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1 – 10 of 93
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Mariem Mejri, Hakim Ben Othman, Basiem Al-Shattarat and Kais Baatour

The purpose of this interdisciplinary cross-country study is to investigate the influence of cultural tightness-looseness on money laundering.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this interdisciplinary cross-country study is to investigate the influence of cultural tightness-looseness on money laundering.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on tightness-looseness theory as the basis for their predictions. The authors use the Basel Anti Money Laundering Index to operationalize financial crimes. They use dynamic panel data regressions spanning from 2012 to 2018 across 66 countries.

Findings

The authors find a positive and significant effect of national culture on money laundering financial crime. This suggests that financial crimes increase in countries with higher levels of cultural looseness orientation. Moreover, the authors show that the absence of violence, control of corruption, political stability and voice and accountability has a significant and negative influence on money laundering financial crime.

Practical implications

Formal institutional factors are not the only factors that can help curb financial crimes, but policy regulators should also consider the degree of cultural tightness-looseness.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first research ever to examine the effects of cultural tightness-looseness on the level of financial crimes.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Jeanne M. Brett and Tyree Mitchell

This study aims to address three important but under-researched questions in the trust and negotiation literature: What do negotiators do to determine the trustworthiness…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address three important but under-researched questions in the trust and negotiation literature: What do negotiators do to determine the trustworthiness of a potential business partner? What trust criteria motivate their search and help them interpret the information their search reveals? Whether there are systematic cultural differences in search and criteria, and if different, why?

Design/methodology/approach

This study used qualitative methodology. The data are from interviews with 82 managers from 33 different national cultures in four regions of the world identified by cultural levels of trust in negotiation and tightness-looseness. Interviews focused on how negotiators determined the trustworthiness of potential business partners in intracultural negotiations.

Findings

Analyses revealed four search activities negotiators use to gather information about a potential business partner: due diligence, brokerage, good will building and testing; and five criteria for determining the trustworthiness of a new business partner: respect, mutual values, competence, openness and professionalism. Quotes illustrate how these search activities and criteria manifest in different cultures.

Research limitations/implications

This study used multiple cases to build a longitudinal picture of the process. It did not follow a single case in depth. The study focused on identifying cultural central tendencies at the same time recognizing that there is always variability within a culture.

Practical implications

Knowing what is culturally normative allows negotiators to anticipate, interpret and respect their counterpart’s behavior. Such knowledge should facilitate trust development.

Originality/value

This study provides an in-depth understanding of cultural similarities and differences in the process of trust development in negotiating new business relationships.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Cong Cao, Ning Li and Li Liu

This paper empirically investigates how cultural variations in individualism and tightness affected the containment of COVID-19 using data from 54 nations during a 30-day…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper empirically investigates how cultural variations in individualism and tightness affected the containment of COVID-19 using data from 54 nations during a 30-day period of government intervention.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilized the hierarchical regression approach to check the effects of three cultural variables – the individualism measure, taken from Hofstede’s six-dimension national culture index, and the measure of cultural tightness, based on the three tightness–looseness indexes calculated by Irem Uz (2015) and their interaction – on the changes in the prevalence rate (ΔPR) and crude mortality rate (ΔCMR) and case fatality rate (CFR) while controlling for the stringency of government responses to COVID-19, median age and population density.

Findings

Significant relationships were found between cultural variables and national performance in slowing the spread of the coronavirus, measured by ΔPR, ΔCMR and CFR. After controlling for the stringency of government responses, median age and population density, the authors found that cultural tightness and individualism as well as their interactions remain to be pivotal. Loose and individualistic cultures led to faster increases in PR and CMR and higher CFR. A four-quadrant conceptual framework is developed to categorize and discuss the national differences.

Originality/value

The paper integrated two constructs – cultural tightness–looseness and individualism–collectivism – to form a theoretical lens to guide the authors’ analyses while using the real-time COVID-19 data as a natural experiment for theorizing and testing. This study’s findings have significant policy implications in government responses, strategic planning, cultural adaptability and policy implementations for the world’s continuous battle against the pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Chanki Moon and Ángel Sánchez‐Rodríguez

Antecedents and influences of workplace incivility have recently been studied in many areas of research but there is still a lack of consideration for the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Antecedents and influences of workplace incivility have recently been studied in many areas of research but there is still a lack of consideration for the impact of culture. Theoretical considerations for the present research are based on the cultural dimensions of power distance and tightness/looseness because the collective levels of power distance are similar between Korea and Spain, but the collective levels of tightness/looseness are different between the two countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether individuals’ occupational position affects their normative reactions to incivility differently.

Design/methodology/approach

Participant (victim)’s (those who react to uncivil behaviors) social power (low vs high) and perpetrator’s (those who exhibit uncivil behaviors) social power (low vs high) were experimentally manipulated; all participants were randomly assigned to one of four perpetrator × victim conditions in relation to hierarchical positions (Ntot = 467).

Findings

The results suggest that the level of social and personal acceptability was greater either among Koreans than Spanish at a collective level or among people who endorsed higher power distance and tightness values. All in all, the findings highlight cultural influences on the importance of social hierarchy as a factor that can impact the people’s normative reactions to incivility.

Originality/value

The findings broaden our understanding of the psychology of employees in relation to incivility, by simultaneously considering the influences of culture (power distance and tightness/looseness) and social power.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Haithem Zourrig, Jeongsoo Park, Kamel El Hedhli and Mengxia Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how cultural tightness may influence consumers’ attitudes toward insurance services and occurrence of insurance fraud.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how cultural tightness may influence consumers’ attitudes toward insurance services and occurrence of insurance fraud.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on Gelfand et al.’s (2011) theory of tight and loose cultures, the authors theorize that perceived wrongness of insurance fraud, fraud occurrence and perceived risk of being caught depend on the cultural tightness. Using field data from a global European social survey (ESS), the authors investigate these differences across two fairly different European countries – Norway (i.e. tight culture) and Ukraine (i.e. loose culture).

Findings

Consumers from tight culture report less tolerance for insurance fraud (inflating insurance claim) are less likely to commit an insurance fraud, and they perceive higher level of risk of being caught than their counterparts from loose culture (Ukraine).

Practical implications

Understanding cultural variability in attitude toward insurance fraud, the occurrence of insurance fraud and the sensitivity to the risk of being caught could enrich the authors knowledge about how to prevent insurance fraud.

Social implications

Consumer protection agencies, consumer educators and policymakers could all benefit from understanding cultural variability in attitude toward fraud. This will potentially help to design effective learning and education programs to sensitize customers to the illegal and unethical aspects of fraudulent behaviors.

Originality/value

Insurance fraud is a universal issue and exists in many European countries, yet no previous work has investigated the effect of cultural tightness–looseness on fraud perception.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2016

Sebastian Stoermer, Anna Katharina Hildisch and Fabian Jintae Froese

This paper develops a conceptual model in order to increase our understanding of the influence of national culture on the relationship between organizational diversity and…

2572

Abstract

Purpose

This paper develops a conceptual model in order to increase our understanding of the influence of national culture on the relationship between organizational diversity and inclusion management and inclusion climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Based upon a comprehensive review of diversity and inclusion management literature, we develop a conceptual model.

Findings

The model delineates how national culture influences the effectiveness of diversity and inclusion management practices in establishing an inclusion climate. In particular, we propose that low power distance, high collectivism, low uncertainty avoidance, low masculinity, high long-term orientation, and high indulgence cultures serve as a fertile context for creating an inclusion climate. Furthermore, we discuss how cultural tightness-looseness amplifies or attenuates the effects of national culture.

Research limitations/implications

The paper extends our understanding of the antecedents and boundary conditions of creating an inclusion climate. Future research could provide empirical evidence for the proposed relationships.

Practical implications

The model creates an awareness of the ease or difficulty of establishing an inclusion climate through diversity and inclusion management practices across cultures. Recommendations for developing inclusion climates in various cultural settings are provided.

Originality/value

Our multi-level model enhances our understanding of how the cultural context, i.e. national cultural values and cultural tightness-looseness, influences the emergence of an organizational inclusion climate which is further suggested to positively influence organizational innovation.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

David A. Harrison, Teresa L. Harrison and Margaret A. Shaffer

Immigrants are important contributors to workplaces, but HRM scholars have only recently begun to study them systematically. We document the prevalence and cross-national…

Abstract

Immigrants are important contributors to workplaces, but HRM scholars have only recently begun to study them systematically. We document the prevalence and cross-national variation in populations of immigrant employees. Going beyond a treatment that considers them as another element of diversity, we propose how gradients of status at each level of country, organization, and work group admittance can result in unique outcomes for immigrants who are equally (dis)similar. We offer a taxonomy of immigrant pathways into their destination countries to explore the status hierarchies they are assigned by governments and reinforced by organizations. We provide insights into the ascribed status of immigrants and develop a typology of individual and organizational acculturation strategies based on the cultural tightness and looseness of the destination and origin cultures. We then describe how the reactions of members of an immigrant employee’s social environment are sensitive to ascribed status and cultural tightness-looseness. We do so in a three-stage process that begins with immigrant categorization, followed by conferral of (il)legitimacy, and finally brought together with perceptions of outcome interdependence. Finally, we offer ideas about HRM interventions to guide management scholars in their quest for understanding and improve the experiences of immigrants in the workplace.

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Haithem Zourrig, Mengxia Zhang, Kamel El Hedhli and Imene Becheur

This study aims to apply McCornack’s (1992) information manipulation theory to the context of fraud and investigates the effects of culture on perceived deceptiveness.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply McCornack’s (1992) information manipulation theory to the context of fraud and investigates the effects of culture on perceived deceptiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 400 Chinese consumers and an equal-size sample of Canadian consumers were recruited to fill an online survey. The survey integrates four scenarios of insurance fraud and measures of perceived deceptiveness, cultural tightness and horizontal-vertical idiocentrism allocentrism, in addition to some control variables.

Findings

Results show that at the societal level of culture, perceived deceptiveness is higher in individualistic than in collectivistic cultures. When accounting for the level of situational constraint, cultural tightness was found to magnify the perceived deceptiveness. At the individual level of culture, vertical-allocentrism and vertical-idiocentrism were found to weigh against the perception of deceptiveness.

Originality/value

Understanding cultural differences in perceived deceptiveness is helpful to spot sources of consumers’ vulnerability to fraud tolerance among a culturally diverse public.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2022

Yin Lee and Amit Kramer

Many employees do not use work-family practices to their full extent, even when they are in need of them. Drawing on the concept of psychological safety the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

Many employees do not use work-family practices to their full extent, even when they are in need of them. Drawing on the concept of psychological safety the authors propose a new construct: psychological accessibility– employees' sense of embracing the benefits of work-family practices without experiencing a fear of using them. The authors argue that the psychological accessibility of work-family practices could explain the variations in the utilization of work-family practices among employees with similar levels of family needs. Furthermore, the authors propose multilevel contextual factors that could affect the psychological accessibility of work-family practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a theoretical multilevel framework for work-family practices that places psychological accessibility at its core and addresses accessibility of work-family practices from a macro level that includes institutions and the different attributes of the national culture, a meso level that includes work time norms in organizations, and a micro level, that includes the social context at the team level in organizations.

Findings

As part of the conceptual development the authors offer 10 propositions.

Originality/value

The authors' multilevel model of psychological accessibility could explain the variations in the utilization of work-family practices across different national, organizational and group contexts. This paper refocuses scholarly attention to the psychological antecedents of the utilization of work-family practices. The authors offer some practical recommendations to make the utilization of work-family practices a psychologically safe activity.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Minyoung Noh

This study aims to examine the effect of state culture on the readability of narrative disclosures in annual reports based on firms located in all 50 states of the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of state culture on the readability of narrative disclosures in annual reports based on firms located in all 50 states of the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses the cultural tightness and looseness (Harrington and Gelfand 2014) index at the state level and the BOG index (Bonsall and Miller, 2017) as the primary measures of annual report readability.

Findings

Using US data from 1994 to 2019, this study finds that the state level of cultural tightness in which firms are located positively affects firms’ annual report readability. In addition, the study finds that the positive effect of cultural tightness on annual report readability is pronounced in subgroups with high litigation risk while the result does not hold with subgroups that have low litigation risk. The results are robust when alternative proxies for annual report readability are used and historical location and the states in which firms are incorporated are considered.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing literature on the determinants of readability in annual report because firms’ narrative disclosure in annual report varies depending on the information environment, litigation risk, embedded in each state culture where firms are located.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

1 – 10 of 93