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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Frank Elter and Svein Ulset

This chapter develops a multi-path theory of diversified international expansion that explains how multiple wave-shaped performance curves are created as multinational…

Abstract

This chapter develops a multi-path theory of diversified international expansion that explains how multiple wave-shaped performance curves are created as multinational companies expand into increasingly distant and dissimilar countries. According to this theory, multinational mobile network operators (MNOs) recover from over-diversified expansion by improving their local adaptation strategies by means of reconfiguring the value chain and entering local partnerships, by improving their global replication capabilities or by concentrating expansion to clusters of similar country markets. Three dynamic propositions are developed and exemplified concerning MNOs’ diversified international expansion. Implications for international diversification research finalize the chapter.

Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2007

Farok J. Contractor

This chapter outlines a general theory of international expansion and its effect on the performance of firms. Using the lens of this theory, it addresses the question of

Abstract

This chapter outlines a general theory of international expansion and its effect on the performance of firms. Using the lens of this theory, it addresses the question of why most companies are “regional,” in the sense that their geographical coverage seems to be far from complete. The chapter also treats the perplexing issue of the lack of congruence in empirical findings, over the 30-year history of the Multinationality vs. Performance sub-field in International Business studies. It argues that the apparently contradictory results of past studies are but subsets of the three stages of the general theory. Finally, the chapter indicates fruitful areas for further research.

Details

Regional Aspects of Multinationality and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1395-2

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2008

Sung C. Bae, Bell J. C. Park and Xiaohong Wang

We examine whether firms’ multinationality leads to better performance and what the role of R&D investment is in the multinationality performance linkage. Unlike the…

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Abstract

We examine whether firms’ multinationality leads to better performance and what the role of R&D investment is in the multinationality performance linkage. Unlike the previous studies, we employ both accounting‐ and market‐based measures of firm performance for a large sample of U.S. manufacturing firms. Our results show that the empirical relation between multinationality and performance is not monotonic but varies with the phase of a firm’s multinationality, starting with a negative relation initially, followed by a positive one, and then again a negative one. This horizontal S‐shaped curvilinear relation of multinationality is more pronounced for the market‐based performance measure and is supportive of the three‐stage theory of internationalization. We also find that a firm’s multinationality is related to greater firm performance when the firm possesses R&D investment, and that the effect of R&D increases with the extent of a firm’s multinationality. These results lend strong support for the Internalization theory and the resource‐based view of firms’ international expansion. Our results are robust to different model specifications with an alternative measure of multinationality.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Andres Velez-Calle, Fernando Sanchez-Henriquez and Farok Contractor

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between multinationality and firm performance (M-P) in Latin American companies, commonly referred to as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between multinationality and firm performance (M-P) in Latin American companies, commonly referred to as multilatinas. The study conceptualizes the depth (intensity) and breadth (geographical scope) of internationalization and examines their effect on financial performance. Although scholars have studied how internationalization in various contexts and industries affects performance, little is known about firms in Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an analysis of the effect of the depth and breadth of multilatina internationalization on financial performance by creating a database using information from America Economia, a specialized Chilean magazine that publishes an annual ranking of multilatinas. Additional data came from the Osiris database of Bureau Van Dijk and Compustat. The hypotheses were tested using an autoregressive heteroskedastic model.

Findings

The results show that the extent of the depth and breadth of internationalization affects financial performance. Multilatinas’ depth of internationalization has a curvilinear (U-shaped) impact on performance while breadth has an inverted curvilinear impact on performance.

Research limitations/implications

The theory portion and results expand the literature on firm internationalization and performance by distinguishing between two types of international firm expansion, depth and breadth, and discussing how each contributes to different stages of the three-stage theory of multinationality and performance.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that multilatinas benefit from their regional expansion, but outside Latin America, expansion has a negative effect on financial performance. They also show that firms can implement different types of internationalization strategies in terms of intensity and scope to achieve better performance.

Objetivo

Este artículo analiza la relación entre la multinacionalidad y el desempeño de la empresa (M-P) en compañías latinoamericanas, conocidas como multilatinas. El estudio conceptualiza la profundidad (intensidad) y extensión (alcance geográfico) de la internacionalización, y examina su efecto en el desempeño financiero. Aunque varios investigadores han estudiado cómo la internacionalización en diversos contextos e industrias afecta el rendimiento, poco se sabe con respecto a las empresas en América Latina.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Los autores realizaron un análisis del efecto producido por la profundidad y extensión de la internacionalización de la multilatina en el desempeño financiero, mediante la creación de una base de datos con información de América Economía, una revista chilena especializada que publica anualmente un ranking de multilatinas. Datos adicionales provienen de la base de datos Osiris de Bureau Van Dijk y de Compustat. Las hipótesis fueron probadas usando un modelo heterocedástico autoregresivo.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que el grado de profundidad y extensión de la internacionalización afectan el rendimiento financiero. La profundidad de internacionalización de las multilatinas tiene un efecto curvilíneo (en forma de U) sobre el desempeño financiero, mientras que la extension geográfica tiene un efecto curvilíneo invertido en dicho desempeño.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

La sección teórica y los resultados extiende la literatura sobre la internacionalización y el desempeño de las empresas al distinguir entre dos tipos de expansión internacional: profundidad y extensión. También se discute cómo cada uno contribuye a las diferentes etapas de la teoría de la multinacionalidad y desempeño.

Originalidad/Valor

Los resultados indican que las multilatinas se benefician de su expansión regional. Sin embargo, fuera de América Latina, dicha expansión tiene un efecto negativo sobre el desempeño financiero. También se señala que las empresas pueden implementar diferentes tipos de estrategias de internacionalización en términos de intensidad y alcance para lograr un mejor desempeño.

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Kun Liao, Erika Marsillac, Eldon Johnson and Ying Liao

The purpose of this paper is to understand and describe the conditions that compel and underscore global supply chain (SC) adaptations.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand and describe the conditions that compel and underscore global supply chain (SC) adaptations.

Design/methodology/approach

Insights from contingency theory, Porter's economic cluster theory and international factory mapping are used to analyze the SC adaptations that follow when an automotive firm moves from a domestic to a global SC.

Findings

An automotive global SC adaptation includes market entry considerations, the establishment of a three‐stage flexible time‐ and production‐based supplier network plan, and the integration of logistics partners.

Research limitations/implications

SC adaptations are an important consideration for any manufacturing expansion effort, especially international ones. Varying production levels impact supplier relationships and decisions and may result in varied supplier perspectives. Government regulations influence entry and routine decisions, while logistics issues and costs play an integral role in supplier perceptions and reactions.

Practical implications

With the rapid expansion of the Chinese auto market, entering manufacturing firms need more information about how to strategically locate, and develop and support supplier networks. A stepped supplier network establishment approach optimizes benefits for both manufacturing firm and suppliers. Evaluating and integrating logistics issues also sets the stage for future expansion efforts at optimal cost and supplier support.

Originality/value

The internationalization of the automotive SC involves adaptations that can only be successful through advance planning, strategic supplier networking, and systematic logistics integration.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2007

Stephen Chen

Despite many years of research, empirical studies of the relationship between internationalization and performance of firms have given conflicting results. Contractor…

Abstract

Despite many years of research, empirical studies of the relationship between internationalization and performance of firms have given conflicting results. Contractor, Kundu, and Hsu (2003) and Lu and Beamish (2004) have recently proposed a three-stage theory of international expansion that attempts to reconcile the conflicting findings. However, other studies suggest that there are good reasons to believe that firms from less-developed countries (LDCs) differ in their internationalization from firms in developed countries. Furthermore, little research has been conducted on service firms in LDCs. This paper aims to fill some of this gap by testing the internationalization–performance relationship in a sample of service firms in the Asia-Pacific region.

The study confirms the three-stage model but adds two new dimensions. First, the results show that the internationalization–performance relationship varies significantly depending on whether internationalization is intra-regional or extra-regional. Extra-regional sales/total sales showed significant and positive relationships with return on assets (ROA) in all three models but combined foreign sales/total sales showed no significant relationships with ROA and surprisingly intra-regional sales showed a significant relationship only in the quadratic model.

Details

Regional Aspects of Multinationality and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1395-2

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

1980

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2010

Rolf Mirus and Bernard Yeung

We examine the mode of international expansion as an equilibrium governance contract between home country and host country factor owner. The focus is on agency costs, a…

Abstract

We examine the mode of international expansion as an equilibrium governance contract between home country and host country factor owner. The focus is on agency costs, a form of transactions costs. Two phenomena are shown to be related to the agency costs imposed by factor owners: (i) the choice of different modes of international expansion by one firm in different locations, and (ii) the simultaneous occurrence of several forms of foreign involvement in the same location. We attempt to characterize the dynamic relationship between the mode of an offshore operation and changes in factor market conditions that affect agency costs.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2018

Renata Maria Gomes, Jorge Carneiro and Luis Antonio Dib

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns for the intra-market expansion of international branded retailers on a continent-sized emerging market using the network approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns for the intra-market expansion of international branded retailers on a continent-sized emerging market using the network approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple-case study design of four foreign branded retailers that have expanded onto regional markets in Brazil is used.

Findings

The intra-market expansion process shares similarities with the cross-market expansion process; is influenced by the relationships of foreign branded retailers with local competitors and shopping mall firms; and market selection, mode of operation and store location decisions are interrelated and conjointly taken, instead of forming a three-stage process. Additionally, the importance of relationships with host market shopping malls firms is highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

This paper advances a conceptual model of the intra-market expansion process, which comprises a system of interrelated decisions – (regional) market selection, mode of operation and store location – influenced by several network effects.

Practical implications

Managers of foreign branded retail suffer from liability of foreignness when undertaking intra-market expansion. Although Brazil is a large market, the retail community is highly connected because of managers’ personal relationships. Brazilian shopping malls dominate suitable store locations, and represent a valuable source of knowledge and resources for the foreign branded retailer.

Originality/value

This paper addresses two under-researched aspects of international retail: branded retailers – manufacturers that develop brands and operate stores – and intra-market expansion (i.e. to geographic regions of a given foreign country). It also discusses the challenges of intra-market expansion in continent-sized emerging markets, with considerable regional diversity (culture, infrastructure and institutions).

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2004

Douglas E. Thomas and Lorraine Eden

Previous theoretical explanations and empirical analyses of the multinationality‐performance relationship have produced mixed arguments and results. Linear and inverted…

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Abstract

Previous theoretical explanations and empirical analyses of the multinationality‐performance relationship have produced mixed arguments and results. Linear and inverted U‐shaped relationships have been theorized and confirmed empirically. Recent research has theorized that there is a three‐stage, sigmoid relationship between multinationality and performance. We contribute to the debate by showing that the impact of multinationality depends on the time dimension incorporated in the performance measure; that is, the net benefits from multinationality are likely to be higher in the longer term. The results from our sample of US manufacturing multinationals indicate that there is a three‐stage, sigmoid multinationality‐performance relationship.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000