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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2008

Thomas F. Burke

Fifty years ago the political scientist Robert Dahl concluded that courts are usually in sync with “the policy views dominant among the lawmaking majorities” and thus…

Abstract

Fifty years ago the political scientist Robert Dahl concluded that courts are usually in sync with “the policy views dominant among the lawmaking majorities” and thus offer little help to aggrieved minorities (Dahl, 1957, p. 285). In recent years, Dahl's classic formulation has received renewed attention. This chapter uses the example of the Rehnquist Court's First Amendment decisions to analyze “regime politics” theory. On religion cases the Rehnquist Court was generally in sync with the socially conservative strain in the Republican Party, but in other First Amendment areas the pattern is far more complex, raising questions about the relationship between conservative judges and the political movements that brought them to office.

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Special Issue Constitutional Politics in a Conservative Era
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1486-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Bridget McNally, Anne M. Garvey and Thomas O’Connor

This paper aims to argue that the accounting standards’ requirements for the valuation of defined benefit pension schemes in the financial statements of scheme sponsoring…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue that the accounting standards’ requirements for the valuation of defined benefit pension schemes in the financial statements of scheme sponsoring companies potentially produce an artificial result which is at odds with the “faithful representation” and “relevance” objectives of these standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is a theoretical analysis of the relevant reporting standards with the use of a practical example to demonstrate the impact where trustees adopt a hedged approach to portfolio investment.

Findings

Where a pension fund engages in asset liability matching and invests in “risk-free” assets, the term, quantity and duration/maturity of which is intended to match some or all of its scheme liabilities, the required accounting treatment potentially results in the sponsoring company’s financial statements reporting fluctuating surpluses or deficits each year which are potentially ill informed and misleading.

Originality/value

Pension scheme surpluses or deficits reported in the financial statements of listed companies are potentially very significant numbers; however, the dangers posed by theoretical nature of the calculation have largely gone unreported.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Emily Walton and Denise L. Anthony

Racial and ethnic minorities utilize less healthcare than their similarly situated white counterparts in the United States, resulting in speculation that these actions may…

Abstract

Racial and ethnic minorities utilize less healthcare than their similarly situated white counterparts in the United States, resulting in speculation that these actions may stem in part from less desire for care. In order to adequately understand the role of care-seeking for racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, we must fully and systematically consider the complex set of social factors that influence healthcare seeking and use.

Data for this study come from a 2005 national survey of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N = 2,138). We examine racial and ethnic variation in intentions to seek care, grounding our analyses in the behavioral model of healthcare utilization. Our analysis consists of a series of nested multivariate logistic regression models that follow the sequencing of the behavioral model while including additional social factors.

We find that Latino, Black, and Native American older adults express greater preferences for seeking healthcare compared to whites. Worrying about one’s health, having skepticism toward doctors in general, and living in a small city rather than a Metropolitan Area, but not health need, socioeconomic status, or healthcare system characteristics, explain some of the racial and ethnic variation in care-seeking preferences. Overall, we show that even after comprehensively accounting for factors known to influence disparities in utilization, elderly racial and ethnic minorities express greater desire to seek care than whites.

We suggest that future research examine social factors such as unmeasured wealth differences, cultural frameworks, and role identities in healthcare interactions in order to understand differences in care-seeking and, importantly, the relationship between care-seeking and disparities in utilization.

This study represents a systematic analysis of the ways individual, social, and structural context may account for racial and ethnic differences in seeking medical care. We build on healthcare seeking literature by including more comprehensive measures of social relationships, healthcare and system-level characteristics, and exploring a wide variety of health beliefs and expectations. Further, our study investigates care seeking among multiple understudied racial and ethnic groups. We find that racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to say they would seek healthcare than whites, suggesting that guidelines promoting the elicitation and understanding of patient preferences in the context of the clinical interaction is an important step toward reducing utilization disparities. These findings also underscore the notion that health policy should go further to address the broader social factors relating to care-seeking in the first place.

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Health and Health Care Concerns Among Women and Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-150-8

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2006

Robert A. Kahn

The Supreme Court's recent cross burning case – Virginia v. Black (2003) – saw dueling historical narratives. Justice O’Connor, writing for the majority, painted a history…

Abstract

The Supreme Court's recent cross burning case – Virginia v. Black (2003) – saw dueling historical narratives. Justice O’Connor, writing for the majority, painted a history in which the Klan often burned crosses to intimidate, but also did so for other, “expressive” reasons. Justice Thomas, in dissent, related a history in which the burning cross never speaks. Interestingly, O’Connor and Thomas used many of the same historical sources. How did they reach such different results? While both O’Connor and Thomas interpreted (and stretched) the historical sources in different directions, their dispute ultimately turned on their diverging doctrinal views.

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Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-323-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Jenny Castle, Michael Rutter, Celia Beckett, Emma Colvert, Christine Groothues, Amanda Hawkins, Jana Kreppner, Thomas O'Connor, Suzanne Stevens and Edmund Sonuga‐Barke

Service use between six and 11 years of age is reported for children adopted from Romania into UK families, and compared with that for children adopted within the UK…

Abstract

Service use between six and 11 years of age is reported for children adopted from Romania into UK families, and compared with that for children adopted within the UK before six months of age. Between six and 11, there had been only one adoption breakdown, and about one in ten couples experienced a marital breakdown. Apart from continuing concerns over hepatitis B carrier status in a small number of children, physical health problems were not a prominent feature. By contrast, nearly one‐third of the children from Romania placed in UK families after the age of six months received mental health services provision ‐ a rate far higher than the 11 to 15% in the groups adopted before the age of six months. Such provision was strongly related to research assessments of mental health problems and largely concerned syndromes that were relatively specific to institutional deprivation (quasi‐autism, disinhibited attachment and inattention/overactivity). There were similar differences between the UK adoptees and the adoptees from Romania entering the UK after six months of age in major special educational provision and, again, the findings showed that the provision was in accord with research assessments of scholastic achievement. The between group differences for lesser special educational provision were much smaller and there was some tendency for the early adopted groups to receive such provision for lesser degrees of scholastic problems than the children adopted from Romania who entered the UK after six months of age. The policy and practice implications of the findings are briefly discussed.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Thomas O'Connor and Julie Byrne

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between corporate governance and firm value at different stages of the corporate life-cycle.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between corporate governance and firm value at different stages of the corporate life-cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use two measures, commonly employed in the literature, to differentiate between “immature” and “mature” firms, and estimate separate governance-value regressions for each set of firms.

Findings

The findings suggest that it is differences in the resource/strategic governance functions, which manifest in young firms which result in differences in value across firms, all else equal. The authors find no relationship between governance and firm value for older firms. Hence, differences in the monitoring aspect of governance between mature firms are not rewarded with a value premium.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that the strategic and resource roles of governance are “must haves” for firms since firms that score highly on these fronts are valued more highly. In contrast, differences in the monitoring aspect of governance are not rewarded, suggesting that effective monitoring is not a necessity, but rather a “nice to have”. The analysis is limited to a small sample of emerging market firms, and it would be of interest to extend this analysis to a larger and broader sample of firms.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that corporate governance is not valued at all stages of the corporate life-cycle.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 41 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Colin Coulson‐Thomas

Mentoring larger numbers of people can be a challenge. This paper seeks to show how performance support can overcome scalability barriers and cost‐effectively provide best

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612

Abstract

Purpose

Mentoring larger numbers of people can be a challenge. This paper seeks to show how performance support can overcome scalability barriers and cost‐effectively provide best practice and up to date help to people throughout an organization, and internationally, on a 24/7 basis and wherever and whenever they need assistance.

Design/methodology/approach

Performance support tools can capture and share what high performers do differently in areas in which they excel, and enable others to emulate their approaches to understanding complex situations and doing difficult tasks. The author presents drawbacks of traditional mentoring and training, and summarizes the return on investment, scalability, flexibility, and sustainability advantages of performance support.

Findings

Tools examined have yielded multiple benefits to users and commissioning organizations. Relevant and current support can be provided as and when help is needed, including out of the office and on the move.

Practical implications

Performance support has generated high returns on investment. Results include better understanding, higher productivity, quicker and bespoke responses, reduced costs, less stress, and evidenced compliance. Support and learning occurs at the place and time of work. Users can benefit from the advice of whoever has the most relevant and highly effective way of addressing whatever problems arise at each stage of a task.

Originality/value

Research underpinning performance support is summarized, and what it is and its implications are described. It is compared with e‐learning and face‐to‐face approaches. Performance support can complement, supplement or replace traditional approaches to mentoring and training, making superstar support available to larger numbers of people, as and when assistance is required.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 43 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Thomas O'Connor and Julie Byrne

– The purpose of this paper is to examine whether corporate governance changes along the corporate life-cycle.

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3669

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether corporate governance changes along the corporate life-cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

In a sample of 205 firms from 21 emerging market countries and using a life-cycle proxy from the dividends literature, the authors use a governance-prediction model which examines whether corporate governance differs along the corporate life-cycle.

Findings

Mature firms tend to practice better overall corporate governance. Discipline and independence improve as firms mature. Firms tend to be most transparent and accountable when they are young. These findings suggest that the resource/strategy and monitoring/control governance functions are relevant but at different life-cycle stages.

Research limitations/implications

In the absence of longitudinal governance data with sufficient coverage to track within-firm changes in corporate governance along the corporate life-cycle, the authors analyze differences in corporate governance between-firms at different life-cycle stages.

Originality/value

The authors use an alternative, yet new measure from the dividends literature to account for the firm’s position along the corporate life-cycle. With this new measure, the findings are in line with the predictions of Filatotchev et al. (2006).

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Thomas G. O'Connor

The purpose of this paper is to study the valuation effects of cross listing in the USA for a panel of emerging market firms over the period from 1990 to 2003.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the valuation effects of cross listing in the USA for a panel of emerging market firms over the period from 1990 to 2003.

Design/methodology/approach

Using firm‐level data from Worldscope, the paper examines the valuation effects of listing in the USA for a panel of emerging market firms. Specifically, the following techniques are employed in order to control for self‐selection bias: calculate the average effect of the treatment on the treated using propensity score matching, pooled ordinary least squares with Mundlak corrections, firm‐fixed effects, and panel treatment effects models.

Findings

In line with previous researches, only those firms from high‐disclosure regimes gain from Level 2/3 listing in the USA. The gains are not immediate, but materialize once the firm has listed in the USA for at least five years. Also documented were long‐term, but not immediate valuation gains for Level 1 over‐the‐counterissues. In contrast to Level 2/3 issues, the gains are concentrated amongst firms from low‐disclosure regimes. No positive valuation effects were found for Rule 144a private placements. The results suggest that the decision on the part of the majority of firms from low‐disclosure regimes not to list as exchange traded depositary receipts is warranted.

Research limitations/implications

It may have been interesting to further examine the causes of the results. For example, it would have been interesting to see how firm visibility (media and analyst coverage), liquidity, and capital issuance changed around the time of listing. However, data availability prevented such an analysis.

Originality/value

As opposed to standard event studies, this paper examines the effect of listing on firm value using valuation metrics, i.e. Tobin's q. Second, and unlike event studies, the techniques employed are substantially more robust to self‐selection bias.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Book part
Publication date: 31 August 2001

Albert Wertheimer, Richard Levy and Thomas O'Connor

Drugs in the same therapeutic class differ in their therapeutic profile, metabolism, adverse effects, dosing schedules, delivery systems, and other features. In addition…

Abstract

Drugs in the same therapeutic class differ in their therapeutic profile, metabolism, adverse effects, dosing schedules, delivery systems, and other features. In addition, such agents can provide backup if the initial drug sometimes fails in the development stage or in the market. The availability of a broad range of medicines enables physicians to treat with precision the individual needs of diverse patients and provides options when the first agent used is either ineffective or not tolerated. Some incremental innovations have been associated with overall cost savings. Competition among drugs in a therapeutic class drives prices down. Policies that limit research on incremental innovations may deny access to important therapies, reduce competition, and erode incentives for research.

Details

Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-070-8

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