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An important aspect of the impact of the economic crisis is how pay in the public sector responds – in the face not only of the evolution of pay in the private sector but…
An important aspect of the impact of the economic crisis is how pay in the public sector responds – in the face not only of the evolution of pay in the private sector but also extreme pressure on public spending (of which pay is a very large proportion) as fiscal deficits soar. What are the effects on the income distribution of cutting public sector pay rates or alternative strategies to reduce the public sector pay bill? This chapter investigates these issues using data and a tax–benefit simulation model for Ireland, a country which faces a particularly severe fiscal crisis and where innovative measures have already been implemented to claw back pay from public sector workers in the guise of a ‘pension levy’, followed by a significant cut in nominal pay rates. The SWITCH (Simulating Welfare and Income Tax Changes) tax–benefit model first allows the distributional effects of these measures, which achieved a substantial reduction in the net public sector pay bill, to be teased out. The overall impact on the income distribution is assessed. This provides empirical evidence relevant to policy choices in relation to a key aspect of household income over which governments have direct influence, while at the same time illustrating methodologically how a tax–benefit model can serve as the base for such investigation.
A method of systematically assessing the “first-round” impact of tax and transfer policy changes on the income distribution and the incidence of relative income poverty is…
A method of systematically assessing the “first-round” impact of tax and transfer policy changes on the income distribution and the incidence of relative income poverty is proposed. It involves the construction of a “distributionally neutral” policy, which can be approximated by a policy that indexes tax allowances, credits and bands and welfare payment rates in line with a broad measure of income growth. The impact of actual policy changes in five EU countries over the 1998–2001 period is then measured against this benchmark, using the EUROMOD tax-benefit model.
Focuses on the approach to interpreting earnings equality found in the writings of a variety of economists and in particular, technological change and its effects on the…
Focuses on the approach to interpreting earnings equality found in the writings of a variety of economists and in particular, technological change and its effects on the demand skill resulting in earning inequality. Argues that the evidence in favour of the technological effect is weak and presents some alternatives for further consideration.
This volume initiates a new collaboration between Research in Labor Economics (RLE) published by Elsevier Press and the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Beginning 2006, the RLE series extends to two volumes per year. One volume will remain in the tradition of the series, consisting of empirical and theoretical contributions in labor economics, while the other volume will focus on specific policy questions. IZA has become one of the largest organizations of labor scholars worldwide while RLE is now a well-established publication containing labor economics research. We hope this new association will be a meaningful development for both IZA fellows and RLE readers.
Macroeconomic shocks such as the recent global economic crisis can have far-reaching effects on the levels and the distribution of resources at the individual and the household levels. A recession associated with a labor market downturn and turbulent property and financial markets gives rise to significant and widespread losses for workers and households. Identifying the likely pattern of losses is, however, not straightforward. This is especially the case at the outset of a severe recession, when up-to-date information about current household circumstances is patchy, and economic conditions are subject to rapid change.
The understanding of the factors that influence the selection of accommodation by guests is an important issue for international accommodation providers. The purpose of…
The understanding of the factors that influence the selection of accommodation by guests is an important issue for international accommodation providers. The purpose of this research is to gain a greater understanding not only of the factors that influence the selection of motel accommodation by guests, but also of when and under which situations these factors become trigger points for decision making, focusing in particular on the influence that the length of stay has on the trigger points that impacted the selection process.
To undertake this research, five focus groups were conducted, involving participants who had previous experience in staying in motel accommodation either for business, on vacation or a combination of the two. Participants were selected and invited from a large variety of occupations and backgrounds.
Three levels of trigger points were identified for different lengths of stay. For overnight stays requirements were “minimalist”, convenience being the prime trigger point, and visitors felt they could tolerate most situations. For stays of two‐four nights there were certain requirements, “essentials”, that provided the necessary requirements for sleeping, eating and relaxation, while for stays longer than four nights, additional requirements that enhanced the stay, “enhancers”, were sought, raising the provision of the “essentials” to a higher level of sophistication and comfort.
This research, although conducted in New Zealand and in a specific part of a market, illustrates how complex the process of accommodation selection is by guests and in particular how the trigger points for selection change with the length of stay. It indicates how the physical facilities provided need to be tailored to the market in relation to the length of the visitor's stay.
Using a multi‐method approach, this paper presents both a qualitative and quantitative examination of workplace conflict, the emotional reactions to bullying and…
Using a multi‐method approach, this paper presents both a qualitative and quantitative examination of workplace conflict, the emotional reactions to bullying and counterproductive behaviors. Three studies were undertaken for the present research. Data for Study 1 emerged from semi‐structured interviews conducted with 50 group leaders and members from six workgroups in two large organizations. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using systematic interpretative techniques. Findings from Study 1 showed that conflict induced a variety of emotional and behavioral responses. Data from Study 2 were collected from 660 employees from 7 public sector organizations using a structured open‐ended survey. Results from Study 2 revealed that the majority of respondents perceived their managers as bullies. Study 3 surveyed 510 staff in 122 workgroups from five organizations. Regression analysis revealed that differing conflict events were associated with bullying, emotional reactions and counterproductive behaviors. In particular, prolonged conflict increased incidents of bullying. Higher levels of bullying were predictive of workplace counterproductive behaviors such as purposely wasting company material and supplies, purposely doing one's work incorrectly and purposely damaging a valuable piece of property belonging to the employer.
Town house hotels are a small but expanding segment of the UK hotel sector. Little has been published about them and the article sets out to provide a background and some characteristics of the sector. Indicates definitions together with some assessment of the size of the sector. Presents operational characteristics such as food and beverage services, security, design, staffing and pricing strategies. Considers marketing approaches, as well as the question of hotel classification and grading. Concludes that recent developments indicate a continued growth of a product which aims to differentiate itself from its competitors by personal service and good value.