnel turnover, the sufficiency with which service requirements are defined, post-award buyer-supplier communication, and the sufficiency of procurement lead time. From these results, implications for practice and theory are drawn. The study concludes with a discussion of limitations and directions for future research.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Timothy G. Hawkins and Jeffrey R. Cuskey

Alpha contracting is a collaborative effort between a buyer and supplier during contract formation to maximize efficiency and effectiveness. Collaborative efforts between…

Abstract

Alpha contracting is a collaborative effort between a buyer and supplier during contract formation to maximize efficiency and effectiveness. Collaborative efforts between the United States Department of Defense and its suppliers have recently been scrutinized. Although several benefits of Alpha contracting are identified within the literature, the phenomenon is not ubiquitous nor is it well understood. Using the case study methodology, this research explores Alpha Contracting to define success and to identify its contributing factors. Additionally, this research identifies antecedents for and consequences of use, variations of the processes employed, and some misuse. The study culminates in the development of a conceptual model of collaborative pricing, and provides five recommendations for enhanced use.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Timothy G. Hawkins and Michael J. Gravier

Militaries face increasing budget pressures, high operations tempos, a blitzing pace of technology, and adversaries that often meet or beat government capabilities using…

Abstract

Purpose

Militaries face increasing budget pressures, high operations tempos, a blitzing pace of technology, and adversaries that often meet or beat government capabilities using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies. The integration of COTS products into defense systems has been offered to help meet these challenges, yet such integration suffers mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to offer a knowledge-based conceptual framework for understanding COTS technology integration in the defense sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of 62 sources was conducted with the objectives of identifying antecedents (barriers and facilitators) and consequences of COTS adoption.

Findings

Research implicates the importance of knowledge management to successful COTS integration. COTS appropriateness should be gauged, and it is impacted by 14 enabling and five deterrent factors.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual framework of COTS technology usage enhances understanding of COTS performance. The framework and its propositions should focus, and thus, stimulate increased future research of COTS performance. Limitations common to qualitative methods are disclosed.

Practical implications

By identifying factors that shape COTS appropriateness, practitioners know the factors to manage to hedge toward successful COTS integration. Managers should be aware of the importance of market knowledge for defense COTS innovation, especially for commercial companies that work as system integrators. COTS integrators need to better manage the lessons learned from COTS integration programs.

Originality/value

This research is the first to develop a conceptual framework of COTS product usage and a scale to measure COTS product appropriateness.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Timothy G. Hawkins, Wesley S. Randall, Adam V. Coyne and Mohammad H. Baitalmal

The growth of international business persists, particularly in emerging economies. Business in these developing nations is heavily influenced by national culture. In the…

Abstract

Purpose

The growth of international business persists, particularly in emerging economies. Business in these developing nations is heavily influenced by national culture. In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, buyer-supplier relationships are often negatively influenced by “wasta” – a term associated with power, influence, connection and corruption. Technology-enhanced business processes diffuse as globalization increases. The purpose of this research was to explore whether and, if so, how electronic reverse auction (e-RA) use might be effective in a MENA national culture.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a case study method based on data collected from 13 interviews with supply chain members extending beyond the dyad to explain: why Middle Eastern bidders participated in an e-RA; the nature of a unique phenomenon in Middle Eastern culture called wasta; and (3) how wasta, e-RA use, and procurement integrity interact in a sustainable way.

Findings

This case study extends knowledge in the area of global supply chain management by identifying new opportunities and providing a mechanism to ameliorate risks. It demonstrated that e-RAs can ameliorate some of the deleterious effects of wasta by increasing transparency and procedural fairness associated with MENA-based buyer-supplier relationships.

Originality/value

E-RAs have been criticized as being unfair to suppliers. This study unveils cultural idiosyncrasies where e-RAs overcome a moral hazard associated with MENA buyer-supplier relationships and become a supplier's favored sourcing medium. As economic growth in MENA is expected to outpace all other regions, this study has implications for understanding how regionally specific cultural variables impact B2B sourcing strategy adoption and outcomes.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Wesley S. Randall, David R. Nowicki and Timothy G. Hawkins

Performance‐based logistics (PBL) strategies are providing governments and for‐profit organizations with a contractual mechanism that reduces the life cycle costs of their…

Abstract

Purpose

Performance‐based logistics (PBL) strategies are providing governments and for‐profit organizations with a contractual mechanism that reduces the life cycle costs of their systems. PBL accomplishes this by establishing contracts that focus on the delivery of performance not parts. PBL establishes a metric based governance structure where suppliers make more profit when they invest in logistics process improvements, or system redesign, that reduces total cost of ownership. While work has been done to outline an overall PBL theoretical framework, the underlying theory explaining the enablers that lead to organizational and team‐level, team‐goal alignment associated with the PBL governance structure requires testing. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively test previously posited relationships between enablers of PBL and PBL effectiveness. An additional objective is to explore any differences in PBL effectiveness between different business sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple regression model was developed, tested and validated to explain the effectiveness of PBL. The model was externally validated with exploratory cross‐sectional survey data of 61 practitioners.

Findings

This study strongly supports recent PBL theory explaining PBL effectiveness. Key antecedents include investment climate, relational exchange, PBL leadership, and business sector. Further, government organizations lag behind their commercial counterparts in PBL effectiveness and PBL leadership.

Practical implications

PBL business arrangements are more effective in more favorable investment climates. Thus, leaders should welcome new ideas, empower employees, and encourage entrepreneurship. Since PBL effectiveness increases with relational exchange, building trust and communicating with suppliers is key. Leadership is also important to PBL effectiveness. Leaders should accept risk, focus on long‐term affordability and performance, and align activities to achieve end‐user goals.

Originality/value

This research is the first quantitative test of previously posited factors affecting PBL effectiveness. Additionally, this research unveils key differences in business sectors' use of PBL strategies.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Clinton Amos, Iryna Pentina, Timothy G. Hawkins and Natalie Davis

This study aims to investigate the appeal of “natural” labeling and builds on past research which suggests that people may have a naïve pastoral view of nature and natural…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the appeal of “natural” labeling and builds on past research which suggests that people may have a naïve pastoral view of nature and natural entities. “Natural” labeling is pervasive in supermarkets across the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a multi-method approach to examine consumer perceptions and beliefs about products labeled “natural”. Qualitative responses are solicited to examine the images and feelings that come to mind when consumers see “natural” labeling on a food product. Two experiments are conducted to examine consumers’ evaluations of “natural” labeling on both food and supplement products.

Findings

The results of three studies suggest that “natural” labeling evokes positive feelings and sentimental imagery associated with a pastoral view of nature. These perceptions reinforce beliefs that food and supplement products labeled “natural” possess positive instrumental benefits such as health advantages, lack of contamination and safety.

Social implications

Consumers are under pressure to make better choices regarding what they put into their bodies due to pervasive concern over the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. This study provides insight into why consumers perceive food and supplement products labeled “natural” as better alternatives.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first studies to investigate the underlying perceptual forces accounting for the effectiveness of “natural” food and supplement labeling.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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