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The purpose of this study is to define the interactions that determine how secure a society is from terrorism and to propose a method for measuring the threat of terrorism in an objective and spatio-temporally comparable manner.
Game-theoretic analysis of the determinants of security and discussion of how to implement these interactions into a measure of security.
We show that governments concerned with popularity have an incentive to over-invest in security and that, in certain situations, this leads to a deterioration in net security position. Our discussion provides an implementable means for measuring the levels of threat and protection, as well as individuals’ perceptions of both, which we propose can be combined into an objective and scientific measure of security.
The implication for researchers is the suggestion that efficiency, as well as scale of counter-terrorism, is important in determining a country’s overall security position. Furthermore, we suggest that individuals’ perceptions are at least as important in determining suitable counter-terrorism policy as objective measures of protection and threat. The limitations of this research are found in the vast data requirements that any attempt to measure security will need.
Originality/value of the chapter
We propose the first method for objectively measuring the net security position of a country, using economic and econometric means.
The purpose of this contribution is to review the theoretical and empirical literature on the economic determinants of terrorism.
Review of the relevant academic literature.
This contribution shows that there is a theoretical foundation to the popular hypothesis that poor economic conditions are conducive to terrorism. A review of the empirical evidence on the economic determinants of terrorism, however, yields an inconclusive result. Some studies find that economic conditions (directly and indirectly) matter to terrorism, whereas a plurality of studies suggest that noneconomic factors are more important.
The findings of the survey indicate that it is unlikely that economic conditions are universal determinants of terrorism. By pointing at several avenues of future research (e.g., a focus on the role of ideology in terrorism), this contribution, however, argues that the opposite also does not need to be true. The influence of economic factors on terrorism should neither be overemphasized nor completely ruled out.
Originality/value of chapter
The contribution offers a comprehensive overview of the economy–terrorism nexus and hints at promising areas of future research.
In this paper, an institutional perspective is used to examine the different kinds of pressures on entrepreneurs manifest in a conflict environment. The purpose of this…
In this paper, an institutional perspective is used to examine the different kinds of pressures on entrepreneurs manifest in a conflict environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how they respond to the conflict and establish legitimacy for their entrepreneurship in the challenging context of the north western areas of Pakistan.
In this study, a qualitative approach is taken based on semi-structured interviews from 16 different firms in the Swat valley.
The entrepreneurs undertake different strategies towards dealing with conflict and establishing legitimacy. These strategies are identified and examined in relation to the interactions between entrepreneurial behaviour and institutional pressures.
Qualitative research on a small sample inevitably presents a limitation on the generalisability of this work. Further research could employ quantitative methods to address this issue. One particular location is studied, so future research could be carried out in other countries or regions with similar problems.
The study may have value for policymakers who need to know more about how to support ongoing businesses in difficult regions.
Better understanding of the needs of small business may in time contribute to a better business climate in difficult regions.
A new dimension is added to institutional theory through its application in the very uncertain environment between all-out war and ongoing violence, identifying the possibility of weak agency for institutional change. Further, the study contributes to the growing body of literature on entrepreneurship in conflict environments.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between access to rural product markets and the extent and nature of child labor. It is built on the view that if…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between access to rural product markets and the extent and nature of child labor. It is built on the view that if physical markets can shape rural development through, for instance, influencing prices, household production decisions, and employment, the associated activity growth could increase child labor.
Using the Uganda National Household Survey, the author combines two methodological approaches: first, a probit model to estimate the probability of a child engaging in labor, and second, a double-hurdle model to analyze the hours of child work.
The author finds that children increase time in domestic work when local product markets are distant, while their time in economic activity declines. A similar pattern is observed for the incidence of child labor. The likelihood of child labor in domestic activity increases for each extra hour of travel to the market, while child labor in economic activity declines. This could reflect the possibility that households may switch child work from market-oriented activities to domestic work when they are remotely located from markets. Results confirm findings from earlier cross-country studies that access to product markets may be detrimental to children. Second, they demonstrate that the effect of the markets varies, depending on the age of children, as well as the nature of the work they engage in.
No part of this work has been published anywhere before.
From the Zealot rebellion against the Roman Empire that occurred in the first century to the Baader-Meinhof Group in the 1970s to Al-Qaeda today terrorism has evolved. A new era came within the scope of geopolitical and economic issues since the collapse of the USSR. Economic deregulation, globalization, and the growth of international organizations have been unable to prevent crises and could not explain the reasons for the growth of terrorism. Of course, economics does not explain all the reasons for terrorism as ideology, religion, and belief are all very important. Before, terrorism was based on a particular political context and struck a particular state, but now it is no more the state, but the symbol that it represents which is struck (Morin, 2001). The Twin towers symbolized power, wealth, capitalism, democracy, and domination. Today, it is a fact that the motivations of terrorists have shifted from nationalism, separatism, or Marxism to religious ideology and fundamentalism. Al-Qaeda is the perfect example of this mutation, with no state, no national territory, yet with an international network and financing. If that is the case, there are several ways to analyze terrorism. According to one definition:Terrorism is the premeditated use or threat to use violence by individuals or subnational groups against noncombatants to obtain political or social objectives through the intimidation of a large audience, beyond that of the immediate victims. (Enders & Sandler, 2007a)