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Five different structural reactive dyes (Reactive Brilliant Blue K-3R, Everacion Blue H-ERD, Moderzol Blue FBR, Atuzol Black B and Moderzol Blue HEGN) were treated with…
Five different structural reactive dyes (Reactive Brilliant Blue K-3R, Everacion Blue H-ERD, Moderzol Blue FBR, Atuzol Black B and Moderzol Blue HEGN) were treated with laccase (Denilite II US) in order to determine the optimum decolouration conditions. The experiments showed that laccase had distinct decolouration effects on these five dyes. Under optimum conditions, the colour removal rates of Everacion Blue H-ERD and Moderzol Blue HEGN were over 90%. Furthermore, the effects of different additives, such as acid ion, metal ion, and surfactants on the decolouration rate of Reactive Brilliant Blue K-3R were discussed. The results show that the decolouration rate is significantly promoted through the addition of Cu2+ and Al3+, while it is inactivated with Fe2+ and ion surfactants. Moreover, the COD removal rates of the five dyes are more than 75%.
The minimum wage has been regarded as an important element of public policy for reducing poverty and inequality. Increasing the minimum wage is supposed to raise earnings…
The minimum wage has been regarded as an important element of public policy for reducing poverty and inequality. Increasing the minimum wage is supposed to raise earnings for millions of low-wage workers and therefore lower earnings inequality. However, there is no consensus in the existing literature from industrialized countries regarding whether increasing the minimum wage has helped lower earnings inequality. China has recently exhibited rapid economic growth and widening earnings inequality. Since China promulgated new minimum wage regulations in 2004, the magnitude and frequency of changes in the minimum wage have been substantial, both over time and across jurisdictions. The growing importance of research on the relationship between the minimum wage and earnings inequality and its controversial nature have sparked heated debate in China, highlighting the importance of rigorous research to inform evidence-based policy making. We investigate the contribution of the minimum wage to the well-documented rise in earnings inequality in China from 2004 to 2009 by using city-level minimum wage panel data and a representative Chinese household survey, and we find that increasing the minimum wage reduces inequality – by decreasing the earnings gap between the median and the bottom decile – over the analysis period.