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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Søren Bøye Olsen, Jürgen Meyerhoff, Morten Raun Mørkbak and Ole Bonnichsen

Fatigue effects related to answering a sequence of choice tasks have received much scrutiny in the stated choice experiments (SCE) literature. However, decision fatigue…

Abstract

Purpose

Fatigue effects related to answering a sequence of choice tasks have received much scrutiny in the stated choice experiments (SCE) literature. However, decision fatigue related to the time of day when respondents answer questionnaires has been largely overlooked in this literature even though time of day related fatigue effects are well known in the psychology literature. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that variations in the time of day when respondents answer an online food choice experiment will translate into observable fatigue effects in the food choices.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical SCE concerning food choices is conducted using a web-based questionnaire for interviews in a pre-recruited online panel of consumers. Timestamps collected during the online interviews provide knowledge about the time of day at which each respondent has answered the survey. This information is linked with knowledge from a food sociology survey on typical meal times as well as biophysical research linking food intake to blood sugar and mental energy in order to generate a proxy variable for each respondent’s level of mental energy when answering the food choice tasks in the questionnaire.

Findings

Results show evidence of a time of day effect on error variance in the stated food choices as well as the subsequently estimated market share predictions. Specifically, respondents provide less consistent answers during the afternoon than at other times of the day.

Originality/value

The results indicate that time of day can affect responses to an online survey through increased fatigue and correspondingly less choice consistency. Thus, especially online surveys might account for this in data analysis or even restrict accessibility to the online survey for certain times of day.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2013

Julián Arellana, Juan de Dios Ortúzar and Luis Ignacio Rizzi

Purpose – Departure time choice not only depends on the desire to carry out activities at certain times and places; it is a complex decision making process influenced by…

Abstract

Purpose – Departure time choice not only depends on the desire to carry out activities at certain times and places; it is a complex decision making process influenced by travel conditions, congestion levels, activity schedules, and external trip factors. To estimate departure time choice models capturing the factors influencing it in appropriate form, a complex data collection procedure allowing to obtain detailed input data from different sources and at different time periods is required.

The main aim of this chapter is to describe and discuss the survey methodology we used in a time-of-day choice project, involving the collection of revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) data to estimate hybrid discrete departure time choice models incorporating latent variables. Preliminary model results are also presented as an example.

Methodology/approach – Data was obtained from 405 workers at different private and public institutions located in the centre of Santiago, Chile. The survey process had three different stages and used various collection methods (e-mail, web-page, and personal interviews at the workplace) in order to satisfy efficiency, reliability and cost criteria.

The RP component survey design was based on the last origin-destination survey implemented in Santiago (i.e. a travel diary filled under an activity recall framework). Relevant level-of-service measures at different time periods were obtained from GPS data measured from instrumented vehicles in the public and private transport networks. A SP-off-RP optimal design considering dependence among attribute levels was also developed. Finally, several 1–7 Likert scale questions were included to incorporate the latent variables.

FindingsThe survey methodology described in this chapter represents a successful experience in terms of collecting high quality data, from different sources, with the aim of estimating appropriate time-of-day choice models. The data collection process was carried out in different stages, by means of web pages, email, and personal interviews. The data was further enriched with level-of-service attributes measured at different times of the day with unusual precision. Preliminary results reported in this chapter show that data obtained through this methodology are appropriate to model time-of-day choices.

Originality/value of chapterThe novelty of the survey methodology described in this chapter is the collection of data of a different nature for time-of-day choice modelling through the integration of different collection techniques.

Acquisition of very precise information about preferred departure/arrival times, level of service at different times of the day, detailed information about flexibility in schedules, employment information and attitudes towards departure times, should allow practitioners to estimate hybrid time-of-day choice models incorporating latent variables.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-190288-2

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2004

Andrew S. Harvey

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-615-83253-8

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Clare Holdsworth

The study of family mobilities necessitates an examination of how practices are orchestrated in time as well as space. Conventional approaches to the study of family time

Abstract

The study of family mobilities necessitates an examination of how practices are orchestrated in time as well as space. Conventional approaches to the study of family time use either quantitative analysis of time-use data or qualitative studies of time pressure and work/life balance. The limitation with these approaches is that they assume a rather static family structure that is dominated by parents with young children. Moreover, these studies do not capture the dualistic quality of time; that time constitutes and is a constituent of family life. In this chapter, I use one-day diaries on organising and experiencing time, collated as part of the UK Mass Observation Project in Autumn 2017, to interrogate the relationality of family time. The analysis examines how family practices maybe sequential, synchronous, planned or serendipitous and how these different temporalities permeate the busyness of time pressure. These one-day accounts confirm how time is experienced through and by family and intimate relationships.

Details

Families in Motion: Ebbing and Flowing through Space and Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-416-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Marc Gürtler and Thomas Paulsen

Study conditions of empirical publications on time series modeling and forecasting of electricity prices vary widely, making it difficult to generalize results. The key…

Abstract

Purpose

Study conditions of empirical publications on time series modeling and forecasting of electricity prices vary widely, making it difficult to generalize results. The key purpose of the present study is to offer a comparison of different model types and modeling conditions regarding their forecasting performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze the forecasting performance of AR (autoregressive), MA (moving average), ARMA (autoregressive moving average) and GARCH (generalized autoregressive moving average) models with and without the explanatory variables, that is, power consumption and power generation from wind and solar. Additionally, the authors vary the detailed model specifications (choice of lag-terms) and transformations (using differenced time series or log-prices) of data and, thereby, obtain individual results from various perspectives. All analyses are conducted on rolling calibrating and testing time horizons between 2010 and 2014 on the German/Austrian electricity spot market.

Findings

The main result is that the best forecasts are generated by ARMAX models after spike preprocessing and differencing the data.

Originality/value

The present study extends the existing literature on electricity price forecasting by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the forecasting performance of different time series models under varying market conditions. The results of this study, in general, support the decision-making of electricity spot price modelers or forecasting tools regarding the choice of data transformation, segmentation and the specific model selection.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Robert East, Wendy Lomax, Gill Willson and Patricia Harris

Reports on the results from a consumer survey of shopping trips tosupermarkets in England and Wales. Most people exhibit habits about whenthey do their main trip to the

Abstract

Reports on the results from a consumer survey of shopping trips to supermarkets in England and Wales. Most people exhibit habits about when they do their main trip to the supermarket: 61 per cent have a usual day and 67 per cent a usual time of day. Most shoppers state that they could shop at other times but give reasons for their actual times that reflect situational pressures such as the pattern of work and nearness to the weekend. Many people state that they deliberately avoid busy shopping times and the survey showed that a small number of these people do so. However, there was no significant tendency for those who dislike checkout delay to shop at quieter times than for those who are tolerant of this delay. Store operators cannot change the main situational factors that control the time of use of stores and this limits their ability to influence when people shop. Nevertheless, the survey indicated that some increase in the use of off‐peak times could be achieved by permanent in‐store changes and better promotion of the off‐peak times.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Scott G. Dacko

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize, organize, and discuss multidisciplinary research influential to a service firm's use of a cyclical time‐based marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize, organize, and discuss multidisciplinary research influential to a service firm's use of a cyclical time‐based marketing approach that may be aptly termed timeofday services marketing, to introduce a general process and framework to assist in the evaluation of its strategic use, and to present areas in need of future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Objectives are achieved via conceptual analysis and a synthesis and organization of the relevant multidisciplinary literature.

Findings

The paper finds that the principal benefits to service firms of adopting a timeofday services approach in varying degrees are that it is able to assist the firm in offering multiple, unique value‐propositions, providing superior contextual value to the customer, enhancing customer perceptions of value in relation to their needs, and supporting the firm's pursuit of a sustainable competitive advantage in its services.

Practical implications

Timeofday services marketing is a viable approach for some firms but is not a strategy to be pursued by all firms. Service industry executives and managers should carefully weigh its adoption in terms of an overarching framework to identify the best services strategy for their marketing and business objectives.

Originality/value

Timeofday services marketing has received little strategic attention in the services marketing literature. Furthermore, there is no good, published source of guidance to help service industry executives and managers make decisions about the extent that such an approach may present opportunities for value creation and competitive advantage. This paper addresses these voids by providing and discussing a comprehensive set of multi‐disciplinary factors, process, and framework that facilitate its evaluation for strategic adoption. Theoretically, the research contributes to the body of services marketing knowledge by altering the services marketing view of theday” to be one that can be increasingly examined as less‐constant in terms of many service‐relevant individual and social behaviors, more systematically varying, and increasingly explainable on biological/physiological, sociological and/or psychological bases which are ultimately highly relevant to services marketers

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Aaro Hazak, Raul Ruubel and Marko Virkebau

This paper aims to identify which types of creative R&D employees prefer which daily and weekly working schedules.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify which types of creative R&D employees prefer which daily and weekly working schedules.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds on an original repeated survey of creative R&D employees from Estonia and presents multinomial logit regression estimates based on a sample of 153 individuals from 11 entities.

Findings

The probability of women preferring their weekly work to be concentrated in three to four days is 20 percentage points higher than in men, and the case is similar for less-educated creative R&D employees. The more educated prefer the standard five-day working week. Men have a stronger preference for their week of work to be dispersed over six to seven days. Sleep patterns appear to relate to working time preferences as morning-type individuals have a stronger preference for a working day with fixed start and end times. Those who sleep 7 h or more per day prefer the standard five-day working week more, while employees who sleep less than 7 h favour a working week of six to seven days. Employees who desire more creativity intensity at work have a stronger preference for irregular daily working hours, as do those with poorer general health.

Originality/value

The results indicate that individual characteristics have a significant impact on the preferences for working time arrangements. Similar working time regulations for all employees appear outdated, therefore, and may make work inefficient and harm individual well-being, at least for creative R&D employees.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2004

Michel S. Laguerre

For the Muslim faithful, the Islamic week indirectly derives from an act of “divine revelation” for the Prophet Muhammad that directs them to use Friday as a…

Abstract

For the Muslim faithful, the Islamic week indirectly derives from an act of “divine revelation” for the Prophet Muhammad that directs them to use Friday as a congregational day of prayer.7 The Koran is strict about this prescription and presents it as an obligation to the faithful. Verses 9 to 11 from chapter 62 provide the social context and religious meaning of the peak day of the Islamic week.8 9. O you who believe, when the call is sounded for prayer on Friday, hasten to the remembrance of Allah and leave off traffic. That is better for you, if you know. 10. But when the prayer is ended, disperse abroad in the land and seek of Allah’s grace, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful. 11. And when they see merchandise or sport, they break away to it, and leave thee standing. Say: what is Allah is better than sport and merchandise. And Allah is the Best of Providers.The exegesis of verses 9 and 11 reveals or implies that the day of congregation is a work day and that Muslims, upon hearing the call for prayer, must leave all their earthly activities – commerce, sport, or any other – and attend the gathering (Juma’a) at the mosque. So work is permitted before the congregational prayer. Verse 10 also indicates that after prayer, one may return to work, confident that entrepreneurial activities may be successful because of the grace of Allah. Friday thus is parceled out in three distinct moments according to the Koran: the half-day’s work in the morning, the prayer time around noon, and the later half-day’s work in the afternoon. It is the only day of the week that is thus fractured.

Details

Race and Ethnicity in New York City
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-149-1

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2003

David Levinson and Lei Zhang

Ramp meters in the Twin Cities were turned off for 8 weeks in the Fall of 2000. This paper analyzes traffic data collected in this experiment on travel time variability…

Abstract

Ramp meters in the Twin Cities were turned off for 8 weeks in the Fall of 2000. This paper analyzes traffic data collected in this experiment on travel time variability with and without ramp metering for several representative freeways during the afternoon peak period. Travel time variability is generally reduced with metering. However, it is found that ramp meters are particularly helpful for long trips relative to short trips. The annual benefits from reducing travel time variability with meters are estimated to be $33.1 million, compared to the annual ramp metering costs of $2.6 million in the Twin Cities metro area. Thus, the impact on travel time variability should be captured in future ramp metering benefit/cost analysis.

Details

The Network Reliability of Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044109-2

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