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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Tim Mazzarol, Geoffrey Soutar and Elena Mamouni Limnios

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a large-scale survey of members of co-operative and mutual enterprises (CMEs) that examines the factors influencing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a large-scale survey of members of co-operative and mutual enterprises (CMEs) that examines the factors influencing members’ intentions to remain loyal to the enterprise and to provide word of mouth (WOM).

Design/methodology/approach

A model was suggested and tested to examine the interrelationships between constructs measuring emotional, functional and financial value, affective and continuance commitment, intention to remain loyal to a CME and WOM communication. A large sample was drawn from a range of co-operative and mutual enterprises, and the suggested model was estimated using a partial least squares approach.

Findings

Significant relationships were found between all constructs. However, emotional value and affective commitment were found to have particularly strong relationships. Emotional value had a strong influence on both affective and continuance commitment, while affective commitment had a strong influence on loyalty and WOM.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical support for suggestions about the factors that influence member loyalty within CMEs and the relative importance of non-financial motivations. It also provides a strong foundation upon which directors and executive managers of CMEs can build more effective member marketing and communications strategies.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Tim Mazzarol and Geoffrey N. Soutar

The purpose of this paper is to review the changes in the international education sector that have taken place over the decade since the authors' book, The Global Market

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the changes in the international education sector that have taken place over the decade since the authors' book, The Global Market for Higher Education was published in 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an expert opinion that draws on global trends in the international education sector.

Findings

Since the publication of the authors' book, the global market for higher education has changed significantly. A decade ago competition was between a few mainly English language instruction countries in the developed world. The principal destination country was the United States followed by Britain, but with Australia, Canada and New Zealand actively competing. In 2012, competition has expanded, with former sending nations (e.g. Singapore, China, India) becoming destinations. Competition among established nations has also intensified.

Originality/value

This paper provides a strategic overview of the state of international education and a unique perspective on the trends that have shaped and will continue to shape this industry into the future.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Tim Mazzarol and Geoffrey N. Soutar

Examines the factors motivating international student choice of the host country. It describes a “push‐pull” model motivating the student’s desire to seek overseas…

Abstract

Examines the factors motivating international student choice of the host country. It describes a “push‐pull” model motivating the student’s desire to seek overseas education and influencing the decision process in selection of a final study destination. Drawing on the findings from research studies undertaken in Indonesia, Taiwan, China and India, the paper examines the factors influencing host country selection and additional research that examines the factors influencing choice of final host institution. Based on these findings the paper argues that economic and social forces within the home country serve to “push” students abroad. However, the decision as to which host country they will select is dependent on a variety of “pull” factors. After drawing together the findings, the paper then examines the implications for governments and education institutions seeking to recruit international students.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Jillian C. Sweeney, Geoffrey N. Soutar and Tim Mazzarol

Word‐of‐mouth (WOM) marketing has become a key focus for many organisations. However, little research has sought to identify the dimensionality of WOM. The present…

Abstract

Purpose

Word‐of‐mouth (WOM) marketing has become a key focus for many organisations. However, little research has sought to identify the dimensionality of WOM. The present research project aims to describe the development of a 12‐item measure that can be used to assess WOM at an individual message level for positive and negative WOM and among givers and receivers of WOM.

Design/methodology/approach

The research includes four studies, a qualitative focus group phase and quantitative phases involving surveys of over 2,000 consumers representing givers and receivers of positive and negative WOM.

Findings

Three distinct dimensions emerged. Two (cognitive content and richness of content) reflect the composition of the message, while the third, termed strength of delivery, reflects the manner of delivery. The scale has strong psychometric properties and was found to be generalisable in the four contexts – sending positive/negative messages and receiving positive/negative messages.

Research limitations/implications

The authors addressed consumers' WOM messages solely in a one‐to one‐context. The results cannot automatically be extended to a variety of other media, which requires future research. Further, the authors did not test the measure in a goods context.

Practical implications

The scale has a variety of potential applications and can serve as a framework for further empirical research in this important area.

Originality/value

While much previous research on WOM relates to the sending of positive WOM, this scale has applicability across four WOM contexts, positive and negative giving and positive and negative receiving.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Tim Mazzarol, Geoffrey Norman Soutar and Michael Sim Yaw Seng

Describes how the second half of the twentieth century saw the development of a global market in international education. Following the Second World War, the flow of…

Abstract

Describes how the second half of the twentieth century saw the development of a global market in international education. Following the Second World War, the flow of international students undertaking courses at all levels grew rapidly as developing countries sought to educate their populations. By the century’s end, there were an estimated 1.5 million students studying internationally at the HE level. Driving this market expansion was a combination of forces that both pushed the students from their countries of origin and simultaneously pulled them toward certain host nations. By the 1990s, the HE systems of many host nations (e.g. Australia, Canada, the USA, the UK and New Zealand) had become more market focused and institutions were adopting professional marketing strategies to recruit students into fee‐paying programs. For many education institutions such fees had become a critical source of financing. Suggests that the international education industry, HE administrators and managers and academic staff face very significant challenges in the next few years.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Thuy Hang Do, Tim Mazzarol, Thierry Volery and Sophie Reboud

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the expectations that small business entrepreneurs hold in relation to the future returns from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the expectations that small business entrepreneurs hold in relation to the future returns from the commercialisation of innovations, and key organisational elements including inputs, knowledge, culture, strategy, portfolio, project management and commercialisation. More specifically, this research aims to deepen the knowledge of how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manage their innovation and identify critical factors determining the potential innovation outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on a large sample of innovative SMEs from multiple Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered face-to-face with owners-managers or executives of SMEs who made critical decisions for the innovation management of the firm. First, a factor analysis is conducted to identify the most appropriate measures for each variable. Second, the authors test for multicollinearity among independent variables. The final step integrates results from the general linear model analysis that measures the relationship between organisational factors and the anticipated returns.

Findings

Findings suggest that positive expectations over future investment in innovation – as measured by the anticipated rent – are influenced by organisational factors, including innovation strategy, portfolio management, project management, and organisational culture and commercialisation process. Conversely, the resource endowment is not perceived as a barrier to innovation and to the development of a competitive advantage. In addition, industrial knowledge management has an indirect effect on the anticipated returns.

Originality/value

Despite extensive research in innovation management, the role of organisational factors on anticipated returns in SMEs has not been investigated to date. The study provides researchers with new insights into the resource-based view and the theory of entrepreneurial rent from the perspective of innovation management. The findings offer guidance to managers as to potential success factors in enhancing the rent, but also reflect entrepreneurial optimism in the management of innovation.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Tim Mazzarol and Peter Hosie

Examines the current situation facing Australian higher education institutions engaged in the export of their services. Considers current trends in the world market for…

Abstract

Examines the current situation facing Australian higher education institutions engaged in the export of their services. Considers current trends in the world market for international education services, as well as current and future developments in the Australian higher education system. Recent research evidence suggests that the international market for education is reaching maturity. Contends that Australia’s international education sector, especially in the area of higher education, requires greater differentiation and more careful marketing in order to deal with this trend. Outlines some suggestions as to appropriate future strategies for the Australian international education sector.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Tim Mazzarol, Sophie Reboud and Geoffrey N. Soutar

The paper aims to examine the management practices of owner‐managers of small businesses seeking to grow their firms. It seeks to better understand their strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the management practices of owner‐managers of small businesses seeking to grow their firms. It seeks to better understand their strategic thinking in relation to internal and external environmental issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 204 owner‐managers who had indicated their desire for growth was surveyed using a questionnaire developed from earlier research that examined their strategic and operational behaviour. Follow‐up discussions over their results were conducted face‐to‐face. Data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis.

Findings

Firms that possessed formal written business plans were found to be more likely to have stronger support network partnerships, formal quality assurance and the ability to lead change among employees. A relationship was found between an above average level of annual sales turnover and the personal vision of the owner‐managers.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample was atypical, in that it was comprised of owner‐managers who had a growth orientation, the study suggests that owner‐managers who have a strong growth orientation are likely to have an enhanced sense of their strategic vision, and the ability to communicate this vision to their employees.

Practical implications

The findings in this paper suggest that owner‐managers from small firms should seek to benchmark their business against industry best practice, but that such benchmarking must be supported by a clear strategic vision and the capacity to communicate this vision to others, particularly employees.

Originality/value

The literature relating to strategic thinking and behaviour within small firms remains underdeveloped, and this paper provides valuable insights into this area.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Jill Sweeney, Geoff Soutar and Tim Mazzarol

This study aims to examine the effects interpersonal, service product and message factors has on positive and negative word of mouth's (WOM) influence. The study also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects interpersonal, service product and message factors has on positive and negative word of mouth's (WOM) influence. The study also sought to address the impact WOM had on changes in people's willingness to use a service provider.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 495 consumers who had received positive WOM and 505 who had received negative WOM in the prior 12 months completed an online survey. The sample was recruited through a national online consumer panel provider.

Findings

Positive WOM was more effective and positive WOM messages had a greater effect on people's willingness to use a service than did negative WOM. Paradoxically, the strength of WOM and interpersonal factors had more impact on the influence of negative WOM, while brand equity enhanced positive WOM and acted as a buffer to negative WOM.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a services context and may not necessarily be generalizable to product contexts. Further, the factors enhancing WOM in online contexts need to be examined, although the present model's constructs (e.g. homophily) are not equivalent in this context.

Practical implications

Different circumstances may enhance or detract from the influence of positive and negative WOM. Managers should maximise the verbal strength of positive WOM messages and generate positive brand equity perceptions, as this offers a buffer to negative WOM. Recommendations also include addressing customer education and socialisation to enhance WOM message influence.

Originality/value

The study extended prior WOM research by addressing interpersonal, service product and message factors, as well as the change in intended behaviour for positive and negative WOM.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Jillian C. Sweeney, Geoffrey N. Soutar and Tim Mazzarol

Word of mouth (WOM) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important form of promotion, particularly within professional services environments, where credence qualities…

Abstract

Purpose

Word of mouth (WOM) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important form of promotion, particularly within professional services environments, where credence qualities play a critical role in consumers' choices. The present paper seeks to explore the factors that are likely to enhance the chances that receivers of positive word of mouth might be influenced by such information.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines findings from six focus group discussions and 103 critical incident forms.

Findings

The findings suggest that the potential for WOM to impact on perceptions or on actions depends on the nature of the sender‐receiver relationship, the richness and strength of the message and its delivery, and various personal and situational factors.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are tentative and based on a relatively small sample; however, they provide a useful framework for future research into the process of WOM.

Practical implications

The importance of WOM in marketing, particularly professional services marketing, is widely accepted; however, little is known about how to enhance its occurrence. The paper provides marketing managers with a better understanding of the factors likely to influence receivers of WOM.

Originality/value

Most WOM research focuses on the sender of WOM. In contrast this paper provides insights on the impact of WOM on the receiver, something that is currently a “black box” in the marketing literature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of 34