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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Olaf Wetzstein, Thomas Ortlepp, Hermann F. Uhlmann and Hannes Toepfer

Josephson junctions act as active elements in superconducting electronics. The behavior of this nonlinear element is characterized by the relation between current and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Josephson junctions act as active elements in superconducting electronics. The behavior of this nonlinear element is characterized by the relation between current and the quantum mechanical phase‐difference. For an accurate device modeling, detailed knowledge about this relation is necessary. This paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To obtain detailed information, a method for DC measurement of the current‐phase relation suitable for all kinds of superconducting circuit elements was accomplished.

Findings

The authors developed a linear transformation algorithm to calculate the current‐phase relation from the measured data.

Research limitations/implications

It turns out that in future designs additional connections and special test structures are required to gain more knowledge about inductance values required for the algorithm.

Originality/value

Based on the inverse calculation of that algorithm, the authors found a 7 percent deviation of the current‐phase relation of a standard superconductor/insulator/superconductor Josephson junction from the predicted sine‐wave behavior. Furthermore, the paper suggests to use this method to evaluate the current‐phase relation of new Josephson elements such as a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction. Therefore, the authors will deposit the new element directly on the chip with the test setup fabricated with standard Nb‐technology.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2013

Markus Deimann and Peter Sloep

For an extended period of time education was mainly formal, that is a system with clear roles, goals and responsibilities. Education resembled an immutable and closed…

Abstract

For an extended period of time education was mainly formal, that is a system with clear roles, goals and responsibilities. Education resembled an immutable and closed system with few, if any, connections to other parts of society. However, during the last century significant changes occurred in many areas of society, culminating in global reform movements to democratise education and to increase participation by opening up education. A current and prominent example of such a movement is Open Educational Resources (OER), which is a global attempt to facilitate the flow of knowledge, reduce the costs of education, and establish an educational system based on humanistic and moral values (i.e. sharing). Yet, recent developments are progressing at such an accelerated speed that it is hard to predict the ‘real’ value of OERs for educational purposes. Also, within OER little reference has been made to previous forms of Open Education, such as Open Classroom/Open Learning in the 1960s and 1970s or to the even older German progressive education (Reformpädagogik). Current OE forms can be characterised as a mixture of economical (‘education as a commodity’), moral (‘education as a common good’) and social (‘education as a shared enterprise’) claims, each of which contribute to the emergence of Open Education. This introductory chapter attempts to set the stage for a sound engagement with openness in education. It provides a conceptual framework that discusses major developments throughout the history of Open Education from a philosophical standpoint. Special attention will be paid to the concept of Bildung (self-realisation, self-cultivation) as an in-depth theory that can not only inform what happens when learners utilise OER but also allows one to reflect on the impact of OER on society. Selected cases of Open Education will be reviewed and then framed with the theory of Bildung. Eventually, this will lead to a set of lessons learned that are aimed at guiding current debates on Open Education.

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Linda Schweitzer, Sean Lyons, Lisa K.J. Kuron and Eddy S.W. Ng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender gap in pre-career salary expectations. Five major explanations are tested to explain the gap, as well as understand…

2302

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender gap in pre-career salary expectations. Five major explanations are tested to explain the gap, as well as understand the relative contribution of each explanation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 452 post-secondary students from Canada.

Findings

Young women had lower initial and peak salary expectations than their male counterparts. The gap in peak salary could be explained by initial salary expectations, beta values, the interaction between beta values and gender, and estimations of the value of the labor market. Men and women in this study expected to earn a considerably larger peak salary than they expected for others.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional data cannot infer causality, and the Canadian sample may not be generalizable to other countries given that an economic downturn occurred at time of data collection. Research should continue to investigate how individuals establish initial salary expectations, while also testing more dynamic models given the interaction effect found in terms of gender and work values in explaining salary expectations.

Practical implications

The majority of the gender gap in peak salary expectations can be explained by what men and women expect to earn immediately after graduation. Further, women and men have different perceptions of the value they attribute to the labor market and what might be a fair wage, especially when considering beta work values.

Social implications

The data suggests that the gender-wage gap is likely to continue and that both young men and women would benefit from greater education and information with respect to the labor market and what they can reasonably expect to earn, not just initially, but from a long-term perspective.

Originality/value

This study is the first to simultaneously investigate five theoretical explanations for the gender gap in pre-career expectations.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Jyoti Joshi Pant and Vijaya Venkateswaran

The purpose of the study is to understand whether psychological contract (PC) expectations manifest differently for diversity clusters of gender, physical disability and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to understand whether psychological contract (PC) expectations manifest differently for diversity clusters of gender, physical disability and region in relation to job performance and intention to stay.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a survey-based study. Data from 1,065 information technology and business process management professionals were analysed using partial least square based structural equation model (PLS-SEM) and multigroup analysis.

Findings

The met PC expectations related to career growth and development impact performance and are influenced by regional diversity. The met PC expectations related to job and work environment impact the intention to stay. Gender and physical disability do not influence any relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The findings related to physical disability are based on a small sample of 60 employees. This could be reflective of their actual participation in the workplace.

Practical implications

No significant differences were found between men and women employees with/without physically disability. However, regional diversity creates significant differences. Diversity policies should reckon these similarities/differences while viewing requirements of job performance and determinants of intention to stay.

Social implications

One needs to be careful while assuming diversity as a heterogeneous phenomenon. The reality could reflect both differences and similarities. Diverse employee groups having a common set of expectations is a socially positive evolution connoting better social integration.

Originality/value

This article is one of the first to research the influence of gender, physical disability and regional diversity on PC and its outcomes in India. Regional diversity has not been studied based on this framework and this adds to the body of knowledge.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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