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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Jinliang Liu, Yanmin Jia, Guanhua Zhang and Jiawei Wang

In the freeze-thaw zone, the pre-stressed concrete of bridge structure will be damaged by freezing-thawing, the bearing capacity of structure will decrease and the safety…

Abstract

Purpose

In the freeze-thaw zone, the pre-stressed concrete of bridge structure will be damaged by freezing-thawing, the bearing capacity of structure will decrease and the safety will be affected. The purpose of this paper is to establish the time-dependent resistance degradation model of structure in the freeze-thaw zone, and analysis the structural reliability and remaining service life in different freeze-thaw zones.

Design/methodology/approach

First, according to the theory of structural design, a calculation model of the resistance of pre-stressed concrete structures in f freeze-thaw zone is established. Second, the time-dependent resistance model was verified by the test beam bending failure test results done by the research group, which has been in service for 20 years in freeze-thaw zone. Third, using JC algorithm in MATLAB to calculate the index on the reliability of pre-stressed concrete structure in frozen thawed zones, forecasting the s remaining service life of structure.

Findings

First, the calculation model of the resistance of pre-stressed concrete structures in freeze-thaw zone is accurate and it has excellent applicability. Second, the structural resistance deterioration time in Wet-Warm-Frozen Zone is the earliest. Third, once the pre-stressed reinforcement rusts, the structural reliability index will reach limit value quickly. Finally, the remaining service life of structure meets the designed expectation value only in a few of freeze-thaw zones in China.

Originality/value

The research will provide a reference for the design on the durability of a pre-stressed concrete structure in the freeze-thaw zone. In order to verify the security of pre-stressed concrete structures in the freeze-thaw zone, engineers can use the model presented in this paper for durability checking, it has an important significance.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 November 2019

Pengpeng Zhi, Yue Xu and Bingzhi Chen

Most of the previous work on reliability analysis was based on the traditional reliability theory. The calculated results can only reflect the reliability of components at…

Abstract

Purpose

Most of the previous work on reliability analysis was based on the traditional reliability theory. The calculated results can only reflect the reliability of components at a specific time, which neglects the uncertainty of load and resistance over time. The purpose of this paper is to develop a time-dependent reliability analysis approach based on stochastic process to deal with the problem and apply it to the structural design of railway vehicle components.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the parametric model of motor hanger for electric multiple unit (EMU) is established by ANSYS parametric design language, and its structural stress is analyzed according to relevant standards. The Latin hypercube method is used to analyze the sensitivity of the structure, and the uncertainty parameters (sizes and loads) which have great influence on the structural strength are determined. The D-optimal experimental design is carried out to establish the polynomial response surface function, which characterizes the relationship between uncertainty parameters and structural stress. Second, the Poisson stochastic process is adopted to describe the number of loads acting, and the Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the load acting history according to its probability distribution characteristics. The load history is introduced into the response surface function and the uncertainty of other parameters is considered at the same time, and the stress history of the motor hanger is obtained. Finally, the degradation process of structural resistance is described by a Gamma stochastic process, and the time-dependent reliability of the motor hanger is calculated based on the reliability theory.

Findings

Time and the uncertainties of parameters have great impact on reliability. The results of reliability decrease with time fluctuation are more reasonable, stable and credible than traditional methods.

Practical implications

In this paper, the proposed method is applied to the structural design of the motor hanger for EMU, which has a good guiding significance for accurately evaluating whether if the design meets the reliability requirements.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that the method takes both the randomness of load over time and the uncertainty of structural parameters in the design and manufactures process into consideration, and describes the monotonous degradation characteristics of structural resistance. At the same time, the time-dependent reliability of mechanical components is calculated by a response surface method. It not only improves the accuracy of reliability analysis, but also improves the analysis efficiency and solves the problem that the traditional reliability analysis method can only reflect the static reliability of components.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Utino Worabo Woju and A.S. Balu

Performance of the structure depends on design, construction, environment, utilization and reliability aspects. Other factors can be controlled by adopting proper design…

Abstract

Purpose

Performance of the structure depends on design, construction, environment, utilization and reliability aspects. Other factors can be controlled by adopting proper design and construction techniques, but the environmental factors are difficult to control. Hence, mostly in practice, the environmental factors are not considered in the analysis and design appropriately; however, their impact on the performance of the structures is significant along with the design life. It is in this light that this paper aims to perform the time-dependent performance analysis of reinforced concrete structures majorly considering environmental factors.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the intended objective, a simply supported reinforced concrete beam was designed and detailed as per the Euro Code (EC2). The time-dependent design parameters, corrosion parameters, creep and shrinkage were identified through thorough literature review. The common empirical equations were modified to consider the identified parameters, and finally, the time-dependent performance of reinforced concrete beam was performed.

Findings

Findings indicate that attention has to be paid to appropriate consideration of the environmental effect on reinforced concrete structures. In that, the time-dependent performance of reinforced concrete beam significantly decreases with time due to corrosion of reinforcement steel, creep and shrinkage.

Originality/value

However, the Euro code, Ethiopian code and Indian code threat the exposure condition of reinforced concrete by providing corresponding concrete cover that retards the corrosion initiation time but does not eliminate environmental effects. The results of this study clearly indicate that the capacity of reinforced concrete structure degrades with time due to corrosion and creep, whereas the action on the structure due to shrinkage increases. Therefore, appropriate remedial measures have to be taken to control the defects of structures due to the environmental factors to overcome the early failure of the structure.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Maizuar, Lihai Zhang, Russell Thompson and Herman Fithra

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical framework to predict the time-dependent probability of failure of a bridge subjected to multiple vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical framework to predict the time-dependent probability of failure of a bridge subjected to multiple vehicle impacts. Specially, this study focuses on investigating the inter-relationship between changes in life-cycle parameters (e.g., damage size caused by vehicle impact, loss of initial structural capacity, and threshold intervention) and bridges probability of failure.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The numerical procedure using MATLAB program is developed to compute the probability failure of a bridge. First, the importance and characteristics of life-cycle analysis is described. Then, model for damage accumulation and life cycle as a result of heavy vehicle impacts is discussed. Finally, the probability of failure of a bridge subjected to vehicle impacts as a result of change in life-cycle parameters is presented.

Findings – The results of study show that damage size caused by both vehicle impacts and loss of initial structural capacity have a great impact on the long-term safety of bridges. In addition, the probability of failure of a bridge under different threshold limits indicates that the structural intervention (e.g., repair or maintenance) should be undertaken to extend the service life of a bridge.

Research Limitations/Implications – The damage sizes caused by heavy vehicle impacts are based on simple assumptions. It is suggested that there would be a further study to estimate the magnitude of bridge damage as a result of vehicle impact using the full-scale impact test or computational simulation.

Practical Implications – This will allow much better predictions for residual life of bridges which could potentially be used to support decisions on health and maintenance of bridges.

Originality/Value – The life-cycle performance for assessing the time-dependent probability of failure of bridges subjected to multiple vehicle impact has not been fully discussed so far.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Shingo Asamoto, Yvi Le Guen, Olivier Poupard and Bruno Capra

In the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) project, the integrity of CO2 injection wells plays a vital role in the long‐term safety of CO2 storage. The authors aim to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) project, the integrity of CO2 injection wells plays a vital role in the long‐term safety of CO2 storage. The authors aim to practically investigate possible CO2 leakage of a CO2 injection well section during the injection operation and shut‐in by the thermomechanical FEM simulation. The application of numerical simulation to the CO2 injection well deep underground is the first step that will help in the quantitative evaluation of the mechanical risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The injection of CO2 at a temperature different from those of the well and the surrounding geological formation is likely to cause different thermal deformations of constitutive well materials. This could lead to cement cracking and microannuli openings at the interfaces of different materials such as casing/cement and cement/rock. In this paper, the possibility and order of magnitude of cement cracking and microannuli creation in the cross section of the well are assessed from a numerical case study within a classical thermomechanical finite element model framework.

Findings

The possibility of compressive failure and tensile cracking in the cement of the studied wells due to CO2 injection is small unless a large casing eccentricity or an initial defect in the cement is present. Some microannuli openings are generated at interfaces cement/casing and/or cement/rock during the CO2 injection because of different thermal shrinkage of each material. However, the width is not important enough to cause significant CO2 leakage under the studied conditions. The use of “flexible” cement especially developed for oil well applications could mitigate the risk of cement cracking during CO2 injection.

Originality/value

Numerous experimental studies on the chemical deterioration of the cement under severe conditions have been carried out. On the other hand, only a few investigations have focused on the mechanical behavior under thermal/pressure changes related to CO2 injection. In this paper, the quantitative analysis to investigate cement cracking and microannuli formation is achieved to help in the identification of possible mechanical defects to cause CO2 leakage. In addition, the discussion about the risk of the possible casing eccentricity and the application of flexible cement in the oil and gas field to CO2 injection well could be practically useful.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Utino Worabo Woju and A.S. Balu

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory and epistemic. The different sources of uncertainties in reinforced concrete structures include the randomness, mathematical models, physical models, environmental factors and gross errors. The effects of imprecise data in reinforced concrete structures are studied here by using fuzzy concepts. The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the uncertainties of variables with unclear boundaries.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the intended objective, the reinforced concrete beam subjected to flexure and shear was designed as per Euro Code (EC2). Then, different design parameters such as corrosion parameters, material properties and empirical expressions of time-dependent material properties were identified through a thorough literature review.

Findings

The fuzziness of variables was identified, and their membership functions were generated by using the heuristic method and drawn by MATLAB R2018a software. In addition to the identification of fuzziness of variables, the study further extended to design optimization of reinforced concrete structure by using fuzzy relation and fuzzy composition.

Originality/value

In the design codes of the concrete structure, the concrete grades such as C16/20, C20/25, C25/30, C30/37 and so on are provided and being adopted for design in which the intermediate grades are not considered, but using fuzzy concepts the intermediate grades of concrete can be recognized by their respective degree of membership. In the design of reinforced concrete structure using fuzzy relation and composition methods, the optimum design is considered when the degree of membership tends to unity. In addition to design optimization, the level of structural performance evaluation can also be carried out by using fuzzy concepts.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

A.U. Chaudhry, Vikas Mittal, M.I. Hashmi and Brajendra Mishra

Inorganic oxide addition can be synergistically beneficial in organic coatings if it can impart anti-corrosion properties and also act as an additive to enhance physical…

Abstract

Purpose

Inorganic oxide addition can be synergistically beneficial in organic coatings if it can impart anti-corrosion properties and also act as an additive to enhance physical and/or chemical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-corrosion benefits of nano nickel zinc ferrite (NZF) in the polymer film.

Design/methodology/approach

The time-dependent anti-corrosion ability of NZF (0.12-1.0 per cent w/w NZF/binder), applied on API 5L X-80 carbon steel, was characterized by electrochemical techniques such as open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization resistance and potentiodynamic. Characterization of corrosion layer was done by removing coatings after 216 h of immersion in 3.5 per cent w/v NaCl. Optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to characterize the corroded surface.

Findings

Corrosion measurements confirm the electrochemical activity by metallic cations on the steel surface during corrosion process which results in improvement of anti-corrosion properties of steel. Moreover, surface techniques show compact corrosion layer coatings and presence of different metallic oxide phases for nanocomposite coatings.

Originality/value

The suggested protection mechanism was explained by the leaching and precipitation of metallic ion on the corroded surface which in turn slowed down the corrosion activity. Furthermore, improvement in barrier properties of rubber-based coatings was confirmed by the enhanced pore resistance. This work indicates that along with a wide range of applications of NZF, anti-corrosion properties can be taken as an addition.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

D. Mukherjee

Carbon steels are abundantly employed in our day‐to‐day engineering services, the automotive industry, and in various domestic usages. Service life of carbon steel assumes…

Abstract

Carbon steels are abundantly employed in our day‐to‐day engineering services, the automotive industry, and in various domestic usages. Service life of carbon steel assumes importance, as faults bring either costly industrial downtime or embarrassing domestic inconvenience. It appears that these materials are dependent completely on the solubility of carbon in their solid‐solutions. Instabilities and destabilization mainly occur due to separation of various forms of carbides, which embrittles the matrix in the time domain. The presence of residual stress which is trapped inside the matrix, having originated from the previous deformation stresses of the wrought products, accelerates such precipitation. Thermal treatment, such as the subcritical stress relieving process, may also accelerate such an embrittlement process, although this exercise is meant for the relief of the matrix residual stresses only. Concludes that there is simultaneous precipitation of brittle phases and also deactivation of the matrix, owing to stress relieving. A surface becomes electrochemically more active when the precipitation component more than compensates the deactivation component and vice versa. Improvement of the matrix ductility also works against such deterioration processes. Suggests that imposition of the environmental constraints, such as aggressive and corrosive media, can only accelerate deterioration, by activating the brittle precipitation cycle.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Weena Lokuge, Nirdosha Gamage and Sujeeva Setunge

Deterioration of timber bridges can often be related to a number of deficiencies in the bridge elements, connectors and/or as a result of been in aggressive environments…

Abstract

Purpose

Deterioration of timber bridges can often be related to a number of deficiencies in the bridge elements, connectors and/or as a result of been in aggressive environments which they are exposed to. The maintenance cost of timber bridges is affected significantly by a number of deterioration mechanisms which require a systematic approach for diagnosis and treatment. Evaluating the risk of failure of these bridges is of importance in bridge performance assessment and decision making to optimize rehabilitation options. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identifies common causes for timber bridge deterioration and demonstrates an integrated approach based on fault tree analysis to obtain qualitative or quantitative estimation of the risk of failure of timber bridge sub-systems. Level 2 inspection report for a timber bridge in Queensland, Australia has been utilized as a case study in this research to identify the failure modes of the bridge.

Findings

A diagnostic tool for timber bridge deterioration will benefit asset inspectors, managers, and engineers to identify the type, size and the distress mechanisms in order to recognize the proper corrective measures either to prevent or to reduce further deterioration. Timber bridge maintenance is a major issue in Queensland, Australia. If a decision support tool can be developed, it will benefit road authorities and local councils.

Originality/value

Timber bridge maintenance is a major issue in Queensland, Australia. If a decision support tool can be developed as initiated in this research paper it will benefit road authorities and local councils.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Mostafa Odabaee, Michel De Paepe, Peter De Jaeger, Christophe T'Joen and Kamel Hooman

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between dust deposition effects on the thermohydraulic performance of a metal foam heat exchanger.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between dust deposition effects on the thermohydraulic performance of a metal foam heat exchanger.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses finite volume approximation to solve the two‐dimensional volume‐averaged form of governing equations through and around a metal foam‐covered tube bundle. Modified porosity, permeability, and form drag coefficient for a dusty foam layer are obtained through the application of a thermal resistance network model.

Findings

The paper provides novel data to predict the fouling effects on the performance of foam‐wrapped tube bundles as air‐cooled heat exchangers. It is observed that depending on the deposited layer thickness, the increased pressure drop and heat transfer deterioration can be very significant.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study fouling effects on thermohydraulic performance of a foam heat exchanger.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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