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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-727-8

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2009

Joan M. Phillips and Thomas J. Reynolds

This paper aims to outline the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology (Reynolds and Gutman), examine how some “hard” laddering approaches meet or…

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2693

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology (Reynolds and Gutman), examine how some “hard” laddering approaches meet or violate these assumptions, provide a review and comparison of a series of studies using “soft” and “hard” laddering approaches to examine the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory, and assess if the discrepant conclusions from this series of studies may be attributed to violations of the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of published empirical works using “hard” and “soft” laddering approaches, which aim to examine the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory (Gutman), are reviewed and compared to integrate research findings and to examine discrepancies. Discrepant conclusions, which appear to be attributable to violations of the assumptions underlying the laddering methodology, are explored through a reanalysis and reclassification of the content codes.

Findings

The paper validates the case for laddering and the care needed to gauge how conclusions can be affected when violations of fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology occur.

Research limitations/implications

Means‐end chain research and, more specifically, the laddering methodology are in need of investigations that assess the importance of its underlying assumptions. Additional work validating both the “hard” and “soft” laddering approaches is also needed.

Practical implications

Results of means‐end research are more interpretable and less ambiguous when the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology are met. In practice, means‐end theory benefits managers by providing a useful structure to aid in the interpretation of laddering data.

Originality/value

This paper outlines the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology to provide methodological guidelines for laddering researchers. This paper also reviews the academic literature examining the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory and explores how violations of the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology may impact research findings.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2010

Joan M. Phillips, Thomas J. Reynolds and Kate Reynolds

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how the segmentation of voters based on decision‐making processes, using means‐end laddering research innovations and…

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2136

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how the segmentation of voters based on decision‐making processes, using means‐end laddering research innovations and real‐time interactive online interviewing, can aid in the formation of political communications strategy, including theme and message development.

Design/methodology/approach

To demonstrate the application of these innovations in a political context, the paper uses data from a sample of 114 voters who were interviewed during the 2004 US presidential election campaign. The paper draws on three recent innovations to the means‐end laddering methodology: elicitation questioning techniques that allow for a decision equity analysis between targeted groups; decision segmentation analysis; and real‐time interactive online interviewing; and applies them to an electoral context. It provides an interpretation of the identified decision segments and an exposition of how these common networks of meaning can serve as the basis for targeted theme and message development.

Findings

These three innovations, in concert, were found to provide an efficient set of methods to serve as the foundation for the campaign message development process.

Originality/value

This paper provides deterministic research techniques for campaign strategists who want to understand voter decision making and demonstrates a combination of methodological and technological innovations that addresses the time, cost, and geographic limitations often associated with conducting voter decision making research.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Chin‐eng Lin and Chen‐Su Fu

A new integrated method based on the means‐end chain (MEC) analysis and factor analysis is proposed for developing intangible product‐mix strategies for convenience store…

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1246

Abstract

A new integrated method based on the means‐end chain (MEC) analysis and factor analysis is proposed for developing intangible product‐mix strategies for convenience store (CVS) chains. With variables obtained from a survey on CVS service items, both analyses were used to derive the hierarchical value factor map (HVFM). The new map can handle and develop strategies for product differentiation, advertising and market segmentation. The purpose of this article is two‐fold: to propose improvements for the traditional MEC method of constructing the service hierarchical value map (HVM) and to formulate effective intangible‐product strategies.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Val Larsen, Newell Wright and James Busbin

American business enterprise is increasingly seeking export markets for products as a means of expansion, and in some instances to offset loss in domestic business due to…

Abstract

American business enterprise is increasingly seeking export markets for products as a means of expansion, and in some instances to offset loss in domestic business due to declining markets or international competitors. This paper deals with market segmentation and its role in the successful positioning of products in foreign markets. More specifically, the focus here is how consumer political identifications and ideological values can be used as a basis for effectively segmenting markets. To U.S. firms, the potential benefit of gaining this insight is twofold. First, firms may thus have at their disposal a segmentation tool as yet unrecognized by competitors. Second, politics and political ideology have constructs which appear to be common to most election‐based governmental forms; thus the segmentation applications explored here would be transferable to foreign markets, whereas many other more conventional means of segmentation transfer poorly from the U.S. to other countries.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Naresh K. Malhotra

Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-727-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Scot Burton

Illustrates, through both actual and hypothetical examples, theimportance to services marketers of recent empirical and theoreticalwork on decision framing. Suggests that…

Abstract

Illustrates, through both actual and hypothetical examples, the importance to services marketers of recent empirical and theoretical work on decision framing. Suggests that services marketers could have more opportunity than product marketers for affecting the decision frames of consumers. Discusses implications for service marketers, including how decision framing can effect the positioning of service firms in an industry. Considers how the frame can affect the decision of whether or not to purchase, and how changes in the decision frame might encourage consumers to purchase more expensive alternatives.Notes ethical issues raised for marketers by these implications.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Lynn R. Kahle and Patricia Kennedy

Research on social values has been shown to be beneficial in market segmentation. This article describes the List of Values (LOV), a methodology that may allow comparison…

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1717

Abstract

Research on social values has been shown to be beneficial in market segmentation. This article describes the List of Values (LOV), a methodology that may allow comparison and contrast of values. Details of the methodology and recent research using it are described, and data analysis strategies are discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Ali Belhocine and Wan Zaidi Wan Omar

This study aims to investigate numerically a two-dimensional fully developed mean turbulent fluid flow, and heat transfer in a circular duct is numerically investigated…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate numerically a two-dimensional fully developed mean turbulent fluid flow, and heat transfer in a circular duct is numerically investigated using FORTRAN 95 code that applies the finite difference method to solve the thermal problem for the two thermal boundary conditions, constant surface temperature, constant heat and steady, axisymmetric flow. Several important results have been drawn and discussed from thermal analysis. Finally, the numerical results of the model developed in the document have been validated in good accuracy by comparing them with some correlation results available in the specialized literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of solving the thermal problem is based on the equation of energy for a fluid of constant properties while taking into consideration the hypothesis of the axisymmetric and fully developed pipe flow in steady state. The global equation and the initial and boundary conditions acting on the problem have been configured here in dimensionless form to predict the turbulent behavior of the fluid inside the tube. Thus, using Thomas' algorithm, a program in FORTRAN version 95 was developed to numerically solve the discretized form of the system of equations describing the problem.

Findings

The profiles of the solutions are provided from which the authors infer that the numerical and literature correlation agreed very well. Another result that they obtained from this study is the number of Nusselt in the thermal entrance region to which a parametric study based on Reynolds and Peclet numbers, and the longitudinal coordinate, was carried out and discussed well for the impact of the scientific contribution.

Originality/value

The novelty of the work is the application of the finite difference method programed on the FORTRAN code, as a sequential numerical method of an ODEs system, to determine the number of Nusselt in both uniform wall temperature and wall heat flux uniform.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Book part
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Barrie Gunter

Abstract

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Gambling Advertising: Nature, Effects and Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-923-6

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