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Both entrepreneurship education and commercialization of university research have witnessed remarkable growth in the past two decades. These activities may be…
Both entrepreneurship education and commercialization of university research have witnessed remarkable growth in the past two decades. These activities may be complementary in many respects, as when participation in an entrepreneurship program prepares a student to start a company based on university technology, or when technology transfer personnel provide resources and expertise for an entrepreneurship course. At the same time, however, the activities are distinct along a number of dimensions, including goals and mission, influence of market conditions, time horizon, assessment, and providers and constituency. We argue that this situation presents an organizational dilemma: How should entrepreneurship and technology transfer groups within a university maintain independence in recognition of their differences while still facilitating synergies resulting from overlapping areas of concern? In response to this dilemma, we draw on the organizational modularity perspective, which offers the normative prescription that such situations warrant autonomy for individual units, but also require a high degree of cross-unit awareness in order to capture synergies. To illustrate this perspective in an intra-university population of entrepreneurship and technology transfer groups, we present network images and statistics of inter-group relationships at Stanford University, which is widely recognized for its success in both activities. The results highlight that dependence between groups is minimal, such that groups retain autonomy in decision-making and are not dependent on others to complete their goals. Simultaneously, cross-unit awareness is high, such that groups have frequent formal and informal interactions and communication. This awareness facilitates mutually beneficial interactions between groups. As a demonstration of the actual functioning of this system, we present three thumbnail case studies that highlight positive relationships between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer. Ultimately, we argue that to fully realize the synergies between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer, we must also recognize differences between them and ensure the autonomy that such differences warrant.
Public health policy often excludes access to essential medicines. Drawing on an in-depth case study examining access to essential medicines in the context of the HIV/AIDS…
Public health policy often excludes access to essential medicines. Drawing on an in-depth case study examining access to essential medicines in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa, and more briefly, making reference to the U.S. diabetes epidemic, we highlight the relationship between the need for essential medicines in world populations, and the role of groups external to government in promoting access to essential medicines in public health policy. We consider how, in the context of health stratification, the activities of patient advocacy groups, and “third way” social policies of the pharmaceutical industry generate “social capital,” creating enhanced access to essential medicines for a few, and promoting the ideal of the right to access for all. The implications for the development of public health policy inclusive of essential medicines are discussed.
THE enterprise of two London newspapers, the Tribune (for the second time) and the Daily Chronicle, in organizing exhibitions of books affords a convenient excuse for once again bringing forward proposals for a more permanent exhibition. On many occasions during the past twenty years the writer has made suggestions for the establishment of a central book bazaar, to which every kind of book‐buyer could resort in order to see and handle the latest literature on every subject. An experiment on wrong lines was made by the Library Bureau about fifteen years ago, but here, as in the exhibitions above mentioned, the arrangement was radically bad. Visiting the Daily Chronicle show in company with other librarians, and taking careful note of the planning, one was struck by the inutility of having the books arranged by publishers and not by subjects. Not one visitor in a hundred cares twopence whether books on electricity, biography, history, travel, or even fairy tales, are issued by Longmans, Heinemann, Macmillan, Dent or any other firm. What everyone wants to see is all the recent and latest books on definite subjects collected together in one place. The arrangements at the Chronicle and Tribune shows are just a jumble of old and new books placed in show‐cases by publishers' names, similar to the abortive exhibition held years ago in Bloomsbury Street. What the book‐buyer wants is not a miscellaneous assemblage of books of all periods, from 1877 to date, arranged in an artistic show‐case and placed in charge of a polite youth who only knows his own books—and not too much about them—but a properly classified and arranged collection of the newest books only, which could be expounded by a few experts versed in literature and bibliography. What is the use of salesmen in an exhibition where books are not sold outright? If these exhibitions were strictly limited to the newest books only, there would be much less need for salesmen to be retained as amateur detectives. Another decided blemish on such an exhibition is the absence of a general catalogue. Imagine any exhibition on business lines in which visitors are expected to cart away a load of catalogues issued separately by the various exhibitors and all on entirely different plans of arrangement! The British publisher in nearly everything he does is one of the most hopeless Conservatives in existence. He will not try anything which has not been done by his grandfather or someone even more remote, so that publishing methods remain crystallized almost on eighteenth century lines. The proposal about to be made is perhaps far too revolutionary for the careful consideration of present‐day publishers, but it is made in the sincere hope that it may one day be realized. It has been made before without any definite details, but its general lines have been discussed among librarians for years past.
The study was conducted to investigate the association between nonsexual predictors (personal, interpersonal, and dyad variables) and sexual satisfaction in the long-term…
The study was conducted to investigate the association between nonsexual predictors (personal, interpersonal, and dyad variables) and sexual satisfaction in the long-term marriages. The theoretical model was created according to the socio-ecological model proposed by Huston (2000), including 12 personal, 8 interpersonal, and 3 dyad variables as predictors. The model treated personal and interpersonal variables as level 1 variables, while dyad variables were defined as level 2. The research was performed in 14 counties of Croatia and in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The sample included 315 marital couples. Marital partners were interviewed individually and separately, at their home. The analysis was performed using the MLM statistical procedure. Four models were tested: (1) personal, (2) interpersonal without gender variable as predictor, (3) interpersonal with gender variable, and (4) final model made up of all groups of predictors together. In Model 1, Self-esteem and Physical attraction turned out to be predictive of sexual satisfaction. In Model 2, Emotional and Recreational intimacy were positive, while Marriage duration proved to be negative predictor. Model 3 generated same predictive variables as Model 2 plus the variable Gender. Model 4 yielded Gender, Physical Attraction, Emotional Intimacy, Participation in key decision-making, and Marital Quality as positive predictors, while Anxiety and Depression proved to be negative predictors. Obtained results are showing that in long-term marriages not only sexual variables are good predictors of marital sexual satisfaction but some nonsexual variables such as emotional intimacy, recreational intimacy, physical attractiveness, participation in key decision-making, and marital quality are also important. The results are discussed and study limitations are emphasized at the end.
This chapter aims to review evidence of the relationships between dog ownership, dog walking and overall walking and the factors associated with dog walking. It reviews…
This chapter aims to review evidence of the relationships between dog ownership, dog walking and overall walking and the factors associated with dog walking. It reviews the evidence using a social ecological framework. The chapter finds that dog ownership and dog walking are associated with higher levels of walking. A number of social ecological factors are associated with dog walking. Motivation and social support provided by the dog to walk and a sense of responsibility to walk the dog are associated with higher levels of dog walking. Positive social pressure from family, friends, dog owners and veterinarians is also associated with higher levels of dog walking. Built and policy environmental characteristics influence dog walking, including dog-specific factors such as access to local attractive public open space with dog-supportive features (off-leash, dog waste bags, trash cans, signage), pet-friendly destinations (cafes, transit, workplaces, accommodation) and local laws that support dog walking. Large-scale intervention studies are required to determine the effect of increased dog walking on overall walking levels. Experimental study designs, such as natural and quasi-experiments, are needed to provide stronger evidence for causal associations between the built and policy environments and dog walking. Given the potential of dog walking to increase population-levels of walking, urban, park and recreational planners need to design neighbourhood environments that are supportive of dog walking and other physical activity. Advocacy for dog walking policy-relevant initiatives are needed to support dog walking friendly environments. Health promotion practitioners should make dog walking a key strategy in social marketing campaigns.
This report is addressed to the Health Committee of the City of Salford and the associated boroughs of Eccles and Stretford, on whose behalf the analytical examinations were made, the account of which form the basis of the report. It is stated that the number of samples of foods and drugs examined during the year 1945 is the highest for any year since the laboratory was opened in 1914. The number is 3,754. It includes 948 sunlight tests. We judge that the demands made on the time of the laboratory could not be met, as the report points out that the phosphatase tests so increased in number—292—that the sunlight tests had to be discontinued for several months in the year. The smoke versus sunshine problem is acute and unsolved in all large manufacturing centres. Manchester, for example, is said to lose half its share of winter sunshine through its smoke‐polluted air. While the purity of water supply in all large centres of population is fortunately assured, the administrative and technical difficulties of clearing the air from suspended impurities are of a different order and very great. Apart from factories and workshops, everyone who lights a fire to cook a breakfast adds, of necessity, to the volume of acrid filth surging in the air overhead. The figures given illustrate this. The soot gauge records from four stations show monthly averages of from 5·60 to 8·85 metric tons of soot per square kilometre or say from 15 to 20 odd long tons per square mile. A high proportion of this stuff consists of carbonaceous matter, other than tar, and ash. In addition to this there are gaseous sulphur compounds, acid in character.