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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jelena Zikic and Souha Ezzedeen

The purpose of this paper is to employ intelligent career theory to simultaneously explore the relationships between three types of entrepreneurial career capital (i.e…

1329

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to employ intelligent career theory to simultaneously explore the relationships between three types of entrepreneurial career capital (i.e. motivations, human, and social capital). It illustrates the interconnectedness of these three forms of capital as an important way to study entrepreneurial careers and provide a new lens for understanding both personal and venture success.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study of 22 in depth semi-structured interviews explores career stories of entrepreneurs in the high tech industry. The interviews focus on examining three aspects of their career, motivations to become an entrepreneur, ways of learning and developing their human and social capital. Interviews were transcribed and coded using grounded theory approach.

Findings

The findings describe how entrepreneurial careers as simultaneously shaped by three types of career capital: motivations (knowing-why), knowledge (knowing-how), and relationships (knowing-whom). It also illustrates the accumulation of career capital as a continuous cycle of interrelationships between these three types of capital.

Research limitations/implications

In sum, the findings add to the knowledge on entrepreneurial careers and the role that the three types of capital play in venture formation and success. It also points to the importance of a more integrated view of these careers, embedded in a web of motivational, social, and human capital.

Practical implications

The study’s findings suggest that entrepreneurs should paid equal attention and nurture each form of career capital throughout their careers. It also has implications for entrepreneurship programs as well career advisers to.

Originality/value

Prior entrepreneurship research has examined aspects of entrepreneur’s career capital (e.g. intentions, social, and human capital) typically in isolation from one another and little is known about their reinforcing relationships in entrepreneurial careers. This study provides novel insights for understanding the three types of career capital and the importance of this more integrated view in entrepreneurship education and career counseling.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2015

Neville Clement, Terence Lovat, Allyson Holbrook, Margaret Kiley, Sid Bourke, Brian Paltridge, Sue Starfield, Hedy Fairbairn and Dennis M. McInerney

Evaluation of research is a core function of academic work, yet there has been very little theoretical development about what it means to ‘know’ in relation to judgements…

Abstract

Evaluation of research is a core function of academic work, yet there has been very little theoretical development about what it means to ‘know’ in relation to judgements made in examination of doctoral research. This chapter addresses the issue by reflecting on findings from three projects aimed at enhancing understanding of doctoral examination. In order to progress understanding about knowledge judgements in the doctoral research context, the chapter draws on two key contributions in the field of knowledge and knowing, namely, Habermas’ cognitive interests and Chinn, Buckland and Samarapungavan’s notion of epistemic cognition. It examines the common ground between the two bodies of theory, drawing illustratively on empirical work in the field of doctoral examination. The comparison of the Habermasian theory of cognitive interests with Chinn et al.’s notion of epistemic cognition led to the conclusion that there were areas of overlap between the two conceptual schemas that could be utilised to advance research into doctoral examination in higher education. Habermas’ cognitive interests (which underpin his ways of knowing theory) offer a conceptual lens that facilitates analysis of the interaction of ontological and epistemic components of knowledge production. Chinn et al.’s notion of epistemic cognition allows for finer grained analysis of aspects of the cognitive work involved in knowledge rendition. This work is particularly pertinent in an era that sees the boundaries of the disciplines being challenged by the need for new perspectives and cross-disciplinary approaches to solving complex problems.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-287-0

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Isyaku Salisu, Aminullah Abdurrasheed Abdullah, Munir Shehu Mashi, Md. Mahmudul Alam and Norashidah Hashim

This study aims to investigate the influence of creativity and resource availability on career competencies (CC) and career success (CS) of entrepreneurs in Nigeria using…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of creativity and resource availability on career competencies (CC) and career success (CS) of entrepreneurs in Nigeria using the intelligent career framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was obtained using answers to questionnaires given to 348 successful entrepreneurs. The data was analysed using non-parametric software (Smart-PLS).

Findings

The results indicate that entrepreneurs who possess “know-why”, “know-how” and “know-whom” can access the required resources and are doing well in their careers. It is suggested that these competencies were significantly related to entrepreneurial CS. Resource availability moderates the relationship of knowing-how, knowing-why competencies and CS, whilst creativity moderates only the link between knowing-whom and entrepreneurial CS.

Research limitations/implications

The results help us to comprehend better the nature of successful entrepreneurial careers and the prominent role of tripartite competencies in achieving a successful career. Also emphasised here is the prominence of a more holistic perspective of these components based on a mix of social, motivational and human capital.

Practical implications

These findings hinted that entrepreneurs should pay uniform consideration in fostering each CC. There are implications for career advisers, practitioners and entrepreneurship programmes.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, this is first-of-its-kind research that used primary source data in understanding CC – “knowing-how, knowing-whom and knowing-why” – with entrepreneurs’ CS in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Michael Dickmann and Tim Mills

Research neglects the role that specific locations play in the decision process to accept international work. This paper aims to explore the career drivers of individuals…

2110

Abstract

Purpose

Research neglects the role that specific locations play in the decision process to accept international work. This paper aims to explore the career drivers of individuals working as expatriates in London (UK) and to focus on the relationships with specific location attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 11 qualitative in‐depth interviews and 348 quantitative questionnaire responses are used to explore the importance of intelligent career considerations for working as an expatriate in London.

Findings

A range of location‐specific factors and intelligent career considerations is identified and quantitatively assessed. The study depicts the links of perceived career factors and location‐specific drivers.

Originality/value

Applying the intelligent careers framework, the research goes beyond the normally used broad national factors to explore career capital drivers that motivate individuals to go to a specific city location. In exploring the relatively neglected areas of knowing‐whom and knowing‐why it sheds light on international relocation decision making. These insights inform further academic research and help to shape expatriation policies and practices of organizations.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Ellyn Lyle

Our individual and collective humanness is integral to the pursuit of learning and, thus, has the potential to bring much richness to discussions in teacher education…

Abstract

Our individual and collective humanness is integral to the pursuit of learning and, thus, has the potential to bring much richness to discussions in teacher education. Unfortunately, education continues to prioritize cognitive ways of knowing, often at the expense of affective and spiritual knowledge. Drawing on the work of Parker Palmer (1993, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 2004, 2017) who advocates for integrated ways of knowing and being and Manulani Meyer (2013) who draws on Indigenous knowledges to suggest holographic epistemology as meaning-making, I embrace a photo-poetic method to challenge the tendency in education to distance our minds from our emotional and ethereal selves. Situated within a/r/tography, this inquiry explores the capacity of artful ways of being to overcome the culture of disconnectedness in education.

Details

Exploring Self Toward Expanding Teaching, Teacher Education and Practitioner Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-262-9

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Marian Crowley-Henry, Edward P. O'Connor and Blanca Suarez-Bilbao

This micro-level study unpacks the recruitment and retention of international professionals to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The study highlights the…

Abstract

Purpose

This micro-level study unpacks the recruitment and retention of international professionals to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The study highlights the influence of the founders' international experience when applying organisational-level (meso) policies and practices. With their insider experience as skilled migrants, we share how the founders in each of the SMEs mobilised career capital into human resource management (HRM) strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining literature on SMEs and skilled migrants' careers, we draw upon intelligent career theory to illuminate the recruitment and retention of self-initiated expatriates and skilled migrants in SMEs. With three SME case studies as samples–one micro, one small and one medium-sized organisation in Ireland–we consider the influence of the founders' international experience in the design and application of formal and informal HRM strategies (at the organisational level) that are operationalised to recruit and retain international talent to/in these organisations.

Findings

The HRM practices in the three SME cases in this paper, each run by migrant founders, vary from formalised (for our medium-sized organisation), semi-formalised (for our small-sized organisation) to ad hoc and tailor-made (for our micro-sized organisation). These particular SMEs were often more receptive to hiring other migrants. The important role of the three SME case studies' skilled migrant founders and their own international career experiences was apparent in the particular HRM approaches they adopted. The relevance of intelligent career theory when applying micro-level findings at the meso-organisational level is shown.

Originality/value

The paper presents how the international experience of founder–managers, in turn, impacts on the HRM practices and policies that are implemented to recruit and retain international employees. The study highlights how both organisation size and founder-manager international experience influence the degree of customisation of HRM practices and policies in SMEs, specifically pertaining to the recruitment and retention of self-initiated expatriates and skilled migrant employees. The heterogeneity within the sub-categories encompassed under the umbrella label of SME is emphasised; validating our case study approach, where nuance and detail of the specific organisation can be shared.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Aurora Chen, Noeleen Doherty and Susan Vinnicombe

The purpose of this paper is to report a qualitative study with British women managers, which explored the career competencies accrued from undertaking an Executive MBA (EMBA).

1379

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report a qualitative study with British women managers, which explored the career competencies accrued from undertaking an Executive MBA (EMBA).

Design/methodology/approach

The research drew on in‐depth interviews with a sample of 18 female alumni from three British business schools. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8.0. within the career‐competencies framework of Knowing‐how, Knowing‐why and Knowing‐whom.

Findings

Women aged between 30 and 34 years emphasized the importance of gaining confidence (Knowing‐why) and skills (Knowing‐how) while those aged between 35 and 45 years focused on developing networks (Knowing‐whom). This study suggests that age and career stage may have considerable impact on perceptions of acquired career competencies.

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory piece with limited generalisability; however, it exposes the need to clarify the concept of career stage for women.

Practical implications

Business schools have historically stressed the career benefits of MBA programmes in terms of improved capital and of changing career directions. This research indicates that an EMBA may offer a more level playing field for women with respect to networking activities. In the competitive global environment, business schools may benefit from more fully exploring career competencies, such as networking skills, for increasing the appeal of EMBA programmes. The paper also draws attention to the need for HR managers to increase efforts for improving women's career competencies.

Originality/value

Findings extend previous research on the development of career competencies from an EMBA, indicating the importance of developing networks, particularly at mid‐career. The paper highlights the need to redefine women's mid‐career stage.

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Julia Yates and Sarah Skinner

Existing research has established that women drop out of engineering careers in part because of a dissatisfaction with their career development, but women's understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing research has established that women drop out of engineering careers in part because of a dissatisfaction with their career development, but women's understanding of career development in engineering has been as yet largely unexplored. This paper aims to explore female engineers' experiences of navigating their careers and their perceptions of barriers to career development, through the lens of the intelligent career framework (ICF).

Design/methodology/approach

The in-depth interviews of this study were conducted with female engineers in the UK and analysed using template analysis.

Findings

The authors identified three structural barriers that participants felt hinder women's career development in engineering: (1) promotions are more likely to be given to people who are widely known – more often men; (2) promotions are more likely to be given to people on whom high status is conferred in this context – more often men and (3) promotions are more likely to be given to people who conform to the ideal worker ideology – more often men. The women also offered a series of counter-narratives in which they reframed the behaviour they witnessed as something other than sexism.

Originality/value

The findings highlight the significant and systemic bias against women's career development through gender stereotypes in workplaces and an implicitly gendered organisation that hinders the development of the three competencies needed for career advancement. The authors describe a range of counter-narratives that the participants use to help them to make sense of their experiences. Finally, the authors illustrate the application of the intelligent career framework (ICF) as a lens to view the career development culture of an organisation.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Chen Fleisher, Svetlana N. Khapova and Paul G.W. Jansen

This paper examines the effects of the development of employees’ career competencies (knowing-why, knowing-how, and knowing-whom) on the employing organization and…

3930

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effects of the development of employees’ career competencies (knowing-why, knowing-how, and knowing-whom) on the employing organization and assesses the role of career satisfaction in this relationship. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to research on the consequences of employees’ boundaryless careers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involves a two-wave quantitative investigation of alumni of a large public university in the Netherlands.

Findings

The results suggest that by investing in the development of their career competencies, employees contribute to organizational culture, capabilities, and connections. However, these contributions depend on employees’ level of perceived career satisfaction. If employees are satisfied with their careers, they contribute more to their organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Further longitudinal research, strengthened by an additional, third wave of data collection, is needed to replicate the present findings.

Practical implications

The study highlights the importance of employees’ career development for organizations.

Originality/value

This study is the first empirical investigation of the link between the development of employees’ career competencies and employees’ contributions to their employers and one of a few studies that examines career satisfaction as a moderating variable.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Sophie Hennekam, Pauline de Becdelièvre and François Grima

This study examines how the collective construction of career sustainability takes place through a career community of interim managers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how the collective construction of career sustainability takes place through a career community of interim managers.

Design/methodology/approach

We draw on 31 interviews with interim managers who are part of a career community in the form of a professional association of interim managers in France.

Findings

The findings show the importance of career communities as a vehicle through which to create a sustainable career. More specifically, we show that occupational career communities provide mutual and reciprocal career support, collective being and belonging through sense-making as well as collective learning leading to the collective creation of a sustainable career.

Originality/value

We add to the literature on sustainable careers by providing a collective community-level analysis and make a theoretical contribution by using the concept of career communities in shedding light on the career sustainability of interim managers. In the light of the increase in non-standard forms of employment, career communities might become an interesting vehicle for career management and development.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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