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Banking and finance during the past several decades have become “re‐internationalized,” not simply “internationalized.” This becomes clear when we compare the…
Banking and finance during the past several decades have become “re‐internationalized,” not simply “internationalized.” This becomes clear when we compare the institutional features of banking and finance today with those in the early part of this century, the last period in which both had a substantial international dimension. It is further apparent in historical data that are analyzed in the paper: cross‐country spreads between real interest rates over the long period 1835 to 1990, and figures for gross foreign assets available for a number of major countries at key points in time from 1885 to 1994. The paper concludes by discussing the factors responsible for the changes that have occurred in banking and finance during the past several decades.
Commenting on the Mexican Revolution in 1938, Trotsky argued that the country might achieve “national independence,” understood as a break with dependency relations…
Commenting on the Mexican Revolution in 1938, Trotsky argued that the country might achieve “national independence,” understood as a break with dependency relations. Whether this might occur depended – Trotsky continued – on “international factors.” Though not engaging with Mexico, Antonio Gramsci made a similar theoretical point. It is hence from this perspective that this chapter analyses the Mexican Revolution, asking whether it led to a break in dependency relations and the attainment of “national independence” or what I refer to as “relative geopolitical autonomy.” Presenting a framework of analysis largely based on the work of Gramsci that highlights its continuity with the thought of Marx, the chapter will answer negatively to this question. The chapter starts from the idea that Porfirio Díaz’s regime was unable to adapt the economic structure (still pre-capitalist) to the complex superstructures (capitalist), that is, to realize an historic bloc. It would be this job that the emergent Mexican bourgeoisie sought to finish. However, the situation is complicated by the powerful emergence of social movements from below, constituted largely by landless peasants, and to a lesser extent, the industrial proletariat. I will therefore argue that the revolution has been both “passive” and “bounded.” The term passive revolution will be applied to the last phase of the revolution as the emerging bourgeoisie successfully coopted the demands of the popular masses thereby “passivizing” them. But crucially, the revolution was also “bounded” because international factors, and especially US influence, played a conditioning role throughout the revolutionary process. At the same time, it would be the very “passive” nature of the revolution that would contribute to the reproduction of relations of dependency. Hence the chapter concludes that the period Trotsky commented upon (the Cárdenas period) is the highest level of “independence” Mexico achieved, only to decrease again over the years.
This research developed a conceptual model for the hospitality industry based on the employee-organization relationship using the social exchange theory as the theoretical…
This research developed a conceptual model for the hospitality industry based on the employee-organization relationship using the social exchange theory as the theoretical framework. This study aims to consider perceived organizational support as the psychological empowerment antecedent, while work engagement and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior were considered as its outcome. This study also tested psychological empowerment as a mediator of these relationships.
Data were gathered from a sample of frontline hotel employees and analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling. A total of 242 completed and validated questionnaires were used for the analysis.
Perceived organizational support had a significant relationship with psychological empowerment (through meaning, competence, self-determination and impact), which also had a significant relationship with work engagement (through meaning and impact) and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (through meaning, self-determination and impact). Psychological empowerment partially mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support with work engagement and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior.
Although psychological empowerment is receiving further empirical attention in the hospitality field, little is known about its antecedents and outcomes. Hence, this research extends previous studies using the social exchange theory to fill these literature gaps and create a conceptual model for the hospitality industry based on the employee-organization relationship.
Based on a review of multiple literatures, a comprehensive content domain of essential intercultural competencies for effective global leaders is presented. This domain is…
Based on a review of multiple literatures, a comprehensive content domain of essential intercultural competencies for effective global leaders is presented. This domain is then used to guide the development of the Global Competencies Inventory (GCI), a 160-item self-report measure that assesses the degree to which individuals possess the intercultural competencies that are associated with global leader effectiveness. Using sample sizes ranging from several hundred to nearly 9,000 subjects, evidence from several studies is presented showing the GCI to have convergent validity, predictive validity, and freedom from demographic and ethnic subgroup biases. Implications for theory and future research are also discussed.
The problem of model mixing in time series, for which the interest lies in the estimation of stochastic volatility, is addressed using the approach known as…
The problem of model mixing in time series, for which the interest lies in the estimation of stochastic volatility, is addressed using the approach known as Mixture-of-Experts (ME). Specifically, this work proposes a ME model where the experts are defined through ARCH, GARCH and EGARCH structures. Estimates of the predictive distribution of volatilities are obtained using a full Bayesian approach. The methodology is illustrated with an analysis of a section of US dollar/German mark exchange rates and a study of the Mexican stock market index using the Dow Jones Industrial index as a covariate.
This paper aims to examine the relationship between individual bicultural identity and attitudes toward diversity. The authors also theorize and test the mechanism through…
This paper aims to examine the relationship between individual bicultural identity and attitudes toward diversity. The authors also theorize and test the mechanism through which individual bicultural identity will be more likely to result in positive attitudes toward diversity.
The authors collected survey data drawing from two different samples and two different measures of attitudes toward diversity. To test the hypotheses, the authors conducted structural equation modeling analyses.
The authors found that individual bicultural identity increases positive attitudes toward diversity and cultural intelligence partially mediates this relationship. Individual bicultural identity increases positive attitudes to others not necessarily known to us.
The authors integrate the cultural intelligence framework and the common in-group identity model in assessing the role of cultural intelligence in both individual bicultural identity and attitudes toward diversity.
Analizamos la relación entre la identidad individual bicultural y las actitudes hacia la diversidad. También discutimos y probamos los mecanismos a través de los cuales, es más probable que una identidad individual bicultural se asocie con una actitud positiva respecto a la diversidad.
Recopilamos encuestas con dos muestras distintas y usando dos medidas diferentes de actitudes en torno a la diversidad. Para probar las hipótesis, llevamos a cabo un análisis del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales.
Encontramos que la identidad individual bicultural aumenta las actitudes positivas hacia la diversidad y que la inteligencia cultural parcialmente media esta relación. La identidad individual bicultural aumenta las actitudes positivas hacia las demás personas, que no necesariamente conocemos.
Integramos el marco de la inteligencia cultural y el modelo de identidad común en grupo para evaluar el rol de la inteligencia cultural tanto en la identidad individual bicultural como en las actitudes en torno a la diversidad.
Examinamos a relação entre a identidade bicultural individual e as atitudes em relação à diversidade. Além disto, teorizamos e testamos o mecanismo através do qual a identidade bicultural individual terá maior probabilidade de levar a atitudes positivas em relação à diversidade.
Coletámos dados de pesquisa a partir de duas amostras diferentes e duas medidas diferentes de atitudes em relação à diversidade. A fim de testar as hipóteses, realizamos análises de modelagem de equações estruturais.
Descobrimos que a identidade bicultural individual acrescenta as atitudes positivas em relação à diversidade, e que a inteligência cultural medeia parcialmente esta relação. A identidade bicultural individual acrescenta as atitudes positivas em relação aos outros não necessariamente conhecidos por nós.
Integramos o quadro da inteligência cultural e o modelo de identidade intragrupo comum na avaliação do papel da inteligência cultural tanto na identidade bicultural individual como nas atitudes em relação à diversidade.
Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace…
Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace discrimination remains a persistent problem in organizations. This chapter provides a comprehensive review and analysis of contemporary theory and evidence on the nature, causes, and consequences of discrimination before synthesizing potential methods for its reduction. We note the strengths and weaknesses of this scholarship and highlight meaningful future directions. In so doing, we hope to both inform and inspire organizational and scholarly efforts to understand and eliminate workplace discrimination.
This paper aims to disclose some mechanisms whereby job engagement can be created in a hospitality context. A study was conducted to examine the relationships among…
This paper aims to disclose some mechanisms whereby job engagement can be created in a hospitality context. A study was conducted to examine the relationships among high-performance work practices (HPWPs), empowering leadership behaviors, psychological empowerment and engagement.
A theoretical serial mediation model was developed to examine the proposed relationship. The hypotheses were tested using regression analysis with bootstrapping. In total, 340 hotel workers participated in this study.
Both empowering leadership and psychological empowerment were found to be independent mediators of the HPWPs–engagement relationship; in addition, empowering leadership and psychological empowerment mediated this relationship serially.
Results suggest that hospitality organizations should implement HPWPs and encourage empowering leadership behavior in their managers to create a work context that fosters psychological empowerment. These strategies will, in turn, generate employee job engagement. A richer, deeper understanding of various antecedents of engagement is the main theoretical contribution of this work.
This research stresses the importance of specific organizational conditions and managerial strategies in achieving psychological fulfillment of hospitality employees. In sum, the present study provides important insights for managers and human resource managers in the hospitality industry who seek to foster empowered, engaged employees.
The findings suggest that HPWPs are associated with employee engagement through a serial mediation model with two mediators. No research to date has used this nascent methodology to explore the association between HPWPs and engagement.
Business ethics provide a potent source of competitive advantage, placing increasing pressure on organizations to create and maintain an ethical workforce. Nonetheless…
Business ethics provide a potent source of competitive advantage, placing increasing pressure on organizations to create and maintain an ethical workforce. Nonetheless, ethical breaches continue to permeate corporate life, suggesting that there is something missing from how we conceptualize and institutionalize organizational ethics. The current effort seeks to fill this void in two ways. First, we introduce an extended ethical framework premised on sensemaking in organizations. Within this framework, we suggest that multiple individual, organizational, and societal factors may differentially influence the ethical sensemaking process. Second, we contend that human resource management plays a central role in sustaining workplace ethics and explore the strategies through which human resource personnel can work to foster an ethical culture and spearhead ethics initiatives. Future research directions applicable to scholars in both the ethics and human resources domains are provided.