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The Maastricht process sets up economic and fiscal criteria that member states of the European Union are expected to meet in the preparation for and when having joined the…
The Maastricht process sets up economic and fiscal criteria that member states of the European Union are expected to meet in the preparation for and when having joined the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). According to EMU rules, the Commission monitors the fiscal behavior of the participants but member states themselves-as members of the Council of Ministers-finally vote on the Commission recommendations. It is therefore questionable whether these criteria actually constrain member states from running excessive deficits. This paper adopts a constitutionalist perspective to address this question by asking how member states will interpret or even change the fiscal rules of the EMU in the future. Council decision-making in the area of EMU politics is analyzed using data on the fiscal positions of old and new member states of the European Union. The findings suggest that the recent enlargement will shift policy outcomes, but, if compared to the situation at the time of the signing of the Maastricht treaty, the effect is rather marginal.
The purpose of this paper is to to understand Burmese refugees’ resilience in the USA, as well as to explore the potential contributions of arts- or movement-based…
The purpose of this paper is to to understand Burmese refugees’ resilience in the USA, as well as to explore the potential contributions of arts- or movement-based interviews (movement elicitation (ME)) to the exploration of the immigration experience.
A qualitative case study was used for this pilot study (n=3), with verbal interviews combined with a ME procedure. ME is guided expressive movement that is engaged within verbal interviews. Utilizing ME involved probing interview responses to clarify and deepen the themes related to the resilience of Burmese refugees. Further, thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes within the interviews as related to the resilience of Burmese refugees.
Eight themes emerged from analysis of verbal interviews. Four themes pertained to adversities faced during the resettlement experience: financial and employment-based problems; racial issues and discrimination; challenges in adjustment and acculturation; and rough, unsafe neighborhoods. Four themes described the elements promoting Burmese refugees’ resilience: acquiring functional skills; drawing upon personal qualities; finding a sense of identity in family and beliefs; and accepting social support.
This study describes the resilience of refugees from Burma in the USA, with additional focus on how body and movement may serve as resources for coping, and thus provides information on the development of a framework for mental health assessment and intervention during refugees’ integration in their resettlement country.
In a number of recent multi-billion dollar cases brought against cigarette manufacturers, plaintiffs have in part alleged that the cigarette manufacturers (1) conspired…
In a number of recent multi-billion dollar cases brought against cigarette manufacturers, plaintiffs have in part alleged that the cigarette manufacturers (1) conspired not to compete on the basis of health claims or the introduction of potentially safer cigarettes since the 1950s, and (2) engaged in fraudulent advertising by making implied health claims in advertisements selling ‘low tar’/‘light’ cigarettes. In this type of litigation, defendants’ actions could be due to alleged illegal behaviour as asserted by plaintiffs, or be the result of market forces that may have nothing to do with allegedly inappropriate acts. We examine the economic evidence relating to these allegations, taking into account some of the major influences on cigarette company behaviour. In particular, our analyses show that much of the cigarette manufactures’ behaviour can be explained by Federal Trade Commission and related government actions, rather than conspiracy or fraudulent acts. We find the economic evidence is inconsistent with an effective conspiracy to suppress information on either smoking and health or the development and marketing of potentially safer cigarettes. Regarding ‘lower tar’ and ‘light’ cigarettes, the economic evidence indicates that the cigarette manufacturers responded to government and public health initiatives, and that disclosing more information on smoking compensation earlier than the cigarette companies did would not have had any significant impact on smoking behaviour.