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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Emma O’Brien, Thomas M. Cooney and Per Blenker

Entrepreneurship education has moved from an elitist view focussing on a start-up and picking-the-winners philosophy towards a broader enterprising behaviour approach;…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education has moved from an elitist view focussing on a start-up and picking-the-winners philosophy towards a broader enterprising behaviour approach; recognising entrepreneurship as an activity of relevance for everybody. The purpose of this paper is to extend this development and identify how university entrepreneurial ecosystems can be expanded to support communities that are under-represented in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an integrative literature review (Torraco, 2005), this paper draws together and synthesises literature from the field of entrepreneurship, higher education studies and under-represented communities in an integrated fashion, leading to the development of a new conceptual model.

Findings

This paper challenges the traditional role of universities in supporting entrepreneurship as focussing mainly on economic growth and new venture creation, and identifies how universities are also positioned to provide greater civic support to entrepreneurial learning amongst under-represented communities. Through a critical analysis of the literature, the conceptual model proposed identifies six key considerations in the expansion of university entrepreneurial ecosystems for under-represented communities.

Practical implications

There are currently 96.6m people at risk of poverty and social exclusion in the EU (OECD, 2017) and an estimated 43.1m Americans (US Census Bureau, 2017). This paper explores how university entrepreneurial ecosystems can be expanded to support minority and disadvantaged communities who are under-represented in terms of entrepreneurial activity.

Originality/value

Given that there is little research regarding how universities might activate inclusive entrepreneurship initiatives amongst under-represented communities, this paper expands existing knowledge as it identifies the key considerations encompassing university-led community collaborative enterprise support.

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Kingsley C. Njoku and Thomas M. Cooney

Given that international research is now consistently showing higher rates of entrepreneurial activity from immigrants above native people, research regarding our…

Abstract

Given that international research is now consistently showing higher rates of entrepreneurial activity from immigrants above native people, research regarding our understanding of how immigrant entrepreneurs view business opportunity formation remains underdeveloped. Based upon a review of the literature, this chapter examines how ethnicity relates to business opportunity formation through constant interactions. It also introduces the Visual Mixed Embeddedness Framework as an empirical lens for understanding the differences in the business opportunity formation process models between immigrant and native entrepreneurs. By explaining how factors and traits from both home and host countries impact upon the immigrant entrepreneurial business activity process, the framework clearly identifies how the concept of ethnicity influences immigrant entrepreneurial opportunity formation activities in different ways. The framework contributes to existing knowledge by offering a novel method for examining the influence on business opportunity formation of ethnicity, the role of home and host countries and variations between immigrant and native entrepreneurs.

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-372-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Emma O’Brien and Thomas M. Cooney

A decade after the 2008 global financial crisis, economic growth is returning to many OECD countries and EU states. However, a “rising tide does not lift all boats” and…

Abstract

A decade after the 2008 global financial crisis, economic growth is returning to many OECD countries and EU states. However, a “rising tide does not lift all boats” and there are currently 96.6 million people at risk of poverty and social exclusion in the EU (OECD, 2017). Addressing this concerning social situation, requires innovative approaches and it has been suggested that inclusive entrepreneurship may be part of the solution. Yet, many under-represented groups (in terms of entrepreneurial activity) face significant barriers to entrepreneurship. This research study identifies how Higher Education Institutions can utilise their multidisciplinary knowledge and expertise in partnership with government, industry and civil society to address the economic and social challenges within under-represented communities by engendering higher levels of enterprising behaviour. Emerging studies in the literature have demonstrated how some Higher Education Institutions are providing tailored and holistic enterprise support to under-represented groups in their communities. However, such initiatives are not common and there is little research on how other HEIs might replicate inclusive entrepreneurship initiatives. Through the presentation of a conceptual model, this chapter identifies how HEIs can move outside of their formal education setting and dynamically support the development of enterprising competencies and behaviours amongst people within their local communities. The findings highlight six key areas for consideration in such developments including: 1. Teaching and Learning; 2. Resources; 3. Infrastructure; 4. Multidisciplinary Approaches; 5. Stakeholders and 6. Culture. These findings highlight the requirements for impactful HEI-community engagement and suggest that HEI community engagement through entrepreneurial education is a novel way of adding value for both under-represented communities and HEIs.

Details

Management and Administration of Higher Education Institutions at Times of Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-628-1

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Thomas M. Cooney

314

Abstract

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Thomas M. Cooney

While the growth of the Irish economy (“Celtic Tiger”) has been well documented, not enough attention has been given to the role of education as a cornerstone for the…

944

Abstract

Purpose

While the growth of the Irish economy (“Celtic Tiger”) has been well documented, not enough attention has been given to the role of education as a cornerstone for the success. This paper seeks to review education policy in Ireland over the past 50 years and to identify the significant educational initiatives that helped shape modern Ireland.

Design/methodology/approach

Primarily utilising history books and governmental papers with specific reference to education policy in Ireland, the paper is a review of the relevant literature offering an insight into a variety of schemes instigated by various Ministers for Education over the past five decades.

Findings

The key finding was that the consistent education policies of the preceding decades bore fruit: during the 1990s, there was growing demand for educated human capital in all developed countries, and its ready availability in Ireland helped to attract foreign direct investment and to promote the development of indigenous companies.

Originality/value

This paper uses education policy in Ireland to create a link from mass emigration in the 1950s to the “Celtic Tiger” boom years of recent times.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 April 2009

Thomas M. Cooney

The purpose of this paper is to explore hypothesis that high‐growth firms founded by entrepreneurial teams use a unique combination of organic structure and emergent strategy.

1549

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore hypothesis that high‐growth firms founded by entrepreneurial teams use a unique combination of organic structure and emergent strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study of 445 software development firms in the USA and 219 firms in Ireland was undertaken with a valid response rate of 22 per cent and 38 per cent, respectively.

Findings

Generally, all classifications of firms in the USA and in Ireland demonstrated a combination of organic structure and emergent strategy at the beginning of their existence. As the US firms grew older they moved towards a combination of organic structure and deliberate strategy, while Irish firms moved towards a combination of mechanical structure and deliberate strategy that was hierarchical and organised.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was conducted in only one industry and some firm classifications had small cell sizes.

Practical implications

The ambition of this study was to offer owner‐managers an evidence‐based structure/strategy combination that would support the attainment of high‐growth.

Originality/value

This was the first occasion that the concept of a combination of structure and strategy was explored as an explanation for high‐growth amongst firms founded by entrepreneurial teams.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2010

Jarna Heinonen, Ulla Hytti and Thomas M. Cooney

The paper aims to describe the manner in which entrepreneurship policies are embedded in the national contexts and then through analysis offers a deeper understanding of…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to describe the manner in which entrepreneurship policies are embedded in the national contexts and then through analysis offers a deeper understanding of the development of Finnish and Irish entrepreneurship policies. It seeks to focus on three questions: What is the context for entrepreneurship policies in the studied countries?; What kind of governance structure for entrepreneurship policy can be identified and derived from theoretical perspectives?; and What policy instruments and content are associated with governance rationale?

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data involve primary data on national entrepreneurship policy documents illustrating the governance structure for policy development and implementation, as well as policy objectives and targets. Additionally, concrete policy measures were studied within six sub‐areas of entrepreneurship. The analysis is based on a framework with two layers of policy: governance structure, and specific policy measures.

Findings

The results show that the countries studied are implementing strikingly similar approaches in entrepreneurship policy‐making: state‐institutional coordination marked by a strong role for the government, complemented by a more recent shift towards a competitive approach. Because political, national and economic context plays a significant role in understanding entrepreneurship policy approaches it is justified to add a third layer, context, to the framework.

Practical implications

Particular measures or good practices cannot be imported from other countries without understanding the theoretical rationale and policy context for the measures.

Originality/value

The study highlights the role of time and path‐dependency in policy‐making; therefore, future research and evaluations on entrepreneurship policies need to be strongly contextualised.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Thomas M. Cooney

The purpose of this paper is to explore the distinctive challenges faced by female travellers (Roma, Sinti and Gypsy) in starting their own business.

591

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the distinctive challenges faced by female travellers (Roma, Sinti and Gypsy) in starting their own business.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper details a pilot “start your own business” programme that was delivered in Ireland to 12 women from the traveller community.

Findings

Four distinct categories of entrepreneurship barriers faced by female travellers were recognised: self‐esteem, traveller identity, welfare trap and family responsibilities.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on just one programme and so no general conclusions can be drawn.

Practical implications

The paper identifies the successes and failures of the programme, plus it highlights the future steps that need to be taken to bring appropriate entrepreneurship support to traveller women who experience triple discrimination – discrimination as women, as travellers and as traveller women.

Originality/value

Very little is known about female travellers in terms of entrepreneurship activity and so this is a significant addition to a very small body of knowledge.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Abstract

Details

Management and Administration of Higher Education Institutions at Times of Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-628-1

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Abstract

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-372-8

1 – 10 of 165