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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Alain Verbeke and Wenlong Yuan

The aim of this paper is to investigate how multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary capabilities are influenced by the firm-specific advantages (FSAs) of the parent…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate how multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary capabilities are influenced by the firm-specific advantages (FSAs) of the parent company, as well as by cultural and geographic distance between the home and host country.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper assesses how the effects of the parent FSAs, cultural distance and geographic distance on subsidiary capabilities vary for different value-chain activities, with an empirical application to 60 foreign subsidiaries operating in Canada.

Findings

This paper uncovers distinct, three-way interaction effects among parent-level FSAs, cultural distance and geographic distance for upstream versus downstream activities in the value chain.

Originality/value

We find that in special cases, high levels of distance can be positive for MNEs, in terms of driving the creation of stronger subsidiary capabilities.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Steven Dhondt, Frank Delano Pot and Karolus O. Kraan

This paper aims to focus on participation in the workplace and examines the relative importance of different dimensions of job control in relation to subjective well-being…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on participation in the workplace and examines the relative importance of different dimensions of job control in relation to subjective well-being and organizational commitment. These dimensions are job autonomy (within a given job), functional support (from supervisor and colleagues) and organizational level decision latitude (shop-floor consultancy on process improvements, division of labor, workmates, targets, etc.). Interaction with work intensity is looked at as well.

Design/methodology/approach

Measurements and data were taken from the European Working Conditions Survey, 2010. The paper focusses on salaried employees only. The sample was further limited to employees in workplaces consisting of at least 50 workers. There are 2,048 employees in the final sample, from Denmark, Ireland, The Netherlands, Finland, Sweden and the UK. In this paper, the focus is not on differences between countries, and adding more countries would have introduced too many country characteristics as intermediate variables.

Findings

In the regression analyses, functional support and organizational level decision latitude showed stronger relations with the outcome variables than job autonomy. There was no relation between work intensity and the outcome variables. Two-way interactions were found for job autonomy and organizational level decision latitude on subjective well-being and for functional support and organizational level decision latitude on organizational commitment. A three-way interaction, of all job control variables combined, was found on organizational commitment, with the presence of all types of job control showing the highest organizational commitment level. No such three-way interaction was found for subjective well-being. There was an indication for a two-way interaction of work intensity and functional support, as well as an indication for a two-way interaction of work intensity and organizational level decision latitude on subjective well-being: high work intensity and low functional support or low organizational level decision latitude seemed to associate with low well-being. No interaction was found for any dimension of job control being high and high work intensity.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study has all the limitations of a cross-sectional survey, the results are more or less in accordance with existing theories. This indicates that organizational level decision latitude matters. Differentiation of job control dimensions in research models is recommended, and so is workplace innovation for healthy and productive jobs.

Originality/value

Most theoretical models for empirical research are limited to control at task level (e.g. the Job Demand-Control-Support model of Karasek and Theorell. The paper aims at nuancing and extending current job control models by distinguishing three dimensions/levels of job control, referring to sociotechnical systems design theory (De Sitter) and action regulation theory (Hacker) and reciprocity (Akerlof). The policy relevance regards the consequences for work and organization design.

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Julia Zhang, Randy Chiu and Li‐Qun Wei

The purpose of this paper is to propose whistleblowing judgment (WBJ), positive mood (PM), and organizational ethical culture (OEC) as predictors of whistleblowing intention (WBI).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose whistleblowing judgment (WBJ), positive mood (PM), and organizational ethical culture (OEC) as predictors of whistleblowing intention (WBI).

Design/methodology/approach

The study obtains the data from 364 usable questionnaires collected from Chinese employees of ten banks in China.

Findings

WBJ explains a high variance in WBI while OEC moderate the relationship. A three‐way interaction effect is observed, in which organizational culture affects the strength of PM as a moderator.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are interpreted with respect to theories of moral psychology and organizational behavior. Theoretical implications and limitations of the study are discussed, including potential self‐report bias and self‐selection bias.

Originality/value

The effect of PM on whistleblowing decision making depends on people's perceptions of OEC. Only when people perceive their organizational culture to be unethical do the effect of PM come into play.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

June M.L. Poon

This study aimed to examine the predictive effects of trustworthiness attributes (i.e. benevolence, integrity, and ability) on trust‐in‐supervisor.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine the predictive effects of trustworthiness attributes (i.e. benevolence, integrity, and ability) on trust‐in‐supervisor.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey using a structured questionnaire was used to gather data from 107 white‐collar employees from diverse organizations in Malaysia. The data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The results showed that perceptions of supervisor benevolence, integrity, and ability predicted trust‐in‐supervisor both directly and interactively. Further analysis revealed that integrity and ability interacted in a compensatory manner to predict trust‐in‐supervisor when benevolence was high but not when it was low.

Research limitations/implications

Study limitations include the use of self‐report cross‐sectional data. The findings underscore the importance of looking beyond statistical models that test only for main and two‐way interaction effects in research examining trustworthiness attributes. Researchers should consider examining three‐way interaction effects or run the risk of having a misspecified model. Also, research to determine the relative importance of trustworthiness attributes and the conditions under which one attribute is given more weight than another is needed.

Practical implications

Supervisors should be made aware of the importance of treating their subordinates with benevolence. Nevertheless, because benevolence is a necessary but insufficient condition for fostering trust, employers must ensure that their supervisors have high integrity and ability or, at the very least, one of these attributes.

Originality/value

This study highlighted the importance of examining higher order effects in research examining trustworthiness attributes and provides what is perhaps the first empirical test of how benevolence, integrity, and ability interact to predict trust‐in‐supervisor.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Xiaoxiao Hu, Lois Tetrick and Lynn M. Shore

The goal of this paper is to examine the relation of reciprocity to organizational commitment and the employment exchange relationship. In addition, it aims to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this paper is to examine the relation of reciprocity to organizational commitment and the employment exchange relationship. In addition, it aims to investigate cross‐cultural differences on this relation between China and the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of Chinese employees working on their MBAs (n=321), a sample of employed MBA students in the USA (n=199), and a sample of employed undergraduates from the USA (n=348). Hierarchical moderated regression analyses were used to explore the interactive effects of the three dimensions of reciprocity on organizational commitment and the employment exchange relationship.

Findings

The three dimensions of reciprocity were related to organizational commitment and the employment exchange relationship in all three samples. Nonetheless, in the US samples these dimensions reflected an additive model and in the Chinese sample the dimensions interacted, supporting the notion that Chinese perceive their employment exchange relationships more holistically than Americans.

Research limitations/implications

The data were cross‐sectional and therefore causal inferences need to be made with caution.

Practical implications

Different strategies should be adopted to manage Chinese and American employees' commitment and employment relationship.

Originality/value

This study offers new insights on the relation of reciprocity to organizational commitment and the employment exchange relationship in different cultures. It integrates cross‐cultural differences in cognition into organizational research and reveals that Chinese employees tend to use a more holistic approach to understand their employment exchange relationships than their American counterparts.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Cass Shum, Kweisi Ausar and Min-Hsuan Tu

Drawing from the appraisal theory, this paper aims to examine the conditions under which abusive leaders experience guilt and suggests that guilt motivates leaders to help…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from the appraisal theory, this paper aims to examine the conditions under which abusive leaders experience guilt and suggests that guilt motivates leaders to help followers.

Design/methodology/approach

A scenario study with a sample of 285 hospitality supervisors was used to test the theoretical model. Path analyses were conducted to test the three-way-moderated mediation model.

Findings

Results show a three-way interaction among enacted abuse, managerial abuse and agreeableness on the guilt: leaders are more likely to experience guilt over their enacted abusive supervision when they do not perceive their direct manager as abusive and when they are agreeable. Moreover, guilt mediates the relationship between enacted abuse and a leader’s intention to help their followers.

Research limitations/implications

This study shows that abusive supervisors pay an emotional cost for their enacted abuse (in terms of guilt).

Practical implications

Hospitality organization should assign non-abusive mentors to leaders, especially agreeable ones, to detect and reduce abusive supervision.

Originality/value

First, this study addressed the lack of research on the effect of abusive supervision on the abusers by studying the conditions under which abusive leaders experience guilt. Second, this study shows that because of guilt, abusive leaders have a higher intention to help their followers. It explains why abusive leaders can be helpful.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Dong-Mo Koo

This paper aims to investigate whether the interactional effects of recommendation valence, tie strength and service type produce different effects on attitude and buying…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the interactional effects of recommendation valence, tie strength and service type produce different effects on attitude and buying intention in a social networking context.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 3 × 3 between-subject experiment was carried out, involving 616 participants, and MANOVA was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

The interactions of valence by tie strength and valence by service type affect attitude, but not intention. The review valence × tie strength × service type interaction influences both attitude and intention, and its effect on intention is fully mediated by attitude.

Research limitations/implications

Negative recommendations for credence and experiential services communicated by individuals with no-tie relationships have a strong negative effect on attitude. However, positive recommendations from strong and weak ties for search and experience services are more influential than recommendations from no ties for credence services.

Originality/value

The results are explained by using cue sufficiency theory, which suggests that a single extreme cue serves as a defining feature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Dianna Contreras Krueger, Dianna L. Stone and Eugene Stone-Romero

The aim of this paper was to assess the main and interactive effects of job applicant conscientiousness, and nurturing job demands on ratings of overweight female…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper was to assess the main and interactive effects of job applicant conscientiousness, and nurturing job demands on ratings of overweight female applicants on job suitability and a hiring recommendation. It also examined relations between rater ethnicity and ratings of the job suitability of normal and overweight applicants.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a 2×2×2 experimental design and data from 400 individuals (201 Anglos and 199 Hispanics) with hiring experience to test the study's hypotheses. Participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and asked to review a resume and picture of a normal or overweight applicant. Then, they were asked to rate the applicant's job suitability and make a hiring recommendation.

Findings

The results revealed that: overweight female applicants were rated as more suitable for jobs and more likely to be recommended for hire when they had high rather than low conscientiousness; Hispanics were more likely to recommend overweight applicants for hire than Anglos; and there was a three-way interaction among applicant weight, rater ethnicity, and nurturing job demands for the hiring recommendation criterion.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a simulated hiring context. Thus, research is needed to determine if the results generalize to actual work settings.

Practical implications

The results suggest that organizations should provide decision makers with detailed information about applicants' conscientiousness, and the nurturing demands of jobs. When these types of information are presented, raters are less likely to display weight-based bias.

Originality/value

Previous research on weight-based bias was not based on a theoretical model, but the present study used a theoretical framework to guide the development of hypotheses (Stone and Colella, 1996; Stone et al., 1992). In addition, it is the first study to examine the effects of overweight applicant conscientiousness and stereotype-job fit on ratings of job suitability, and differences between Hispanic and Anglo views of overweight applicants.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

M. Afzalur Rahim, Nace R. Magner, David Antonioni and Sahidur Rahman

We examined relationships between distributive, procedural, and interactional justice and two types of organization‐directed reactions—organizational commitment and…

Abstract

We examined relationships between distributive, procedural, and interactional justice and two types of organization‐directed reactions—organizational commitment and turnover intention—across two employee samples each from the U.S. and Bangladesh. Regression analyses of questionnaire data indicated that the three forms of justice were related to the organization‐directed reactions of both the U.S. and Bangladesh employees. The specific nature of the justice relationships varied primarily when comparing employees across the four samples, rather than across the two countries.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Xuemei Bian and Kai-Yu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if brand might affect consumers’ response to replacing size-zero models (SM) with average-sized models (AM) in advertising and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if brand might affect consumers’ response to replacing size-zero models (SM) with average-sized models (AM) in advertising and how individuals’ psychological states might underlie consumers’ reactions.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies manipulating brand and model body size were conducted and advertising images to female individuals differing in self-esteem were exposed.

Findings

This research finds that brand moderates consumers’ model evaluation. Participants evaluated AM as being more attractive than SM for new brands, whereas for well-established brands associated with SM, participants rated both AM and SM as being equally attractive. Self-esteem shapes participants’ evaluation of AM and SM. For new brands, low self-esteem individuals evaluated AM as being more attractive than SM, whereas high self-esteem individuals evaluate AM and SM as being equally attractive. The results are consistent, regardless of whether it is a luxury and a generic brand. These results emerged for both model attractiveness rating and product evaluations.

Practical implications

A better understanding of the relative consequences of the use of AM versus SM is essential for more effective policy initiatives and better targeted marketing campaigns.

Originality/value

Limited research has documented the possible effects of brand on individuals’ responses to AM as opposed to SM. How individuals of different psychological characteristics may react distinctively to advertisements containing AM versus stereotype SM has not yet been explored until this study. This research takes the first step to bridge these knowledge gaps by looking into how brand and perceiver psychological characteristics jointly work with model features to determine how consumers perceive the AM as opposed to SM. This study provides empirical and comparative evidence of the advantages of using AM and SM in print media.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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