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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Thomas H. Stone and I.M. Jawahar

This paper aims to offer a new leadership perspective based on the premise that leader effectiveness depends on the context in which leadership behaviors are enacted.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer a new leadership perspective based on the premise that leader effectiveness depends on the context in which leadership behaviors are enacted.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature in the areas of abusive supervision and leadership were reviewed. Using social learning and attribution theories, this study develops propositions regarding the role of perceived abusive supervision in high vs low-intensity organizations.

Findings

In this theoretical account, this paper distinguishes between low and high-intensity work organizational contexts articulating a rationale for conditions appropriate for directive leadership. This paper posits that while directive leadership will be more prevalent in high-intensity contexts, it will be specifically targeted toward poor performers, those with personality characteristics that are tied to poor performance and those engaging in deviant behaviors. This study proposes that outcomes of directive leadership will depend on how it aligns with organizational norms and culture and the causality attributed to such behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Recent leadership theories focus on nurturing and providing support to followers. This paper posits that such theories are suited to low-intensity organizations. This study offers a counterintuitive perspective in proposing that directive leadership which involves inducing stress, will lead to better outcomes in high-intensity organizational contexts. This paper offers testable propositions and avenues for future research on directive leadership in high-intensity organizational contexts.

Practical implications

Based on the premise that leadership is context-dependent, this study proposes that directive leadership is best suited in high-intensity organizational contexts, which is a novel proposal. Even within these high-intensity contexts, such leadership, this paper proposes will be targeted toward poor performers and employees with characteristics that are tied to poor performance and violation of organizational norms.

Social implications

Examination of the role of directive leadership in high intensity, clan culture organizations may facilitate understanding that effective leadership styles may differ depending upon the organization context.

Originality/value

Based on the premise that leadership is context-dependent, this study presents a novel proposal that directive leadership is most suited to high-intensity organizational contexts. Even within these high-intensity contexts, such leadership, this paper posits will be targeted toward poor performers and employees with personality characteristics associated with poor and deviant performance.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

I.M. Jawahar, Thomas H. Stone and Don Kluemper

Followers’ perceptions of leader trustworthiness affect their trust in the leader (Colquitt et al., 2007). However, because positive benefits of trust generally accrue…

Abstract

Purpose

Followers’ perceptions of leader trustworthiness affect their trust in the leader (Colquitt et al., 2007). However, because positive benefits of trust generally accrue when trust is reciprocated, examining when and why followers’ perceptions of leader trustworthiness elicit leader’s trust in followers may provide heuristic and practical value. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine if followers’ perceptions of leader trustworthiness elicit leaders’ trust in followers, casting follower’s perceptions of leader–member exchange (LMX) quality as a mediator and their perceptions of empowerment as moderating this mediated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Followers’ perception of leader trustworthiness was measured at Time 1, followers’ perceptions of empowerment and LMX were measured at Time 2 and leaders’ trust in followers was measured in Time 3. The authors tested the research model with data collected from 347 leader–follower dyads using the three time-lagged surveys as noted above.

Findings

Followers’ perceptions of leader trustworthiness and perceptions of empowerment interacted to influence followers’ perceptions of LMX quality, which in turn influenced leaders’ trust in followers. Thus, LMX mediated the trustworthiness–trust relationship and this mediated relationship became stronger at increasing levels of empowerment.

Practical implications

Being trusted by leaders is beneficial to followers. Training managers in behaviors that elicit employees’ perceptions of manager trustworthiness has the potential to accrue benefits to employees, managers and the organization.

Originality/value

This study is the first to demonstrate that followers’ perception of leader trustworthiness resulted in leaders trusting followers. In addition, the results support a mediating role for LMX and a moderating role for empowerment in the development of leader trust in the follower. Understanding when and why leaders trust followers offers important insights about development of trust between followers and leaders. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Bert Schreurs, Angus Duff, Pascale M. Le Blanc and Thomas H. Stone

This article aims to provide prospective authors guidelines that will hopefully enable them to submit more competitive manuscripts to journals publishing careers research.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to provide prospective authors guidelines that will hopefully enable them to submit more competitive manuscripts to journals publishing careers research.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on their experience as an author, reviewer and editorial team member, the authors identify the main criteria that a quantitative study must meet to be considered for publication in international peer-reviewed journals covering career-related topics. They emphasize the importance of contributing to the careers literature and of designing the study in accordance with the research question.

Findings

Manuscripts are rejected because they are insufficiently innovative, and/or because sample, instruments and design are not appropriate to answer the research question at hand. Cross-sectional designs cannot be used to answer questions of mediation but should not be discarded automatically since they can be used to address other types of questions, including questions about nesting, clustering of individuals into subgroups, and to some extent, even causality.

Originality/value

The manuscript provides an insight into the decision-making process of reviewers and editorial board members and includes recommendations on the use of cross-sectional data.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Jesus Gacilo, Brigitte Steinheider, Thomas H. Stone, Vivian Hoffmeister, I.M. Jawahar and Tara Garrett

Drawing on social identity theory and the concept of perceived organizational support, the authors conducted an online, exploratory survey of 150 lesbian, gay, bisexual…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social identity theory and the concept of perceived organizational support, the authors conducted an online, exploratory survey of 150 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) workers in 28 countries to examine whether being LGBT provides a unique perspective in the workplace, if they perceive their employer appreciates this perspective, and what effects this has on perceived discrimination and perceived career advancement. Collectively these questions have implications for work engagement and career prospects of LGBT workers. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple regression and qualitative analyses were used to analyze Likert scale questions along with open-ended options.

Findings

The majority of respondents agree that being LGBT offers a unique perspective compared to heterosexual workers. The more respondents agree that they have a different perspective, the more they feel discriminated against. After controlling for demographic variables as well as education, tenure, job level, and disclosure, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed offering a unique perspective increases perceived career advantages. Results also showed increased perceived career advantages if the employer appreciates this perspective. Results of a second regression analysis also showed that a unique perspective is associated with more perceived discrimination, unless their employer appreciates this perspective.

Research limitations/implications

Although single-item measures and a small international sample limit generalizability, rich qualitative responses provide insights into LGBT attitudes across multiple countries.

Practical implications

This study can be applied to future understandings of the diverse nature of LGBT perceptions and attitudes in the workplace.

Social implications

This is one of the first studies to examine LGBT perceptions that they possess a unique perspective that should be valued by employers.

Originality/value

This exploratory study is one of the first to recognize unique LGBT perspectives and examine the relationship between their perspectives and perceived discrimination and career advantages.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Thomas H. Stone, I.M. Jawahar and Jennifer L. Kisamore

The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors…

5030

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors. Unlike previous empirically‐driven research, this theory‐based study seeks to examine the usefulness of a modification of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to predict academic misconduct.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 271 students enrolled at a US university were surveyed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model.

Findings

The modified theory of a planned behavior model in which intentions and justifications both serve as antecedents to behavior fits the data well. The model accounted for 22 per cent of the variance in intentions to cheat and 47 per cent of the variance in self‐reported cheating.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitations of this research are the cross‐sectional research design, the self‐selected sample, and the single source of survey data.

Practical implications

The study extends the TPB model in the prediction of misconduct behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral control, intentions and justifications were related to cheating behaviors. Academic misconduct may be reduced by shaping attitudes toward cheating, changing perceptions of subjective norms regarding the prevalence of cheating, and lowering students' perceptions of their control of cheating by, for example, emphasis on the consequences of getting caught. Understanding and reducing academic misconduct are important for promoting ethical behavior and values in future worker and organization leaders.

Originality/value

Identification of factors that influence academic misconduct is an important aspect of professional development research, given its link to workplace misconduct. To date, academic misconduct research has been primarily empirically‐ rather than theory‐driven. The current study identifies factors that contribute to academic misconduct by extending an established theoretical model of behavior.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

I.M. Jawahar and Thomas H. Stone

The purpose of this paper is to integrate two streams of research and investigate the associations of different forms of justice perceptions on attitudinal reactions to…

6967

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate two streams of research and investigate the associations of different forms of justice perceptions on attitudinal reactions to four components of compensation: pay level, pay raises, benefits, and structure and administration In doing so, it responds to calls for more primary studies linking interactional justice perceptions to pay satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 151 technology professionals employed at an international consulting company were surveyed to investigate hypotheses. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model.

Findings

As hypothesized, distributive justice was related to satisfaction with pay level, procedural justice to satisfaction with benefits, raises and pay structure and administration, and informational justice to pay level and structure and administration.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitations of this research are the cross‐sectional research design and a single source of survey data.

Practical implications

Since pay dissatisfaction is significantly related to numerous employee outcomes and attitudes toward pay meditate the relationship between compensation and work outcomes, understanding the role of perceived justice may facilitate managers' ability to influence pay satisfaction. HR policies and managers' behaviors can influence pay satisfaction as much or more than actual pay (distributive justice). For example, results for informational justice suggest pay satisfaction can be increased by clearly and candidly explaining and communicating the organization's procedures and processes.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to examine associations between the four‐factor justice model and components of pay satisfaction and demonstrate that informational justice adds additional explained variance for pay level, raises, and structure and administration.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Jennifer L. Kisamore, I.M. Jawahar, Eric W. Liguori, Tagonei L. Mharapara and Thomas H. Stone

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of social competencies, specifically, political skill, self‐monitoring and emotional intelligence, on…

8700

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of social competencies, specifically, political skill, self‐monitoring and emotional intelligence, on the workplace conflict‐abusive behavior relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized data collected from graduate and undergraduate students majoring in psychology, management, human relations and social work who were recruited from two mid‐sized mid‐western universities. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicated that interpersonal conflict in the workplace is associated with employee engagement in counterproductive work behaviors. Results also suggested that social competencies interacted with interpersonal conflict to predict the likelihood of abusing others at work. Politically skilled workers and high self‐monitors were more likely to engage in abusive behaviors when experiencing high levels of interpersonal workplace conflict.

Originality/value

The study is the first to show that certain social competencies may actually have negative ramifications in the workplace. Specifically, individuals who are politically skilled and/or high self‐monitors are more likely to abuse others when they themselves experience interpersonal conflict.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Gayla Staples Cloud

A hobby is any purposeful use of leisure time. Due in part to an increase in the amount of leisure time available to most Americans, the hobby and recreation industries…

Abstract

A hobby is any purposeful use of leisure time. Due in part to an increase in the amount of leisure time available to most Americans, the hobby and recreation industries have grown by leaps and bounds in the past few years. There are countless publications on hobbies ranging from genealogy to doll collecting, from painting to needlepoint. Obviously, a compilation such as this cannot include publications on every imaginable hobby, so rather than appear biased, this author has attempted to include primarily publications that discuss many different hobbies, or deal with one major group of hobbies.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1903

IN the October number of THE BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, while disclaiming any intention of supporting or opposing any political party or any section of politicians, we stated…

Abstract

IN the October number of THE BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, while disclaiming any intention of supporting or opposing any political party or any section of politicians, we stated our opinion that the fiscal policy which has been outlined before the country by Mr. CHAMBERLAIN is eminently one which requires to be put to the test of experiment and which cannot be profitably argued about upon theoretical bases. In connection with the allegation that by following the policy of leaving our doors open to those who shut their own doors in our faces, we are able to obtain goods at less expense than would be the case under other conditions, we pointed out that it would be well for the public to consider whether that which is so cheap may not also, to a great extent, be particularly nasty. The desirability of considering the nature and quality of so‐called “ cheap ” foods, supplied to us by various countriies without restriction, does not, as yet, appear to have entered the heads of those who have made matter for political controversy out of what is, in reality, a scientific question. The facts are not sufficiently known, or, in consequence of the proverbial carelessness of our generation, are not clearly appreciated. And yet, as it seems to us, some of those facts are of paramount importance to those who desire to study the subject in a calm and scientific manner and outside the region of political turmoil. What do we get from the various countries whose producers and merchants are free to “dump” their goods in this country without the restrictive influence of duty payments? Great Britain has made it known to all the world that “Rubbish may be Shot Here,” and we venture to say that the fullest advantage has been taken, and is taken, of the permission. From America, France, Germany, Italy, Holland, and Belgium, in fact from every producing country—including now even Russia and Siberia, we get inferior or scientifically‐adulterated articles which are sold to the public “ cheap.” Milk and butter scientifically adulterated, or produced under improper conditions in such a way that their composition becomes the same as physically‐adulterated products, condensed “milk” minus cream, cheese practically devoid of fat, or “ filled ” (as it is called) with margarine, all reach us in enormous quantities from most of our near and dear neighbours. Butter and certain wines and beers, loaded with injurious ‘ preservative” chemicals and the sale of which is prohibited in the country of production, are sent to the easily‐entered British “dumping‐ground” for the delectation of its confiding inhabitants. “Tinned” foods prepared from raw materials of inferior character or of more than questionable origin, are copiously unloaded on our shores to feed our complaisant population,—instead of being consigned to the refuse destructors which should be their proper destination; while, every now and then, when something worse than usual has been supplied, representative specimens of this delectable class of preparation are proved to have caused outbreaks of violent illness—those so‐called ptomaine poisonings which, of late years, have increased in number and in virulence to so distinctly alarming an extent. Flour made from diseased or damaged grain, or itself “ sick ” or damaged, and so “ processed ” as to mask its real condition; flour, again, adulterated with other and inferior meals, are “ goods ” supplied to us in ample amount for the benefit of those whose mainstay is some form of bread or flour‐food. The list might be continued literally ad nauseam.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 5 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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