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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Thomas Pittz, Joshua S. Bendickson, Birton J. Cowden and Phillip E. Davis

Owners of the US-based sport teams are seeing consistent gains on their financial investments, no matter the success of their teams on the playing field or their impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

Owners of the US-based sport teams are seeing consistent gains on their financial investments, no matter the success of their teams on the playing field or their impact on the surrounding community. Sports teams are a part of an ecosystem comprised of primary and secondary stakeholders. The authors explore this phenomenon using a stakeholder perspective to understand how different business models and ownership structures optimize stakeholder value.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ an evaluative conceptual approach to examine the dominant model in the US, European ownership structures and public-private partnerships (PPPs). T finalize these comparisons by exploring a fourth business model and ownership structure – a relatively unique option in the US deployed by the Green Bay Packers – which we refer to as the maximized value partnership (MVP). These comparisons are followed by practical advice for owners in regard to these governance mechanisms.

Findings

The MVP ownership model has the potential to level the playing field between public and private actors. This potential is realized by fusing some of the best practices from European football clubs, in particular aspects of the stock market and supporter trust models.

Originality/value

By evaluating the most common ownership structures for sports teams, t provide an alternative model as well as practical advice for owners.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Melissa Intindola, Judith Y. Weisinger, Philip Benson and Thomas Pittz

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a multi-level approach consisting of individual, human resource management (HRM) team, and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a multi-level approach consisting of individual, human resource management (HRM) team, and organizational contingency factors when considering the efficacy of HR devolvement efforts. The authors accomplish this through a review of the relevant devolvement literature to show how outcomes are impacted by contingency factors, which highlights a gap in extant scholarship, and the authors organize the literature in a way that is meaningful to future researchers interested in the topic as well as practitioners involved with its implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a narrative review approach to describe previous devolvement research (e.g. Hammersley, 2001; Harvey and Moeller, 2009). In contrast to a systematic review more commonly seen in quantitative meta-analyses, a narrative review allows for a more descriptive and detailed analysis and critique of quantitative, qualitative, and theoretical research (Bezrukova et al., 2012; Posthuma et al., 2002). This methodology produced over 300 books, journal articles, magazine articles, and discussion papers. In this review, the authors chose to focus only on those peer-reviewed papers reporting empirical findings or developing theoretical arguments surrounding devolvement.

Findings

While the studies reviewed herein are admirable and help call attention to an important topic in HRM, they nonetheless fail to provide a comprehensive understanding of contingencies affecting devolvement as they do not consider the multi-level nature of the phenomenon. Therefore, the authors’ contribution lies in the identification and categorization of contingency factors affecting the occurrence of devolvement operating at the individual, HRM team, and organizational levels.

Originality/value

As devolvement continues to be a viable means for assigning HR responsibilities from the human resources department to managers, its effects can have an impact on organizational performance, the strategic positioning of HR, and various job attitudes of line managers. Therefore, a clearer picture of devolvement in order to understand its continued significance is an important contribution.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Art Barnard, Thomas Pittz and Jeff Vanevenhoven

Over the past 30 years, enrollment in entrepreneurship programming within community colleges has grown substantially. The two-year context poses unique challenges and…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past 30 years, enrollment in entrepreneurship programming within community colleges has grown substantially. The two-year context poses unique challenges and opportunities for studying entrepreneurship, and the purpose of this paper is to use a narrative review approach to consider the vitality of entrepreneurship education in the community college system. This research captures and reflects key findings from the field and illuminates the current state of scholarship on entrepreneurship education in community colleges. Four key areas are highlighted that describe the primarily challenges and distinctiveness of entrepreneurship education in the community college setting: curricular effectiveness, emphasis, degree and non-degree programs. The general framework that emerges from this narrative review helps to identify gaps in the literature and provides a focal point for future studies.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured literature review methodology (Armitage and Keeble-Allen, 2008) was chosen for this study as the state of literature in the specific area of interest did not present general groupings of topics or activities. Given this lack of categorical clarity, the design was specifically focused on bringing together key groupings to provide a framework for further study. The specific methodology adopted standard SLR techniques in terms of article selection, choice and organization. No pre-conceived groupings were used as part of organization of information. The goal was to allow the disparate studies fall into natural categories as greater review and organization continued.

Findings

During the authors’ review and analysis of the extant literature, four focal areas emerge that appear to create a general framework for explaining the important matters in community college entrepreneurial education. Those areas are: overall effectiveness, education emphasis, non-credit educational programs, and for-credit educational programs. The following discussion offers a starting point for future investigation. Figure 2 presents this paper’s advocacy arguments and a full literature review follows this initial framework.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurship programs in universities have grown significantly over the last 30 years (Heriot and Simpson, 2007). In the early 1980s, approximately 300 schools had entrepreneurship and small business programs. By the 1990s, that number had increased to 1,050 schools and signaled the beginnings of rapid entrepreneurial education expansion (Solomon et al., 1994). By the early 2000s, entrepreneurship education had exploded to more than 1,600 schools offering over 2,200 courses including journals and mainstream trade publications as well as special issues devoted solely to entrepreneurship (Katz, 2003; in Kuratko, 2005). This growth trend has been mirrored in community colleges (DoBell and Ingle, 2009). Despite that growth, scholarship regarding entrepreneurship education in community colleges has been described as a “wild west” (Truit, 2017) highlighted by little communication or sharing of experiences or cooperative activities beyond limited partnerships both inside or outside of the community college. Existing studies tend to be scattered and practitioner-written while academic articles are often theoretical, focused more on entrepreneurial education in four-year universities and at times promote underspecified models of challenges community colleges face. Given the dearth of scholarly work in the domain, this review attempts to form a comprehensive classification of extant work in order to stimulate and direct future research in this domain. The goal is to provide a current “state of the literature” of entrepreneurial education in community colleges that shares findings, suggests potential areas of inquiry, and helps to structure research arguments. To accomplish this, in the spirit of Hammersley (2001) and Harvey and Moeller (2009), we present a descriptive, narrative review of entrepreneurship education in community colleges in order to gain a better understanding of its complexities.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Thomas G. Pittz and Giles Hertz

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the entrepreneurship center (EC) in the larger entrepreneurial ecosystem. Entrepreneurial ecosystems thrive because of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the entrepreneurship center (EC) in the larger entrepreneurial ecosystem. Entrepreneurial ecosystems thrive because of complex interdependencies and dynamic relationships between and among its participants. While the university has often been highlighted as a key player in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, the role of the EC within the university, despite its strategically influential position in stimulating entrepreneurship, has not received sufficient attention in scholarship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors attempt to address this gap in scholarship using an expert Delphi panel approach to explore the vital role that the EC plays in ensuring the vibrancy of the regional entrepreneurial ecosystem. In doing so, the authors tackle the question of sustainability of the EC by outlining a structural framework and key job characteristics of the EC director so that it may thrive beyond the tenure of a transformational leader.

Findings

In analyzing the responses of Delphi panelists and reviewing the theoretical foundations, the authors have identified three areas for discussion: the question of whether the EC director ought to be an academic job, the key skills of an effective EC director and how to sustain the EC after the departure of a transformative leader. Considering the vital role that the EC plays in the university and regional entrepreneurial ecosystems, these questions have importance for the future of the practice of entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The role of the EC in the larger regional entrepreneurial ecosystem and the impact of the EC director are subjects that have been largely unaddressed by current scholarship. This is despite the growing number of ECs, the growth of entrepreneurship as a discipline, the desire to foster entrepreneurial universities and the struggle to find suitable EC leadership talent. The EC is critical for bringing together various actors within the regional entrepreneurship ecosystem, creating and maintaining an entrepreneurial culture and fostering co-curricular learning to develop human capital, key benefits that the university provides on top of its research activity.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Thomas G. Pittz and Eric W. Liguori

Abstract

Details

The Entrepreneur's Guide to Risk and Decisions: Building Successful Early-Stage Ventures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-871-5

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Thomas G. Pittz and Melissa L. Intindola

Abstract

Details

Scaling Social Innovation Through Cross-sector Social Partnerships: Driving Optimal Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-539-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Thomas G. Pittz, Laura T. Madden and David Mayo

We implement an inductive, case study approach to explore the motivations and methods of five successful social entrepreneurs. Our findings show that founders noticed…

Abstract

We implement an inductive, case study approach to explore the motivations and methods of five successful social entrepreneurs. Our findings show that founders noticed, felt, and responded to someone else's pain, demonstrating compassion as the genesis of the business venture. Successful social innovation, however, was the result of the creation of an organization structured to include diverse stakeholder input and participation in the decision-making process. Thus, compassion motivates entrepreneurs to pursue broad gains as opposed to singular interests and enhances a willingness to incorporate others' ideas through an open-strategy process. Our study suggests that interaction with stakeholders can impact the structure of the firm, the business model it employs, and intended and unintended business consequences.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Thomas G. Pittz and Melissa L. Intindola

Abstract

Details

Scaling Social Innovation Through Cross-sector Social Partnerships: Driving Optimal Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-539-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Thomas G. Pittz and Melissa L. Intindola

Abstract

Details

Scaling Social Innovation Through Cross-sector Social Partnerships: Driving Optimal Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-539-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Thomas G. Pittz and Melissa L. Intindola

Abstract

Details

Scaling Social Innovation Through Cross-sector Social Partnerships: Driving Optimal Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-539-1

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