To document the drinking water component of the humanitarian response to the Great Sumatra‐Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, including a focus on the promotion of…
To document the drinking water component of the humanitarian response to the Great Sumatra‐Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, including a focus on the promotion of household water treatment (HHWT)/safe storage to minimize the spread of diarrhoeal disease.
Firsthand accounts of the response effort, interviews, and literature review.
The combined efforts to mobilize a drinking water response were timely, comprehensive and effective. HHWT/safe storage efforts (other than the continued promotion of boiling) appeared to play only a secondary role in the initial response to the disaster for a variety of reasons.
The enormity of this disaster and the unprecedented scale of the relief effort limit the broad lessons that can be learned at this time.
Shows that there is a clear need to continue to take steps to minimize the risks of waterborne diseases following natural disasters, develop and disseminate practical solutions for the special circumstances associated with tsunamis, including saline water intrusion, clarify the conditions under which proven approaches to HHWT may be useful in emergencies and assess their role in the medium‐ and long‐term response, improve water quality and surveillance without compromising emphasis on water quantity, take advantage of the enormous resources committed to the tsunami response to make effective and sustainable improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene in the affected areas, and document experiences from the tsunami response, distil the lessons learned, disseminate the results and develop guidelines to inform future actions.
Purpose – European social protection arrangements have undergone significant transformations since the mid-1970s. However, while the existing literature has focused on…
Purpose – European social protection arrangements have undergone significant transformations since the mid-1970s. However, while the existing literature has focused on reforms in public welfare arrangements, an analysis of both public and private social protection is needed to understand the social protection status of European workers. Recent reforms have led to varying degrees of social protection dualism between insiders and outsiders. After showing the existence of dualization processes in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom, the chapter explores the structural and political sources of these processes.
Methodology/approach – We conduct a comparative historical analysis and process tracing of policy change and its drivers in three major European political economies. A combination of qualitative evidence and quantitative measurements are used.
Findings – We find that de-industrialization has contributed to unsettling the skill composition that sustained both public and private postwar social protection arrangements. This development has affected the preferences of employers, for whom cost containment has become a critical issue. Furthermore, we show that the capacity of employers to realize their preferences depends on the governance structures of social policy arrangements and on domestic political institutions.
Originality/value – The chapter suggests new perspectives on employers' preferences in Coordinated and Liberal political economies which differ from those which have informed the Varieties of Capitalism approach.
Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demographics and the education/skill level of the German labor force. Although employment overall has increased, there has been a simultaneous significant increase in earnings and wage inequality. Moreover, there has been a clear increase in all three measures of precarious employment. The analyses reveal that models including a wide variety of independent variables – demographic, education/skill, job/work characteristics, and region – cannot explain the rise of precarious employment. Instead, we propose institutional change is the most plausible explanation. In addition to reunification and major social policy and labor market reforms, we highlight the dramatic decline of unionization among German workers. We conclude that while there are elements of stability to the German coordinated market economy, Germany increasingly exhibits substantial dualization, liberalization, inequality, and precarity.
This chapter draws from the authors’ experiences with service-learning pedagogy in allied health training programs, and illustrates ways in which community-engaged…
This chapter draws from the authors’ experiences with service-learning pedagogy in allied health training programs, and illustrates ways in which community-engaged teaching and learning can prepare students to become ethical healthcare practitioners. The authors infuse examples from their own courses throughout the chapter, mostly from the clinical fields of speech-language pathology, audiology, and occupational therapy. However, the chapter is applicable and generalizable to faculty from a wide scope of allied health training programs. The chapter introduces considerations for establishing campus–community partnerships in an ethical manner, as well as ways to foster student self-reflection and critical thinking through an ethical lens. Principles from the codes of ethics of various allied health professions are incorporated throughout the chapter along with examples of how each can be applied in community-based clinical experiences. Through a review of relevant literature, analysis of professional codes of ethics, case-based examples, and a step-by-step guide to course development, this chapter provides readers with a mechanism to ground their courses in professional ethics in a way that is relatable and relevant to students.
Discusses the problems involved when foreign investors decide totry and involve themselves in the US market. US and local income taxesare involved and investors must be…
Discusses the problems involved when foreign investors decide to try and involve themselves in the US market. US and local income taxes are involved and investors must be apprised of this and the need to sign the appropriate agreements, models of which are enclosed herein. Looks at organization and purpose, minority protection and equal ownership. Concludes that very careful legal planning is required for a successful business relationship.
Since 1985, Advances in Special Education has aspired to advance theories and best practices essential to understanding, treating, and instructing students with…
Since 1985, Advances in Special Education has aspired to advance theories and best practices essential to understanding, treating, and instructing students with disabilities. At times, advancement involves vision and innovation. At other times, new technologies, cutting edge medical procedures, or innovate pedagogical practices capture the attention of special education professionals globally and substantial changes can result in the way students with special needs are instructed. This volume in Special Education International Perspectives invites a call for common ground and global commonalities in all schools. The main theme of this chapter is that teachers matter. The chapter reviews two decade of scientific evidence that supports this theme. The scientific evidence comes from neuroscience and social cognition findings related to the importance of the teacher–student interaction. Environmental influences are not only the physical world but the all-important social world. The chapter begins with an overview of the “social” brain relative to teaching. A practical guide for teacher use of evidence-based educational practices concludes the chapter.
Subjects provided creative responses to memoranda from an in‐basket exercise. In a 262 design, contingent/noncontingent extrinsic reward conditions were crossed with…
Subjects provided creative responses to memoranda from an in‐basket exercise. In a 262 design, contingent/noncontingent extrinsic reward conditions were crossed with intrinsic motivation/no intrinsic motivation conditions. Results indicated that intrinsic motivation was associated with improved creativity, while offering contingent, extrinsic rewards were not. Thus, the hypothesized inoculation effect associated with intrinsic motivation was not supported. Results are discussed in terms of specific work history and creativity outcomes, with particular attention focused on defining creativity in the business context (i.e. applied creativity) rather than in more artistic settings (i.e. pure creativity).
This editorial aims to introduce the first of a set of two special issues on New modes of governance in activation policies.
The article explores the concept of governance, distinguishing a broad and more narrow use of the concept. Then, it argues that issues of governance should be an integral part of studies of welfare state transformations. Not in the last instance, because governance reforms do have an impact on the content of social policies and social services such as activation. The article continues by discussing three models of the provision of social services.
The article states that the development of the modes of governance in activation in various countries reveals that a mix of service provision models is being used.
The article introduces the articles of the special issue.
Explores the issue of global licensing of technological advancement. Deals particularly with the legal side of things, minimizing risk in particular. Indicates that the…
Explores the issue of global licensing of technological advancement. Deals particularly with the legal side of things, minimizing risk in particular. Indicates that the fastest and best way of penetrating foreign markets is to use a local branch already established in the foreign market, or, alternatively, establish a subsidiary or joint venture. Focuses then on licensing and some of the problems that can arise from that – piracy, exploitation, competition and financial implications if things go wrong. Suggests ways to circumvent this through licensing agreements, patents, trademarks, copyright, technology transfer agreements, and/or national intellectual property laws. Defines a licensing agreement, covering the subject matter of the license, technical assistance provisions, specification of the scope of the license, royalty compensation, quality standards and warranties, infringement of licensed rights, and duration and termination of the agreement. Mentions, also, antitrust considerations and the tax aspects of licensing. Recommends this approach as it spells out terms and conditions clearly to all parties, thereby, hopefully, reducing misunderstanding and disputes.