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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

A FEW MONTHS ago we were listening to a management consultant who had arrived here from the USA, though he was originally an Israeli. We did not agree with all the things…

Abstract

A FEW MONTHS ago we were listening to a management consultant who had arrived here from the USA, though he was originally an Israeli. We did not agree with all the things he said. One of his audience, in fact, asked a question based on one of his statements that he seemed to have difficulty in answering. Certainly it did not seem to satisfy his questioner.

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Work Study, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Abstract

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Travel Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044662-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

R.D. Hodgkinson

This paper focuses on how individuals and organisations can improve their performance by more effective time management. An approach is developed for examining employee's…

Abstract

This paper focuses on how individuals and organisations can improve their performance by more effective time management. An approach is developed for examining employee's time performance and potential benefits for both individual and organisation are identified. A distinction is drawn between time mismanaged by the individual and that wasted due to inefficiencies in the structure of the organisation. Drawing case study material from an examination of the staff of the maintenance management division of a major commercial organisation, an approach is described which can be adopted in any enterprise. As organisations are in a state of constant change, there is an increasing need to engender greater effectiveness in employees. It therefore becomes vital to instil in individuals, no matter what their level in the organisation, a more disciplined approach to their use of time during the working day. In which case it is necessary to take a close look at the way the organisation, and each section of it, is functioning with respect to the way it makes demand on employee's time. If a strategy can be developed for both individual and organisation, major benefits can result, yielding greater effectiveness in time usage. An improvement in time management can provide the individual with free time to concentrate on important things and allow him to do those things he most enjoys doing. Insufficient time to prepare and to plan ahead often means tasks are rushed and, as a result, stress in the individual increases. Alternatively, those who are better organisers of their time, may find themselves more relaxed and capable of achieving their targets. Employees often find that a significant proportion of their day is spent losing time in futile meetings, handling unnecessary telephone calls, and in unproductive travelling time. Furthermore, time may be wasted dealing with trivial details and issues which subordinates or less highly trained staff should be doing, or coping with constant interruptions because the section/group in which they are working is not adequately structured for time efficiency. Staff often spend a significant proportion of their day attempting to cope with some of these distractions, which may be due in part either to organisational inadequacies, or to their own personal failure to manage time and contact patterns effectively. The incidence of these distractions will vary from company to company, but can be overcome if the right approach is adopted. A survey of the literature on the subject reveals relatively few studies which can provide guidance. Of these, some have concentrated on how managers/staff occupy their working day and only a handful have addressed the issue of time management for the employee. One exception is a study carried out by IBM in 1979 on how its managers spent their time. Among the findings was that over 50 per cent of an employee's working day is occupied by no more than five activities, namely writing, meetings, telephone calls, travelling and filing. Each of these areas can be prodigious time wasters, and yet few organisations have availed themselves of the countless studies which show how improvements in performance can be achieved.

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Property Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Søren Bøye Olsen, Jürgen Meyerhoff, Morten Raun Mørkbak and Ole Bonnichsen

Fatigue effects related to answering a sequence of choice tasks have received much scrutiny in the stated choice experiments (SCE) literature. However, decision fatigue…

Abstract

Purpose

Fatigue effects related to answering a sequence of choice tasks have received much scrutiny in the stated choice experiments (SCE) literature. However, decision fatigue related to the time of day when respondents answer questionnaires has been largely overlooked in this literature even though time of day related fatigue effects are well known in the psychology literature. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that variations in the time of day when respondents answer an online food choice experiment will translate into observable fatigue effects in the food choices.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical SCE concerning food choices is conducted using a web-based questionnaire for interviews in a pre-recruited online panel of consumers. Timestamps collected during the online interviews provide knowledge about the time of day at which each respondent has answered the survey. This information is linked with knowledge from a food sociology survey on typical meal times as well as biophysical research linking food intake to blood sugar and mental energy in order to generate a proxy variable for each respondent’s level of mental energy when answering the food choice tasks in the questionnaire.

Findings

Results show evidence of a time of day effect on error variance in the stated food choices as well as the subsequently estimated market share predictions. Specifically, respondents provide less consistent answers during the afternoon than at other times of the day.

Originality/value

The results indicate that time of day can affect responses to an online survey through increased fatigue and correspondingly less choice consistency. Thus, especially online surveys might account for this in data analysis or even restrict accessibility to the online survey for certain times of day.

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British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous…

Abstract

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous updating basis rather than as a monthly routine affair.

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Managerial Law, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of

Abstract

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of that contract. When such a repudiation has been accepted by the innocent party then a termination of employment takes place. Such termination does not constitute dismissal (see London v. James Laidlaw & Sons Ltd (1974) IRLR 136 and Gannon v. J. C. Firth (1976) IRLR 415 EAT).

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Managerial Law, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Clare Holdsworth

The study of family mobilities necessitates an examination of how practices are orchestrated in time as well as space. Conventional approaches to the study of family time

Abstract

The study of family mobilities necessitates an examination of how practices are orchestrated in time as well as space. Conventional approaches to the study of family time use either quantitative analysis of time-use data or qualitative studies of time pressure and work/life balance. The limitation with these approaches is that they assume a rather static family structure that is dominated by parents with young children. Moreover, these studies do not capture the dualistic quality of time; that time constitutes and is a constituent of family life. In this chapter, I use one-day diaries on organising and experiencing time, collated as part of the UK Mass Observation Project in Autumn 2017, to interrogate the relationality of family time. The analysis examines how family practices maybe sequential, synchronous, planned or serendipitous and how these different temporalities permeate the busyness of time pressure. These one-day accounts confirm how time is experienced through and by family and intimate relationships.

Details

Families in Motion: Ebbing and Flowing through Space and Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-416-3

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Scott G. Dacko

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize, organize, and discuss multidisciplinary research influential to a service firm's use of a cyclical time‐based marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize, organize, and discuss multidisciplinary research influential to a service firm's use of a cyclical time‐based marketing approach that may be aptly termed timeofday services marketing, to introduce a general process and framework to assist in the evaluation of its strategic use, and to present areas in need of future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Objectives are achieved via conceptual analysis and a synthesis and organization of the relevant multidisciplinary literature.

Findings

The paper finds that the principal benefits to service firms of adopting a timeofday services approach in varying degrees are that it is able to assist the firm in offering multiple, unique value‐propositions, providing superior contextual value to the customer, enhancing customer perceptions of value in relation to their needs, and supporting the firm's pursuit of a sustainable competitive advantage in its services.

Practical implications

Timeofday services marketing is a viable approach for some firms but is not a strategy to be pursued by all firms. Service industry executives and managers should carefully weigh its adoption in terms of an overarching framework to identify the best services strategy for their marketing and business objectives.

Originality/value

Timeofday services marketing has received little strategic attention in the services marketing literature. Furthermore, there is no good, published source of guidance to help service industry executives and managers make decisions about the extent that such an approach may present opportunities for value creation and competitive advantage. This paper addresses these voids by providing and discussing a comprehensive set of multi‐disciplinary factors, process, and framework that facilitate its evaluation for strategic adoption. Theoretically, the research contributes to the body of services marketing knowledge by altering the services marketing view of the “day” to be one that can be increasingly examined as less‐constant in terms of many service‐relevant individual and social behaviors, more systematically varying, and increasingly explainable on biological/physiological, sociological and/or psychological bases which are ultimately highly relevant to services marketers

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Surendra M. Gupta, Yousef A.Y. Al‐Turki and Ronald F. Perry

Just‐in‐time (JIT) systems were originally designed for deterministic production environments such as constant processing times and smooth and stable demand. However, once…

Abstract

Just‐in‐time (JIT) systems were originally designed for deterministic production environments such as constant processing times and smooth and stable demand. However, once implemented, JIT is fraught with numerous types of uncertainties, including variations in processing time and demand, planned interruptions such as preventive maintenance and unplanned interruptions such as equipment failure. These uncertainties lead to lowered production throughput, decreased machine utilization, increased order completion time and greater backlogs and overtime requirements. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed system, which we refer to as the flexible kanban system (FKS), to cope with uncertainties and planned/unplanned interruptions. We demonstrate the superiority of the new system by considering four case examples covering various uncertainties, conducting numerous studies and comparing the overall performances of the FKS with that of the traditional JIT system. In all the cases considered, the performance of the FKS was, indeed, superior to that of the traditional JIT system.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 19 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Ajibade A. Aibinu, Simon Carter, Valerie Francis and Paulo Vaz-Serra

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of request for information (RFIs) on construction projects by using data analytics to understand the frequency of RFIs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of request for information (RFIs) on construction projects by using data analytics to understand the frequency of RFIs, when they occur on projects, and the relationship between project characteristics and frequency of RFIs and between project characteristics and RFI turnaround time.

Design/methodology/approach

A data-analytic approach using RStudio and Minitab software on 168 construction project cases in Australia and New Zealand involving 1,032,949 correspondences and 53,042 RFI event records made available by Aconex, one of the world largest cloud-based project management platform.

Findings

Large and complex projects tend to have significantly larger number of RFI events per day and longer RFI turnaround when compared with smaller and less complex projects. Projects with fewer users per organisation recorded a higher RFI turnaround time when compared with projects with more users per organisation – users mean persons involved in managing the project using the online platform (an index of project complexity). RFIs occur early on less complex projects and occur later on more complex projects.

Research limitations/implications

Benchmarks of RFI incidences and turnaround time have been developed for various project characteristics and, practitioners can use them to monitor the RFI performance of projects. Organisations need to pay greater attention to staffing levels needed to handle RFIs to reduce RFI turnaround time.

Originality/value

A data-analytic study of RFI yielded insights for managing RFIs. The findings of previous studies on RFIs are difficult to generalise because they are based on single project case study. The influence of project characteristics on RFI frequency and RFI turnaround time is not yet known.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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