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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Thomas W. Joo

Marriage is often compared to a “contract.” This analogy purports to proceed from a settled concept called “contract,” under which legitimate obligations derive from…

Abstract

Marriage is often compared to a “contract.” This analogy purports to proceed from a settled concept called “contract,” under which legitimate obligations derive from consent. The analogy creates confusion when applied in the legal context. In law, “contract” refers to a broad category of legal obligation. Many legal theorists believe “contractual” enforceability should be based solely on consent. But as a matter of positive legal doctrine, consent is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish enforceability. A contract's enforceability also depends on its relationship to public welfare.

Thus the “contract” analogy does not constitute a legal justification for an approach to marriage based solely on the consent of the parties. It merely expresses a normative preference for a consent-based approach. The chapter illustrates this point using examples of current marriage-related issues, such as covenant marriage, prenuptial agreements, and same-sex marriage.

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Law & Economics: Toward Social Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-335-4

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Abstract

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Law & Economics: Toward Social Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-335-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Baek-Kyoo (Brian) Joo, Gil Bozer and Kathryn J. Ready

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of learning organization culture (LOC), learning goal orientation (LGO) and psychological empowerment (PsyEmp) on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of learning organization culture (LOC), learning goal orientation (LGO) and psychological empowerment (PsyEmp) on employee engagement, focusing on the mediating role of each dimension of PsyEmp (meaning, competence, self-determination and impact).

Design/methodology/approach

Individual perceptions of 329 employees in 9 South Korean for-profit companies were obtained by a cross-sectional survey. Construct validity of each measurement model was examined using confirmatory factor analysis, and the hypothesized structural model was tested by structural equation modeling. Bootstrap analyses were used for testing mediation effects of PsyEmp.

Findings

The authors found that PsyEmp had a significant effect on job engagement, and that LOC and LGO significantly predicted the level of PsyEmp and engagement. The four dimensions of PsyEmp partially mediated the relationship between the two predictors (i.e. LOC and LGO) and job engagement. LGO had a stronger effect than LOC on both PsyEmp and job engagement.

Practical implications

Employees who are high in LGO and perceive that an organization provides opportunities for continuous learning with supportive leadership are more likely to experience improved meaning in their work, competence in their knowledge and skills, and foster self-determination with respect to their personal impact on their work and organization. These important facets of PsyEmp that promote employee engagement should be considered by human resource and OD professionals when recommending workplace changes to improve organizational effectiveness and sustainability.

Originality/value

This study complements the trend to use employee engagement as a proxy for understanding both individual and organizational performance by investigating the relationships among LOC, goal orientation, empowerment and engagement.

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Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Talat Islam, Saif Ur Rehman Khan, Ungku Norulkamar Bt. Ungku Ahmad, Ghulam Ali and Ishfaq Ahmed

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), job satisfaction, affective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment and turnover intention, as very little has been conducted in this regard.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research design was used via a questionnaire among 412 Malay-Chinese working in the banking and insurance sector of Malaysia.

Findings

OLC and PE were found to influence positively on job satisfaction and affective commitment, but negatively on turnover intention. In addition, job satisfaction was found to perform the role of mediator.

Research limitations/implications

The study used self-reported data based on cross-sectional survey.

Practical implications

OLC and PE were found to influence affective commitment and turnover intention directly and indirectly, providing an avenue of approach for managers to retain their key employees.

Originality/value

The paper examines OLC and PE as antecedents of employees’ attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnover intention), neglected variables along with the mediation of job satisfaction.

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Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Baek-Kyoo Joo and Sung Jun Jo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the perceived authentic leadership of supervisors and employees’ core self-evaluations on their organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the perceived authentic leadership of supervisors and employees’ core self-evaluations on their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and to examine the role of psychological empowerment as a partial mediator of those relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain individual perceptions from employees working in one of the biggest companies in Korea. Data from 374 samples was analyzed. Construct validity of each measurement model is examined using confirmatory factor analysis and the hypothesized structural model is tested by structural equation modeling.

Findings

The authors found that perceived authentic leadership, core self-evaluation, and employees’ psychological empowerment had significant impact on employees’ OCB, accounting for 58 percent of the variance in OCB. In addition, 54 percent of the variance in psychological empowerment was explained by authentic leadership and core self-evaluations, partially mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and OCB and the relationship between core self-evaluations and OCB.

Originality/value

Positivity is instrumental in driving intrinsic motivation for work and voluntary devotion to colleagues and organizations. This study contributed to the emerging research branch of management and organizational psychology such as positive organization scholarship and positive organizational behavior by exploring the relationship among the relevant constructs. More specifically, the authors found that positive contextual factor (i.e. authentic leadership), positive personality factor (i.e. core self-evaluations), and positive work experience (i.e. psychological empowerment) do have positive influence on employees’ extra-role performance (i.e. OCB).

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Torrie Hester

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) states in 2018 that safeguarding “civil liberties is critical” to their official duties. The Office for Civil Rights and Civil

Abstract

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) states in 2018 that safeguarding “civil liberties is critical” to their official duties. The Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties within DHS, as its website explains,

reviews and assesses complaints from the public in areas such as: physical or other abuse; discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or disability; inappropriate conditions of confinement; infringements of free speech; violation of right to due process … and any other civil rights or civil liberties violation related to a Department program or activity.

My chapter tracks the centrality of deportability in shaping the civil liberties and rights that DHS is tasked with enforcing. Over the course of the twentieth century, people on US soil saw an expanding list of civil liberties and civil rights. Important scholarship concentrates on the role of the courts, state and federal governments, advocacy groups, social movements, and foreign policy driving these constitutional and cultural changes. For instance, the scholarship illustrates that coming out of World War I, the US Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment did not protect something the Justices labeled “irresponsible speech.” The Supreme Court soon changed course, opening up an era ever since of more robust First Amendment rights. What has not been undertaken in the literature is an examination of the relationship of deportability to the sweep of civil liberties and civil rights. Starting in the second decade of the twentieth century, federal immigration policymakers began multiplying types of immigration statuses. A century later, among many others, there is the H2A status for temporary low-wage workers, the H2B for skilled labor, and permanent residents with green cards. The deportability of each status constrains access to certain liberties and rights. Thus, in 2016, when people from the Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties within DHS act, they are not enforcing a uniform body of rights and liberties that applies equally to citizens and immigrants, or even within the large category of immigrants. Instead, they do so within a complicated matrix of liberties and rights attenuated by deportability, which has been shaped by the history of the twentieth century.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-297-1

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Baek-Kyoo (Brian) Joo, Jong Gyu Park and Taejo Lim

Employee well-being has been an under-researched area in the field of human resources (HR) and organizational behavior. The purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee well-being has been an under-researched area in the field of human resources (HR) and organizational behavior. The purpose of this paper is to investigate personal (learning goal orientation (LGO)), contextual (empowering leadership), and job-related (psychological empowerment) antecedents of psychological well-being (PWB).

Design/methodology/approach

Individual perceptions of knowledge workers in nine Korean consulting firms in South Korea were obtained using a cross-sectional survey. HR managers distributed paper versions of a survey questionnaire to 400 employees, and 334 usable questionnaires were collected, giving the authors a final response rate of 83.5 percent.

Findings

As a result of structural equation modeling analysis, the level of employees’ psychological empowerment turned out to partially mediate the relationship between LGO and PWB, while fully mediating the relationship between empowering leadership and PWB. LGO and perceived empowering leadership accounted for 54 percent of the variance in psychological empowerment and the three antecedents explained 47 percent of the variance in PWB.

Research limitations/implications

This study relied on a cross-sectional survey method with potential common method bias. As a result of the single-factor test, however, it is unlikely to confound the interpretations of the results. Another limitation of this study is that the sample of this study was restricted to knowledge workers with relatively high cognitive ability since they were mostly junior male managers with four-year college or graduate degrees.

Practical implications

To enhance perceived empowerment and PWB, HR, and OD practitioners can support employees and their managers by providing relevant HR practices and services including developing supportive empowering leaders with effective coaching skills, hiring, and developing employees with higher LGO, and redesigning jobs for employees so they feel more empowered.

Originality/value

This study linked four emerging subjects in management and positive psychology: goal orientation, empowering leadership, psychological empowerment, and well-being research. The theoretical contribution of this study lies in that it is one of the first attempts to investigate the relationships among LGO, psychological empowerment, and PWB specifically for knowledge workers in South Korea.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Thomas O'Neal, Hokey Min, Daniel Cherobini and Seong-Jong Joo

The authors employed the three different versions (Charnes–Cooper–Rhodes, Banker–Charnes–Cooper and slack-based measure of efficiency) of data envelopment analysis (DEA…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors employed the three different versions (Charnes–Cooper–Rhodes, Banker–Charnes–Cooper and slack-based measure of efficiency) of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the comparative efficiency/inefficiency of aircraft maintenance performance during the previous 41 months in United States Air Force (USAF). As a complimentary tool, the authors also adopted Tobit regression analysis to identify factors affecting efficiencies and inefficiencies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to measure the relative efficiency of maintenance performances for a type of USAF aircraft in an effort to enhance aviation safety and combat readiness.

Findings

Through this study, the authors have two noteworthy findings. These are (1) an increased number of “cannibalization” (extracting necessary parts from the existing aircraft) practices tended to reduce maintenance efficiency; (2) The number of mission-capable aircraft turned out to be the most important factor for maintenance performance efficiency.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first studies on aircraft maintenance that considered popular but neglected cannibalization practices as a new variable for assessing the maintenance efficiency. In addition, this paper is one of the few studies that performed a post-ad hoc analysis as a follow-up to DEA analysis.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Talat Islam, Mubbsher Munawar Khan and Fida Hussain Bukhari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in banking and insurance sector of Malaysia.

Findings

PE and OLC were found to influence employee’s citizenship behavior toward their organization and turnover intention. In addition, AC was found to perform the role of mediator between them.

Research Limitations/implications

The study used self-reported data based on a cross-sectional survey. The study has implications for the managers.

Practical Implications

OLC and PE were found to influence turnover intention directly and indirectly, providing an avenue of approach for managers to retain its key employees.

Originality/value

The paper examines the consequences of OLC and PE, neglected variables along with the mediation of AC.

1 – 10 of 257