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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Timo Lorenz, Chelsea Rebecca Brüning, Mitzi Waltz and Marc Fabri

The purpose of this paper is to reveal barriers and their coherences between discrimination and self-perceived employability which students and employees on the autism spectrum…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal barriers and their coherences between discrimination and self-perceived employability which students and employees on the autism spectrum often face and need to overcome. These include discrimination based on disability, when applying for a job or retaining employment. This research located barriers in three different categories: formality – problems that focus on organizational structures in the application process; social – communication and interaction problems; and job demand barriers – obstacles that epitomize work-related strains.

Design/methodology/approach

Barriers and discrimination can prevent individuals from accessing the labor market which can lead to severe consequences for an individual on the autism spectrum, such as poverty, social deprivation or lack of health promotion and equal treatment. Self-perceived employability can be regarded as an additional strength, as it describes the perception of an individual’s own skills and versatility to acquire and keep a job. In total, 53 German-speaking individuals on the autism spectrum participated in an online survey.

Findings

Results showed statistically significant coherences between both, formality and social barriers with discrimination. Formality barriers also indicated statistically significant coherences with self-perceived employability. A mediation model with discrimination as mediator between each category of barriers and self-perceived employability was examined. The non-significant results suggest that discrimination does not work as a superior construct but as a sole influence next to barriers and self-perceived employability.

Originality/value

Individuals on the autism spectrum epitomize a less common research approach. Moreover, diversity policies and practices in the workplace often do not focus on including individuals on the autism spectrum even though the employment rates for this specific group of potential highly qualified employees were reported to be consistently lower when compared to any other group of disabled people. Findings suggest possible starting points for future research, which are discussed alongside practical strategies to overcome barriers and change discriminatory attitudes toward skilled individuals on the autism spectrum.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Henri Pesonen, Mitzi Waltz, Marc Fabri, Elena Syurina, Sarah Krückels, Mona Algner, Bertrand Monthubert and Timo Lorenz

This paper aims to examine effective support strategies for facilitating the employment of autistic students and graduates by answering the following research question: What…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine effective support strategies for facilitating the employment of autistic students and graduates by answering the following research question: What constitutes effective employment support for autistic students and graduates?

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using the method of empathy-based stories (MEBS) as part of a multinational European project’s Web-based survey. The data consisted of 55 writings about effective strategies and 55 writings about strategies to ]avoid when working with autistic students and graduates. The material was analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Narratives were created to illustrate desirable and undesirable environments and processes as they would be experienced by students, supported by original excerpts from the stories.

Findings

The analysis revealed that effective employment support for autistic students and graduates comprised three dimensions of support activity: practices based on the form and environment of support, social interaction support and autism acceptance and awareness. These dimensions were present in both recommended and not recommended support strategy writings.

Originality/value

The results add to the literature on autism and employment with its focus on the novel context of autistic university students and graduates. Effective strategies will be based on person-centred planning, to include not only the individual impact of autism but also individual career goals, workplace characteristics in the chosen field, employer needs and allocation of the right support. There is no one-size-fits-all strategy, but rather an individualized process is needed, focused on the identification of strengths, the adaptation of employment and work processes and improved understanding and acceptance of autism by management, colleagues and administration in the workplace.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2023

Khalil Gholami and Sonia Faraji

Identity is a disputed concept. A clear-cut, unitary definition of identity is impossible as it “bears a multivalent, even contradictory theoretical burden” (Brubaker & Cooper

Abstract

Identity is a disputed concept. A clear-cut, unitary definition of identity is impossible as it “bears a multivalent, even contradictory theoretical burden” (Brubaker & Cooper, 2000, p. 8). Existing literature shows that teacher identity or teacher professional identity is defined differently. In some cases, there is no definition at all. This chapter summarizes how research on teacher identity evolved in the last two decades. A total of 33 papers on teacher identity were reviewed. To analyze the data, we developed a conceptual framework on teacher identity based on the reviewed papers. In reviewing the literature, we found four lines of studies that have attracted more attention from educational researchers: (1) research on factors shaping teachers' professional identities, (2) studies highlighting the tensions and crises in teachers' professional identities, (3) approaches and models to the construction of teachers' professional identities, and (4) research on students' and beginning teachers' identities. Two different conceptions of teacher identity were found in these lines of research: strong and soft approaches. Strong conception of identity emphasizes sameness over time or across persons. Soft or weak conception of teacher identity, in contrast, is based on the premise that identity is flexible and unstable over time and across persons. Most of the research adopted the soft conception. Thus, the strong conception of teacher identity was understudied. Hence, we do not know what counts as the core professional values or meaning in strong conception of teacher identity. Relying on general pedagogy, we propose a framework based on moral, aesthetic, and rational foundations for developing a strong conception of teacher identity.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2023

Gail Anne Mountain

Abstract

Details

Occupational Therapy With Older People into the Twenty-First Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-043-4

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Martti Mäkimattila, Timo Junell and Tero Rantala

The purpose of this paper is to examine the doing, using, and interacting (DUI) of Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) while developing intra- and inter-collaboration with…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the doing, using, and interacting (DUI) of Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) while developing intra- and inter-collaboration with industry. It also reviews recent literature related to the roles of absorptive capacity (AC) and social capital (SC) in interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case research on developing collaborations between UAS and small- and medium-sized enterprises for innovation activities.

Findings

Prior knowledge and contacts vary in organisations, and interaction should be supported while aiming to maximise benefits of internal and external resources available for innovation. This paper contributes by pointing out the importance of the interconnection of DUI, AC, and SC while developing collaboration.

Originality/value

This paper describes issues challenging the collaborative innovation activities and directions to focus on structural development to support interaction with parties having different backgrounds, goals, and strengths. The study highlights the importance of knowledge exchange with several universities and firms, and the different learning modes related to innovation.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Sakari Taipale, Kirsikka Selander, Timo Anttila and Jouko Nätti

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level and predictors of work engagement among service sector employees in eight European countries.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level and predictors of work engagement among service sector employees in eight European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The work seeks to discover if job demands and resources, i.e. job autonomy and social support, affect work engagement in differing ways in different countries when socio‐demographical variables and work‐related factors are controlled. The study is based on a statistical analysis of survey data from Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the UK in 2007 (n=7,867). The data represent four economic sectors: retail trade, finance and banking, telecoms and public hospitals.

Findings

The results show that the level of work engagement varies not only between countries but also between those four economic sectors within each country. Additionally, the findings indicate that demands decrease work engagement, while autonomy and support increase it. Although the effects are mainly the same across the countries, the article also points out some exceptions in this regard.

Originality/value

Although the paper is built upon established theories about job demands and autonomy, it uses a newer work engagement approach, produces cross‐national knowledge about work engagement and its predictors. Cross‐national approaches to work engagement are still rare.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2023

Richard Jaffu, Sinyati Ndiango, Ruth Elias, Debora Gabriel and Denis Ringo

This study aimed to examine the influence of psychological capital on the students' academic success in a PhD journey in Tanzania.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine the influence of psychological capital on the students' academic success in a PhD journey in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey design was used and data were collected through structured questionnaires from 200 PhD students in Tanzania. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the measurement model. The hypotheses were empirically tested using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The findings affirm that psychological capital in terms of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism are significant predictors of students' academic success in a PhD journey.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is among the first to comprehensively examine the influence of psychological capital on students' academic success in PhD studies. Previous studies have primarily focused on the undergraduate level. Additionally, this study extends the applicability of conservation of resource (COR) theory to the context of PhD students, demonstrating that psychological capital serves as a crucial resource for them to achieve success in their PhD studies.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Alexander Riegler

The paper serves as an introduction to the special issue on Heinz von Foerster. Major episodes of his life are sketched and related to his scientific convictions regarding…

373

Abstract

Purpose

The paper serves as an introduction to the special issue on Heinz von Foerster. Major episodes of his life are sketched and related to his scientific convictions regarding transdisciplinary research and radical constructivist. In the second part the contributions to the issue are summarized. Finally, the relevance of Foerster's work is discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The arguments are based on the scientific literature.

Findings

Foerster argued against reductionist science and in favor of transdisciplinary research in order to trigger further scientific developments.

Practical implications

By using transdiciplinary and choosing the constructivist perspective, science will increase its productivity. This should be reflected in science policy.

Originality/value

By pointing at the variety of his scientific output and his influence on many colleagues and students, the paper is in support of Foerster's non‐reductionist worldview.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 34 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Inaam Altayeb Idrees, Ana Cristina Vasconcelos and David Ellis

The purpose of this study is to offer a theoretical and practical explanation for the nature and reasons for inter-organizational knowledge sharing across an informal clique of…

1023

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to offer a theoretical and practical explanation for the nature and reasons for inter-organizational knowledge sharing across an informal clique of competing five-star hotels in the Saudi Arabian religious tourism and hospitality industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is an adapted form of the grounded theory approach deploying a four-stage research design using qualitative interviews with key players in the industry to inform the analysis of the knowledge sharing approaches.

Findings

The findings illustrate the features of the knowledge sharing approaches across the five-star hotels studied. In particular, the findings highlight the existence of a cooperative-competitive tension in the relationships and knowledge sharing between the hotels. This illustrates the existence of a tacit strategy that cooperation can lead to long-term benefits for the competitor hotels.

Originality/value

The study is unique in its focus on the cooperative-competitive tension of five-star hotels in the Saudi Arabian religious tourism and hospitality industry and on this influence on the inter-organizational knowledge sharing across hotels within an oligopolistic market structure. The study also has value in using elements of oligopoly theory and of game theory, particularly, the prisoner’s dilemma, in explaining how inter-organizational knowledge sharing occurs within this market context.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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