Investigates how effective the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) has been in reaching the goal to inculcate the police in the territory of the former German Democratic…
Investigates how effective the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) has been in reaching the goal to inculcate the police in the territory of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) with the West’s value system of policing, that is, “citizen friendly” police. Research methods utilized in this examination included a review of the literature, both interviews and correspondence with officials of the FRG(federal and state), and the content analysis of the German weekly news magazine Der Spiegel. The scope of this study was limited to civilian policing, federal and state within the territory of the former GDR. Suggests that it will probably take a considerable amount of time to achieve the goal of citizen‐friendly police in the East, given the turbulence (economic, political, social, etc.) of the past several years. This goal can only be achieved when both police practice and citizen perception are in sync.
Presents data from two surveys and arguments in favour of a restructuring of the police service, in general, and police training in particular. Contends that to keep up…
Presents data from two surveys and arguments in favour of a restructuring of the police service, in general, and police training in particular. Contends that to keep up with an ever‐changing world, the police has to become more versatile itself, without losing sight of its core functions: protection and security provision. These objectives can only be achieved by a police force that cooperates intensively with the people, i.e. relies on a community‐oriented approach to policing, and one whose members have been provided throughout their training with problem‐solving skills and techniques and have developed a high degree of self‐motivation. Suggests that in the current social and economic climate there is an urgent need for such reforms, best achieved through international cooperation.
Community policing has been described as a successful “new paradigm” and even a developing “normal science” of policing. From a detailed application of Kuhn's definitions of paradigm and normal science, this article infers that community policing is neither; but is rather an epicycle in defense of policing as a paradigm. An eight‐point definitional model of normal science – of which the first four points define paradigm – is developed and used to show that community policing is not a new paradigm; and that neither community policing nor policing itself is a normal science. Claiming to have a paradigm is an attempt to increase the prestige and dominance of policing among social sciences.
The purpose of this paper is to connect sociology, criminology, and social psychology to identify specific factors that keep protests peaceful, discusses empirical…
The purpose of this paper is to connect sociology, criminology, and social psychology to identify specific factors that keep protests peaceful, discusses empirical examples of effective peacekeeping, and develops practical peacekeeping guidelines.
The analysis systematically compared 30 peaceful and violent protests in the USA and Germany to identify peaceful interaction routines and how they are disrupted. It employed a triangulation of visual and document data on each demonstration, analyzing over 1,000 documents in total. The paper relies on qualitative analysis based on the principles of process tracing.
Results show that specific interaction sequences and emotional dynamics can break peaceful interaction routines and trigger violence. Single interactions do not break these routines, but certain combinations do. Police forces and protesters need to avoid these interaction dynamics to keep protests peaceful. Communication between both sides and good police management are especially important.
The paper highlights the need to examine the role of situational interactions and emotional dynamics for the emergence and avoidance of protest violence more closely.
Findings have implications for police practice and training and for officers’ and protesters’ safety.
Employing recent data and an interdisciplinary approach, the study systematically analyzes peacekeeping in protests, developing guidelines for protest organizers and police.
This paper provides a holistic view of the Business Process Re‐engineering (BPR) implementation process. It reviews the literature relating to the hard and soft factors…
This paper provides a holistic view of the Business Process Re‐engineering (BPR) implementation process. It reviews the literature relating to the hard and soft factors that cause success and failure for BPR implementation, classifies these factors into subgroups, and identifies key factors of success and failure. Finally, it explains how these factors influence the process of BPR implementation.
Investigates the perceptions of staff in regard to critical success factors (CSFs) for successful BPR implementation in the public sector. The research methodology…
Investigates the perceptions of staff in regard to critical success factors (CSFs) for successful BPR implementation in the public sector. The research methodology involved semi‐structured interviews and staff surveys within a large public sector organisation. The results of the study show that many of the key CSFs identified for BPR in the private sector are equally relevant to the success of BPR in the public domain. The factors deemed most important for successful BPR in the public sector included items such as: top management support, commitment and understanding of BPR; communication; empowerment; and alleviation of downsizing fears. Also identifies a number of unique characteristics of public sector organisations which have a bearing on the application of BPR. These include: the existence of many intricate overlapping processes with multiple stakeholders; the existence of a professional workforce; and the existence of defined internal organisational boundaries.
The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP…
The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) at the local level, particularly in peripheral Europe where CP-UDP’s top-down standards have poor dissemination and acceptance. This paper debates how local partnerships can help reduce crime and how a CP-UDP-based model can be introduced into municipal planning.
The paper discusses the challenge of CP-UDP in the framework of a post-crisis Europe and Europe 2020. Because there is a large gap between theory and practice, lack of a shared holistic approach, and scepticism, or lack of knowledge, of public authorities, at local-level planning professionals and the police have devised bottom-up initiatives based on interdisciplinary partnerships with the community. The paper describes, discusses and compares the implementation of such approaches in Lisbon (Portugal) and Vilnius (Lithuania).
The paper addresses the processes and challenges of establishing synergies and working relationships between police officers, public officials and the community, and it discusses six main causes for its (un)success. When these conditions were met, crime and social constraints reduced.
Lessons learned are deemed crucial to disseminate knowledge and best practices, paving the way for proper top-down policies and planning legislations in these and other countries.
This paper analyses the potentialities and shortcomings of local-level implementation of CP-UDP strategies as an alternative to failed top-down strategies in two realities mostly unknown of the international scientific community. The case study material is previously unpublished internationally.
Few studies have delved into career management issues of women on foreign assignments, especially compared to male expatriates. Therefore, a large‐scale mail survey was…
Few studies have delved into career management issues of women on foreign assignments, especially compared to male expatriates. Therefore, a large‐scale mail survey was directed towards Western female and male business expatriates in the same host location. Controlling for the effects of differences in the demographic background of the gender groups, we found that female business expatriates could less often meet their career goals within their corporation than their male counterparts. There was also a tentative indication that women may regard their expatriation as a less useful career move than men. Implications of these findings for globalizing firms, female executives and future research are discussed.