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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2012

Damon J. Phillips

Purpose – This study is intended to extend scholarship on the management of organizations by examining the long-term performance of orphaned products.

Abstract

Purpose – This study is intended to extend scholarship on the management of organizations by examining the long-term performance of orphaned products.

Design/methodology/approach – This study uses the historical context of the 1929 stock market crash and the Great Depression to examine the long-run appeal (performance) of orphaned products – products from start-ups that fail soon after production. I use this setting to determine how factors within the purview of management, as well as the role of changing tastes, affect the appeal of music from short-lived start-ups founded in 1929 and 1933.

Findings/originality/value – I find that while the evolution of tastes has a substantial effect beyond the control of a firm's managers, a start-up's decision-makers were able to positively influence the long-run appeal of music when they (a) recorded tunes with new artists and (b) were able to create an early big hit with the tune. These results demonstrate how and why, even with cultural producers in one of the greatest economic disasters in U.S. history, managerial decisions were meaningful for product performance. Finally, I show that the effect of being a start-up on the long-run appeal of a tune is time-varying such that being a start-up in 1929 or 1933 does not harm a tune's appeal until after World War II. These final analyses point to further ways in which strategy, history, and sociology might combine to further scholarship on the management of organizations.

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History and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-024-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Howard Johnson

The purpose of this monograph is to examine the main elements of the Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988 which received the Royal Assent on the 15th November 1988. The…

Abstract

The purpose of this monograph is to examine the main elements of the Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988 which received the Royal Assent on the 15th November 1988. The Act provided for a major overhaul of the law on copyright and on registered designs, as well as certain adjustments to patent and trademark law and two major new regimes on performers' rights and design rights. While this is a major domestic reform the law is unlikely to remain unaltered for long because of the move towards a single market within the E.E.C. by 1992. This will lead to the introduction of harmonised regimes on the various elements of intellectual property law such as copyright and industrial design which will no doubt require some readjustment to U.K. domestic law. Recently the E.E.C. Commission published a Green Paper on “Copyright and the Challenge of Technology” which suggests solutions to some questions such as the vexed problem of illegal home taping which are different to those adopted by the U.K. in the new Act. [On 21/12/88 a draft directive on Copyright & Computer Software which proposes a harmonised regime for the protection of computer programs and related matters was published]. It also has to be borne in mind that while Article 222 of the Treaty of Rome states that the treaty does not affect the existence of national intellectual property right regimes the “exercise” of these national rights may be found to infringe the provisions of the Treaty on free movement of goods (Arts. 30–36) or on competition law (Arts. 85–86).

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Managerial Law, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Robert Mertens, Markus Ketterl and Oliver Vornberger

Lecture recordings can be a powerful addition to traditional lectures and they can even serve as a main content source in a number of didactic scenarios. If users can…

Abstract

Lecture recordings can be a powerful addition to traditional lectures and they can even serve as a main content source in a number of didactic scenarios. If users can quickly locate relevant passages in a recording, the recording combines the ease of search that comes with electronic text based media with the authenticity and wealth of information that is delivered in a live lecture. Locating relevant passages in a time based media such as a recorded lecture is, however, not as easy as searching an electronic text document. This article presents the virtPresenter lecture recording system that tackles navigation in web lectures with a hypermedia navigation concept that is improved with interactive content overviews. Apart from navigation in web lectures the article also addresses didactic scenarios for web lectures and issues related to the workflow of recording lectures.

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Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2003

Timothy J Dowd

The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see…

Abstract

The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see Plattner, 1989; Reddy, 1984; Smelser & Swedberg, 1994). Despite this disciplinary and theoretical diversity, scholarship on markets tends toward either realist or constructionist accounts (Dobbin, 1994; Dowd & Dobbin, forthcoming).1 Realist accounts treat markets as extant arenas that mostly (or should) conform to a singular ideal-type. Realists thus take the existence of markets as given and examine factors that supposedly shape all markets in a similar fashion. When explaining market outcomes, they tout such factors as competition, demand, and technology; moreover, they can treat the impact of these factors as little influenced by context. Constructionist accounts treat markets as emergent arenas that result in a remarkable variety of types. They problematize the existence of markets and examine how contextual factors contribute to this variety. When explaining market outcomes, some show that social relations and/or cultural assumptions found in a particular setting can qualify the impact of competition (Uzzi, 1997), demand (Peiss, 1998), and technology (Fischer, 1992). Constructionists thus stress the contingent, rather than universal, processes that shape markets.

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Comparative Studies of Culture and Power
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-885-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1968

LOCAL history achieved academic respectability in 1947 with the establishment of the Department of Local History at the University of Leicester. No longer need the local…

Abstract

LOCAL history achieved academic respectability in 1947 with the establishment of the Department of Local History at the University of Leicester. No longer need the local historian feel ashamed of his craft or regard himself as a writer of footnotes to another's history.

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New Library World, vol. 69 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1975

A troublesome tool may represent capital investment standing idle and the toolroom itself, therefore, calls for efficient management if capital expenditure is to be…

Abstract

A troublesome tool may represent capital investment standing idle and the toolroom itself, therefore, calls for efficient management if capital expenditure is to be successfully deployed. Production engineers may cast around for means of saving costs but seldom pay attention to the toolroom. Is this because toolmakers are craftsmen and it is implied, therefore, they always work effectively when making tools or repairing old ones? This may be so, but there are many cases in the past, the present and, no doubt, in the future where tools costs are far too high relative to the product involved.

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Work Study, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1954

Films Aid Machine Design. A Scottish firm of laundry engineers has perfected a system of film records as the basis on which machine design can be considered, and reports…

Abstract

Films Aid Machine Design. A Scottish firm of laundry engineers has perfected a system of film records as the basis on which machine design can be considered, and reports that the policy has been fully justified by results. Film records are made of a competent operator using a machine in her own manner using her own technique; this record is analysed and used as the basis of criticism from which to start building an improved unit. Slow‐motion projection allows time and motion analysis over a period of weeks when potential alterations in the technique and layout are considered.

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Work Study, vol. 3 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2020

Jill Atkins and Warren Maroun

This paper explores the historical roots of accounting for biodiversity and extinction accounting by analysing the 18th-century Naturalist's Journals of Gilbert White and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the historical roots of accounting for biodiversity and extinction accounting by analysing the 18th-century Naturalist's Journals of Gilbert White and interpreting them as biodiversity accounts produced by an interested party. The authors aim to contribute to the accounting history literature by extending the form of accounting studied to include nature diaries as well as by exploring historical ecological accounts, as well as contributing to the burgeoning literature on accounting for biodiversity and extinction accounting.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ method involves analysing the content of Gilbert White's Naturalist's Journals by producing an 18th-century biodiversity account of species of flora and fauna and then interpretively drawing out themes from the Journals. The authors then provide a Whitean extinction account by comparing current species' status with White's biodiversity account from 250 years ago.

Findings

This paper uses Gilbert White's Naturalist's Journals as a basis for comparing biodiversity and natural capital 250 years ago with current species' status according to extinction threat and conservation status. Further the paper shows how early nature diary recording represents early (and probably the only) forms of accounting for biodiversity and extinction. The authors also highlight themes within White's accounts including social emancipation, problematisation, aesthetic elements and an example of an early audit of biodiversity accounting.

Research limitations/implications

There are limitations to analysing Gilbert White's Naturalist's Journals given that the only available source is an edited version. The authors therefore interpret their data as accounts which are indicative of biodiversity and species abundance rather than an exactly accurate account.

Practical implications

From the authors’ analysis and reflections, the authors suggest that contemporary biodiversity accounting needs to incorporate a combination of narrative, data accounting and pictorial/aesthetic representation if it is to provide a rich and accurate report of biodiversity and nature. The authors also suggest that extinction accounting should draw on historical data in order to demonstrate change in natural capital over time.

Social implications

Social implications include the understanding gleaned from the authors’ analysis of the role of Gilbert White as a nature diarist in society and the contribution made over time by his Journals and other writings to the development of nature accounting and recording, as well as to one’s understanding and knowledge of species of flora and fauna.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge this is the first attempt to analyse and interpret nature diaries as accounts of biodiversity and extinction.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Steven Kahl, Young-Kyu Kim and Damon J. Phillips

We explore how the long-run success of cultural products is affected by the identities of the product's originators and early adopters. Using U.S. jazz recordings from…

Abstract

We explore how the long-run success of cultural products is affected by the identities of the product's originators and early adopters. Using U.S. jazz recordings from 1920 to 1929, we found that songs were more likely to be later covered from 1944 to 2004 if they followed a pattern of having black originators and white early adopters. Moreover, we provide evidence that this pattern is independent of a song's commercial success, resources available to a song's originators, and group-level indicators such as size and experience. We conclude that late adopters (musicians after World War II (WWII)) were attracted to songs that followed a narrative of both “lowbrow” origins and early adoption by those considered “highbrow” with respect to jazz. The findings also support a new means for considering the role of identities as the building blocks of genres, in particular, and categories more generally.

Details

Categories in Markets: Origins and Evolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-594-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1961

THE MIDAS comprehensive routine flight data recording system has been developed from equipment used primarily for aircraft research and testing programmes. Almost every…

Abstract

THE MIDAS comprehensive routine flight data recording system has been developed from equipment used primarily for aircraft research and testing programmes. Almost every operating parameter in an aircraft in the course of normal operations is transduced into electrical form for the purpose of aircraft instrumentation, and due to the high input impedance of the MIDAS CMM 400 series recorders a parallel connexion to the transducer circuit is generally all that is necessary in the way of installation wiring. Suitable compact and easily installed commercial types of transducers are readily available to meet any special requirements. As these parameters already exist in electrical form it is a comparatively simple step to transfer them to magnetic tape. A frequency modulated type of coding system is used.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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