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The broad aim of this paper is to investigate whether managers in Australia allocate their time differently than other occupational groups, and the impact gender and life…
The broad aim of this paper is to investigate whether managers in Australia allocate their time differently than other occupational groups, and the impact gender and life situation (using marital status and presence or absence of dependent children as a proxy) has on time allocation.
To address these broad aims, data are drawn from the 1997 Australian Time Use Survey. This is a nationally representative survey that examines how people in different circumstances allocate time to different activities.
The results of this study highlight three important issues. The first is that male and female managers display different patterns of time use. Male managers' time is dominated by paid employment activities, whereas female managers' time is spent predominantly on employment and domestic activities. The second is that life situation impacts on the time use of female managers, but not male managers. The third important find of this study is that managers' time use is different to other occupational groups.
These findings have policy implications relating to work‐life balance, career progression and changes in patterns of work. In terms of work‐life issues, it reveals that male and female managers face a “time squeeze”, with some evidence of a “second‐shift” for female managers. In addition, the findings provide insight into the work‐life issues faced by male and female managers.
The results of this inquiry provide insight into how different individuals spend their time – insight into “lifestyles”. However, in‐depth qualitative studies are required to reveal why individuals allocate their time in this way and to understand the opportunities and constraints individuals face in time allocation.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the combined use of time-use diaries and interviews to get a fuller understanding of how people use their time, the factors…
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the combined use of time-use diaries and interviews to get a fuller understanding of how people use their time, the factors that influence their time use, and their subjective perceptions of their time pressures. This paper focuses on how the methodology influenced the findings.
Participants kept a diary of their time use for one week and then participated in interviews to discuss their time use.
While the diaries yielded numerical data about participants’ time use, the interviews revealed the reasons behind their time choices. The complexity of Pakistani food preparation and the presence of in-laws in the home emerged as major factors. All participants expressed frustration with their time poverty.
This was a small pilot study limited to eight participants.
This method gives researchers a more powerful tool for understanding not only how people use their time, but the social, cultural and economic forces behind their choices.
Time poverty creates social inequities, especially among women and marginalized people. The methodology presented allows participants to have a voice in time-use studies and can help policy makers create policies that correct time poverty for disadvantaged groups.
This paper illustrates the usefulness of combining two existing methods for time-use studies in a new way for more powerful results.
This paper looks at the changes in the time allocation of welfare recipients in the United States following the 1996 welfare reform and other changes in their economic…
This paper looks at the changes in the time allocation of welfare recipients in the United States following the 1996 welfare reform and other changes in their economic environment. Time use is a major determinant of well-being, and for policymakers to understand the broad influences that their policies can have on a population they ought to consider changes in all activities, not simply paid work. While an increase in market work of the welfare population has been well documented, little is known on the evolution of the balance of their time. Using the Current Population Survey to model the propensity to receive welfare, together with a multiple imputation procedure, I replicate previous difference-in-differences estimates that found an increase in child care and a decline in nonmarket work. However when additional data sources are used, I find that time spent providing child care does not increase. This is especially relevant as welfare recipients are overwhelmingly poor single mothers and the welfare reform increased time at work with ambiguous effects on time spent with children. I also find that time at work follows business cycles, with dramatic increases in work time throughout the strong economy of the late 1990s, accompanied by less time in leisure activities.
The purpose of this paper is to focus first on the development of the segregation of tasks in family and housework in Switzerland and its linkage to the gender time-use…
The purpose of this paper is to focus first on the development of the segregation of tasks in family and housework in Switzerland and its linkage to the gender time-use gap in unpaid work. In addition, the impact of dual-breadwinner support in policies and culture is examined.
The empirical test refers to a comparison of Swiss cantons, and is based on data from the Swiss Labour Force Survey. The analysis traces both the gender gap and segregation from 2000 to 2013, compares them between 25 Swiss cantons, and links them to political and cultural dual-breadwinner support.
First, the results suggest that both the gender time-use gap and task segregation in unpaid work decrease in Switzerland. Moreover, the gender gap and segregation do not correlate in the sample of Swiss cantons. Second, both the gender gap and segregation correlate with dual-breadwinner support. However, the political dual-breadwinner support is linked to lower segregation, a smaller gender gap, more male and less female housework, the dual-breadwinner culture promotes female housework and both men’s and women’s family time spent on childcare, without affecting the gender gap and segregation.
The results, on the one hand, suggest that both the gender time-use gap and the segregation are important but analytically different dimensions of gender equity. On the other hand, the cross-cantonal analysis highlights the socio-political structuration of gender inequality.
The paper contains the first comparative analysis of the gender time-use gap and task segregation in Switzerland. The results underline the analytical distinction between the gender time-use gap and the task segregation in family and housework. Moreover, the cross-cantonal analysis suggests that the political dual-breadwinner support is an important determinant of the gender divide in unpaid work.