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This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/eb008720. When citing the article, please cite: Tim Knowles, David Egan, (2001), “The Changing Structure of UK Brewing and Pub Retailing”, International Journal of Wine Marketing, Vol. 13 Iss: 2, pp. 59 - 72.
This article charts the major structural changes that have occurred in both UK brewing and pub retailing during the period 1989–2000. A key theme has been the rapid…
This article charts the major structural changes that have occurred in both UK brewing and pub retailing during the period 1989–2000. A key theme has been the rapid consolidation of the brewing sector in an attempt to achieve economies of scale in production, distribution and marketing. The dominance of the national brewers has allowed them to place increased product emphasis on marketing and me power of brands — particularly lager, me national breweries control all me major lager brands. In tandem with these brewers, me growth and dominance of me national pub chains has garnered apace over the past ten years and in order to maximise profit margins they have established supply arrangements with me national brewers; it has been in the interests of these chains to limit choice thereby maximising the discounts received from their suppliers. The article therefore shows that regional and local brewers cannot compete on price. Competition between pubs is also highlighted. Because beer prices are relatively inelastic, emphasis is placed on the level of amenities provided in pubs, and in particular the branding of pub outlets. Key among these amenities is the provision of food, which now accounts for a substantial percentage of total pub sales.
The central message coming out of this paper is that the realisation of food safety legislation within the context of the European internal market, whilst laudable, has…
The central message coming out of this paper is that the realisation of food safety legislation within the context of the European internal market, whilst laudable, has encountered, and will continue to meet with difficulties in its effective implementation. In considering specifically food safety within the European hotel industry, there has been a move away from prescription to generalised principles contained within the relevant legislation. Yet, with such flexibility, differences have emerged in interpretation, all at the expense of the single market, free of trade barriers. The size of the EU inevitably means that more emphasis regarding food safety procedures will be placed on shifting responsibility to hotel proprietors and also on appropriate monitoring by authorities. However, because of the nature and structure of the European hotel industry, in terms of chain and independent hotels, and its transient workforce, the evidence suggests that a substantial minority are still not ready to assume those responsibilities.
This paper charts the history and development of Chilean wines. The incredible growth of Chile's wine output is a textbook example of how aggressive private enterprise can…
This paper charts the history and development of Chilean wines. The incredible growth of Chile's wine output is a textbook example of how aggressive private enterprise can combine with enthusiastic government backing. In 1988, Chile shipped 185,630 hectolitres abroad. By 1998, this had grown to an impressive 2.3 million hl worth US$500 million. Equally, instead of sending 88% of its wine to Latin America, as it had in the 1980s, in 2001 it sold in high‐profit markets like Europe (41% of all exports), North America (34%) and, increasingly, Asia, where in 1998 Chile sold 14% of its wine. The only country spared from the devastating blight of phylloxera, Chile's wine industry boomed in the early years of the 20th century. In 1981, there were 100,000 hectares (one ha = 2.47 acres) under vines, which sank to 67,000 in 1985, the nadir of the industry. Then, a new sense of identity and purpose swept Chile's winemakers and investors. Suddenly, the wine revolution which had earlier had its impact on California and Australia caught on in Chile. There were gigantic investments in land, plantings and equipment. Old‐fashioned vines were uprooted. In the late 1990s, Cabernet Sauvignon doubled from 11,000 to 20,000 hectares. Merlot vineyard acreage quadrupled between 1994 and 1999, similar growth was seen with Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc. Winemakers were also experimenting with Pinot Noir and with Shiraz, which loves the dry, hot Chilean autumn. Chile today has 75,600 hectares under vine about two‐thirds of them red grapes. That prime fruit is being pressed by the latest equipment from Europe, Australia and North America.
Whilst the traditional English public house still represents the largest part of the market, its share is falling with the introduction of themed branded establishments…
Whilst the traditional English public house still represents the largest part of the market, its share is falling with the introduction of themed branded establishments. The UK's pub retailers have over the past five years reacted to a developing society whereby attitudes towards leisure time, drinking, eating out, health and entertainment have changed. Through diversification, they have moved away from the traditional British public house towards branded outlets that are able to appeal to diverse consumer demands. The reasons for this diversification will be explored along with the brewers' response. Within this process of diversification is the matter of promotion and branding. The emphasis seems to be slowly moving away from the beer product of a particular brewer to a focus on the service providers' corporate image, name and reputation. In cases such as Whitbread and Bass, companies are introducing a hierarchy of brands that revolve around five issues: physical evidence, service delivery, process, people and quality. It is the customer's perception of these five attributes that will determine establishments' success. This paper critically analyses the reasons for success of pub branding with a link made between the nature of the “product” and customers' perception.
The British pub is part of the face of Britain presented to the world and the theme running through this article is to set British pubs within the context of heritage…
The British pub is part of the face of Britain presented to the world and the theme running through this article is to set British pubs within the context of heritage tourism. The thesis contained within this article is to focus on one of the elements of community life, the pub, in order to examine its characteristics and value within the wider spectrum of visitor attractions set within the context of the tourism industry. The article reviews the literature in ascertaining whether the British pub is a tourist attraction for overseas visitors, and why. Whilst the pub has an important role in domestic tourism, the main emphasis of this article is on the national factors that predetermine its survival and the nature of its appeal to visitors from abroad.
The literature on the history of the pub presents an invaluable background to any study of the industry, the very special place it fills in our society, and the wider…
The literature on the history of the pub presents an invaluable background to any study of the industry, the very special place it fills in our society, and the wider context of its role in British tourism heritage. Most authors acknowledge that the pub is changing with the times, although a mere glance through such comment bears testatment to the way in which the pub's enduring qualities have survived by gradual evolution and adaptation. Of more topical interest, newspaper articles draw the public's attention to the latest developments and trends in the entertainment and leisure spectrum, and comment on their implications for the community and specifically the public house. For the most part, these are of a nationally introspective nature and the pub is not portrayed as a tourist attraction in its own right This article contrasts the views of three stakeholders within the retail pub industry, namely, the tourist, the landlord and the brewer. It charts their views on the evolution of the public house.
The licensed retail market in the UK operates in a dynamic environment, yet one aspect that appears to get little consideration is how spatial location may determine the…
The licensed retail market in the UK operates in a dynamic environment, yet one aspect that appears to get little consideration is how spatial location may determine the success of particular business or, influence the appropriate use of an existing licensed premises. This paper suggests that it is possible to develop a model of location that can help to explain the location of licensed premises. Additionally, it explores the type of criteria that should be explicitly considered when establishing a new development or the repackaging of an existing licensed unit. At the outset it should be emphasised that the authors are not trying to explain the location of all licensed premises but a model of intra‐urban location, rooted in economic theory, to try and explain the location of different types of licensed businesses within urban areas. The aim is to develop a model that will explain the observable spatial pattern of licensed premises within the major cities of the UK.
This paper explores nine wine zones of Chile based on the country's appellation of origin legislation. In pursuing this discussion, two key themes emerge: the influence of…
This paper explores nine wine zones of Chile based on the country's appellation of origin legislation. In pursuing this discussion, two key themes emerge: the influence of rainfall and temperature. It is these two themes that dictate the suitability of the various grape varieties used throughout the country. Equally, the geography of Chile, the influence of the Andes and the cooling currents of the Pacific also influence rainfall and temperature throughout the nine zones commented on in this paper. The zones that are commented on are based on latitude from north to south and are similar to the country's political and administrative regions. However, from the perspective of vine cultivation they do not reflect key technical considerations such as climate and soil in any real detail. This paper expands the comments on the zones in order to comment on a range of technical considerations, vital for effective vine cultivation.
This article presents a brief history on the role of the public house in society and its evolution through the years. The ‘traditional’ pub is discussed and questions are…
This article presents a brief history on the role of the public house in society and its evolution through the years. The ‘traditional’ pub is discussed and questions are raised as to the future of the traditional pub following the Beer Orders. This is supported by an analysis of the leisure trends impacting pubs and analysis of the catering and pub markets. Future implications are considered with suggestions for pub success.