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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1899

Numbers of worthy people are no doubt nursing themselves in the fond and foolish belief that when the Food Bill has received the Royal assent, and becomes law, the…

Abstract

Numbers of worthy people are no doubt nursing themselves in the fond and foolish belief that when the Food Bill has received the Royal assent, and becomes law, the manufacture and sale of adulterated and sophisticated products will, to all intents and purposes, be suppressed, and that the Public Analyst and the Inspector will be able to report the existence of almost universal purity and virtue. This optimistic feeling will not be shared by the traders and manufacturers who have suffered from the effects of unfair and dishonest competition, nor by those whose knowledge and experience of the existing law enables them to gauge the probable value of the new one with some approach to accuracy. The measure has satisfied nobody, and can satisfy nobody but those whose nefarious practices it is intended to check, and who can fully appreciate the value, to them, of patchwork and superficial legislation. We have repeatedly pointed out that repressive legislation, however stringent and however well applied, can never give the public that which the public, in theory, should receive—namely, complete protection and adequate guarantee,—nor to the honest trader the full support and encouragement to which he is entitled. But, in spite of the defects and ineffectualities necessarily attaching to legislation of this nature, a strong Government could without much difficulty have produced a far more effective, and therefore more valuable law than that which, after so long an incubation, is to be added to the statute‐book.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 1 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1910

It is generally admitted that the professions are much over‐crowded. While the condition of affairs which exists in professions of older standing such as medicine or the…

Abstract

It is generally admitted that the professions are much over‐crowded. While the condition of affairs which exists in professions of older standing such as medicine or the law is fairly well known, even to the unprofessional man, and the qualifications requisite for advancement and success are generally appreciated to a certain extent, the same degree of knowledge does not obtain in the case of chemistry, about which, as a means of livelihood, the profoundest ignorance prevails—even among the better‐educated classes. The opportunities which are apparently held out to aspirants and the greatly increased facilities for chemical study have given rise to an absolutely false idea in the mind of the public at large as to the positions obtainable and the prospects offered. Chemistry is, perhaps, the most over‐crowded of all professional careers, for, although the science has gained enormously in importance and in technical application within a comparatively recent period of time, the supply of highly‐trained chemists greatly exceeds the number of positions available, while the remuneration to be obtained is, from a professional point of view, extremely low, and is quite out of proportion to the scientific qualifications possessed and to the nature of the work exacted. The causes of the over‐crowding are too many and too complex to be considered in detail here, but there may be cited as among the principal factors in this respect the greatly increased popularity of the science as a specialised study, the entrance into the profession of individuals who are in reality personally unsuited for a professional career, and the failure of the educationalists to grasp what the exact meaning and aim of the education of a community should be. While, however, the ultimate prospects of advancement and success are influenced greatly by the growing tendency of crowding out, there are, in this respect, other factors to be considered which are liable to be overlooked, namely, the actions of the members of the profession themselves, and, following from this, the degree of respect accorded and the value attached to that profession by the general public. A profession retains its status before the world, or loses it, according to the nature of the individual and concerted actions of its members, both in their relations with each other and in their intercourse with the public. The particular type of person who enters a profession might appear at first sight to be a factor of comparatively minor importance, provided that a thorough training had been undergone and good qualifications obtained. Such, however, is far from being the case. If it is to maintain an honourable position before the world and a recognised place among other intellectual callings, a profession must endeavour to attract the best type of man—the man who, apart from his scientific qualifications, possesses the true professional instinct and ideals, and the ambition to raise his calling and himself to as high a level as possible. “Qualifications” alone are not sufficient. To attract the man of higher type it is necessary to offer a reasonable prospect of adequate reward. It is open to question whether the chemical profession can, at present, offer the necessary inducement, from this point of view, to enter its ranks. It cannot be pretended that chemistry can present ultimate prospects compared to those offered by the other professions. The reward of the man of science is fixed unless his discoveries have a commercial value, and he himself possess the commercial instinct necessary to profit by them. It will be admitted that this is not the case with the specialist in medicine or with the leader at the Bar. The common objections put forward against such considerations as these are that a man devotes his life to the pursuit of a science purely out of love for that science and with little consideration for remuneration or for social status, and that questions of reward or remuneration being purely mercenary considerations should not be brought into the discussion. While such objections may appear reasonable at first sight, a little reflection will show that the matter lies somewhat deeper than this. The future of the chemical profession itself, and not only the pecuniary profit of the individual, is involved. To offer low remuneration for scientific positions is to ensure these positions being ultimately filled by men of mediocre capacities, and it must be understood that this applies as much to a junior assistantship in a technical laboratory as to a chair in a university or to a public position of trust. The prospects which there are at present in the chemical profession can be regarded only as being more likely to attract the mediocre person than the man of superior capabilities, and mediocrity cannot be considered as conducive to the advancement of a science. In these days of excessive competition it is imperative to consider many facts before choosing a particular professional career. Men of attainments superior to the ordinary will not voluntarily enter a profession in which the reward for their labours is to be in no way proportionate to their abilities, and that particular profession will necessarily suffer by their absence. It is a common fallacy to suppose that a man's intellectual capacity is measured by the number of examinations he has passed or by the number of degrees and diplomas which he may possess. Under our present Chinese system of examination it is possible for anyone, even if he be of really very modest attainments, to make a collection of degrees and diplomas. Originality in thought and the power to apply the knowledge obtained during training are not asked for. There is a type of man extremely common to‐day whose capacity for absorbing existent scientific facts (i.e., the ideas of other people) is as great as his incapacity for originating ideas of his own. To this particular type of person the obtaining of qualifications is a comparatively easy matter, especially in the case of chemistry, which is, strictly speaking, a non‐mathematical science. Whereas originality and individualism in thought makes for advancement in science, the mere repetition of the ideas of other persons can only result in stagnation. These facts are generally lost sight of by those persons who assert that the interest of his particular subject should prove an ample compensation for a low remuneration provided that that remuneration be sufficient in order to live. It is not recognised that if such a prospect of affairs becomes general those persons whose ideas are bounded by a narrow horizon (and such form the majority in any community) are attracted in preference to those whose ambitions take a wider scope, and who will naturally turn to another field of operations where their abilities will be more amply rewarded. The competition to‐day in the chemical profession has become even keener than that among the quill‐drivers; the early prospects are about the same as, or are little superior to, those of the latter calling, while ultimately there is the reward of a position at a remuneration very little better than that obtained by a head bookkeeper, and generally very much inferior to that of a small merchant or fairly successful tradesman—the supposed intellectual inferiors of the man of science. Again, with respect to public chemical appointments, there is the growing tendency to create “whole‐time” appointments at a fixed and insufficient remuneration, with no prospect of advancement or certainty of superannuation, and, in many cases, no security of tenure. In the purely technical world the position of affairs is even worse, while the prospect of making a living by practising privately as a technical and consulting chemist is limited, since the demand from the public is not large, and much of the work formerly obtained by the private practitioner is now done much more cheaply by a “tester” of some kind at a works. The consultant is certainly needed in certain cases, but these are of such comparative rarity as to have but little influence upon the general position. There is no doubt that much harm has been done by the nonsense emitted from time to time by unthinking persons and by those who describe themselves as “pure” chemists, to the effect that much of the work carried out in a technical or analytical laboratory can be performed quite as satisfactorily by the untrained person as by the skilled chemist. These opinions, which may perhaps find excuse in the ignorance of the persons holding them, are based upon the supposition that, as the work in such laboratories may tend to be of a routine nature, unskilled labour is quite as valuable as scientific training. The harm done by the promulgation of such statements is to be found in the fact that untrained persons conceive the idea that employment may be obtained in a chemical laboratory without any previous scientific education, and hence there is introduced a further tendency to lower the status of the chemical profession by the admission of unqualified persons. Whatever the condition of chemistry may be at present from an intellectual standpoint, it is manifestly unfair to give the preference to unskilled persons over those who have at least studied their subject, simply on the ground that such labour is cheaper, and it is suicidal that such a preference should be encouraged by the members of the chemical profession themselves. It is necessary to admit that much of the unsatisfactory condition of affairs in the chemical profession is due directly to the behaviour of the members themselves. They have never really appreciated the necessity of acting together for the benefit of all and for the profession as a whole; they have never recognised that, whatever the specialised branch of each may be, all are linked together by a common training and by common interests, that that which adversely affects an individual member adversely affects the whole profession, and that their actions and the value they themselves put upon their services determine the degree of respect accorded to their profession and to themselves by the outside public. The chemist who is engaged in teaching cares little if his technical colleague is underpaid, because he himself is not a technical chemist, and the latter, on the other hand, does not concern himself with the condition of affairs in the teaching branch of the profession. This policy of “sauve qui peut” is disastrous. Combination among its members is absolutely necessary if a profession is to “live.” A number of individuals having a general common training in a particular branch of knowledge, each one working for his own special interest and without regard for that of his fellows, no more constitutes a profession than a people possessed of no laws or constitution and bound by no social obligations constitutes a nation. That the necessity of efficient combination is not understood may be seen from a statement made by the President of the Institute of Chemistry at the last annual general meeting of that body. In the course of his address, the President said: “If the Institute were … . to become, as some critics have suggested it might become, a professional trade union for the regulation of fees and the suppression of competition, I feel sure that the larger proportion of its members would rightly lose all interest in its affairs.” If the Institute of Chemistry is to be regarded solely as an examining body, this particular statement of the President may be held to be excusable, if not justifiable, but if the Institute be considered as a professional body for controlling the interests of its members and acting for the advancement of the whole chemical profession, two possibilities are presented. Either a condition of affairs exists in the Institute of Chemistry which is lamentable, and which it would, perhaps, have been kinder to the Institute to have kept secret, or the statement of the President is not justified by the facts. The word “rightly” has, logically and morally, no place in the sentence in which it occurs. It would appear from a passing reference by the President to the Institute as “a great professional organisation” that the body in question does desire to be considered a professional institution. Under these circumstances, the statement above quoted amounts to this: as the Institute of Chemistry is not to concern itself with the fees paid to its members, or with the fees which those members choose to accept, it becomes open to any member (although a member of a “professional” body) to accept any fee, however low, for any work, and by a slight extension of this free and easy principle, any member may undercut any other member by performing the same work for a lower fee, and, given a sufficient scope for such “competition” without any restriction (and the only restriction possible is the veto of a firm professional authority), an impossible state of things would soon be reached. It will be noted that no account has been taken of length of service, years of experience, and professional position. A man with these extra qualifications is not to expect his own professional organisation to recognise them or to aid him in making others recognise them. Those for whom the regulation of fees has an interest are, for the most part, men in responsible public positions, or in private practice, who are endeavouring to maintain their profession and themselves in as high esteem as possible—in spite of the ignorant opposition offered to them by the public who do not appreciate their services and by their “professional” brethren who cannot understand what a professional man should be. It is these men who represent the Institute of Chemistry before the public, and without whom that Institute would be practically unknown. It is only to be expected that such men would be in the minority. The initiation of all wise things comes from individuals—generally from some one individual—and never from the mass. The general tendency of things throughout the world is to render mediocrity the ascendant power among mankind, and this applies as much to small bodies of men as to society at large. In questions of policy and future action the opinion of the majority of the mass may be discounted, for while the reasoned opinion of an individual may be biassed, it is an opinion (and, therefore, right or wrong, worth consideration); but, in the case of majorities, the opinions expressed by them do not represent the sum of individual ideas, but are simply the expressed preference of one or a few of the same type as those who constitute the majority, followed unthinkingly by the remainder—a state of things best comparable to a flock of sheep running round a tree. There is no reason for supposing that the majority in the Institute of Chemistry is any more capable of giving a wise and reasoned answer to a question of policy than are other majorities. In the present instance the reasons which can be brought forward against the assumption by a professional body of an indifference to the question of the remuneration of its members far outnumber any which may be advanced in defence of such a policy. We have drawn attention to the necessity of attracting the man of superior attainments to a profession, we have indicated what the ultimate effects of inadequate remuneration for scientific work will be, and we have urged the vital necessity of combination in calling attention to the policy of segregation which is having such disastrous results. Some of these points are referred to in the address of the president of the Institute of Chemistry, but from a different standpoint. “A large number of our Fellows are engaged in practice as analytical and consulting chemists, and questions of professional interest naturally appeal to this section of our membership, but an equally important section feel only a more remote interest in these questions, though they appreciate the wide influence of the Institute as a great professional organisation.” Again: “It must never be forgotten that an important part of the work of the Institute is the consolidation of the profession.” Nothing but unqualified approval can be accorded to this last statement. It is difficult to see, however, how the consolidation of the profession is to be effected by the Institute if one section of its members feel only a more remote interest in the questions which concern the advancement and success of the other, and if the majority of the members would view with disfavour an attempt on the part of the Institute to place the recognition of professional service upon a proper and a dignified basis. The problem of the regulation of fees is one of the most important questions with which a professional body has to deal, and it is not easy to comprehend how a body which deliberately ignores or avoids this point can, properly speaking, be called a professional organisation. There is now more than at any other time the crying need for a strong controlling authority in the chemical profession—an authority which would enforce professional conduct upon those under its control, and, passing the bounds of mere protestation, take a definite and severe line of action in all cases of infringement of its rules. Before joining a given professional organisation a man has a perfect right to inquire what benefits he is likely to gain from his membership. It is not sufficient to merely hold examinations and to grant diplomas—any examining institution can do that. In a body intended to deal with professional interests examinations are of secondary importance; the advancement of the profession and the welfare of the members demand the first consideration. If not, it becomes reasonable and perfectly justifiable for any member of the profession to refrain from allying himself with that body, and to refuse to recognise it professionally—a course of action which, although necessary in such a case, would not be beneficial to the profession; the fault, however, would lie with the controlling authority and not with the individual.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Wooyoung William Jang, Kevin K. Byon, Thomas A. Baker III and Yosuke Tsuji

Recently, Jang and Byon (2020) found that esports recreational gameplay consumption is causally linked to esports online media consumption. In the context of esports…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, Jang and Byon (2020) found that esports recreational gameplay consumption is causally linked to esports online media consumption. In the context of esports, live-streaming content (by individual creators) is a new type of media consumption, which should be distinguished from esports event broadcast. Extending Jang and Byon’s finding, the purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of esports content live streaming in the relationship between esports recreational gameplay and esports event broadcast because it allows the games to be more accessible to viewers due to two-way communication. In order to test for stability of the mediating effect of esports live content streaming, we examined the hypothesized model across the three genres (i.e. imagination [n = 224], physical enactment [n = 195], sport simulation [n = 179]).

Design/methodology/approach

Data (N = 598) were collected via an online survey from individuals who had experienced esports recreational gameplay. A total of 15 items with five dimensions (i.e. esports recreational gameplay, esports content live streaming, esports event broadcast, streamer identification, and pro-player identification) were adapted from existing studies. The two identification constructs and gender were used as control variables.

Findings

The model fit of the measurement model was found to be acceptable via CFA. The results of SEM indicated that the intention of esports content live streaming consumption played a full mediation role in the relationship between esports recreational gameplay behavior and the intention of esports event broadcast consumption. Additionally, we found the mediating effect of esports content live streaming across the three genres.

Originality/value

This study contributes to literature related to the esports consumer behavior by conceptualizing esports content live streaming and found that esports content live streaming represents a mechanism that underlies the relationship between esports recreational gameplay intention and esports event broadcast consumption.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Thomas A. Baker III, Kevin K. Byon and Natasha T. Brison

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether negative meanings consumers attribute to a corporation transfer to the endorser and to examine the moderating effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether negative meanings consumers attribute to a corporation transfer to the endorser and to examine the moderating effects of corporate-specific and product-specific negative meanings on an endorser’s credibility.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a protocol designed by Till and Shimp (1998), two experiments were conducted to examine if meaning transfer exists (experiment 1) and if meaning type moderates reverse meaning transfer (experiment 2). A doubly repeated multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to investigate changes in the endorser’s credibility and attitudes toward the brand.

Findings

The results revealed that the negative meanings consumers associated with these corporate crises influence consumer perceptions of the endorser as well as attitude toward the brand.

Research limitations/implications

This finding supports the position that meaning type moderates reverse meaning transfer and may explain variances in the literature on the significance of reverse meaning transfer. Based on these findings, brand crises have a negative effect on the endorser’s credibility.

Practical implications

The results lead the authors to suggest that endorsers as well as marketers should closely scrutinize brand partnerships, as the relationship may positively and negatively influence consumer perceptions of the athlete endorser.

Social implications

Based on the findings from this study, brand managers need to appreciate differences in brand crisis type by tailoring brand image remediation strategies to fit the type(s) of meaning(s) associated with a specific controversy.

Originality/value

The results from the current study add, significantly, to the literature by being the first to evidence that different meanings associated with different types of brand crises produce different attitudes toward the brand.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Thomas Baker, Karen Coyle and Sean Petiya

The 1998 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) document “Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records” (FRBR) has inspired a family of models that…

Abstract

Purpose

The 1998 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) document “Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records” (FRBR) has inspired a family of models that view bibliographic resources in terms of multiple entities differentiated with regard to meaning, expression, and physicality. The purpose of this paper is to compare how three FRBR and FRBR-like models have been expressed as Semantic Web vocabularies based on Resource Description Framework (RDF). The paper focusses on IFLA’s own vocabulary for FRBR; RDF vocabularies for Resource Description and Access (RDA), an emergent FRBR-based standard for library cataloging; and BIBFRAME, an emergent FRBR-like, native-RDF standard for bibliographic data.

Design/methodology/approach

Simple test records using the RDF vocabularies were analyzed using software that supports inferencing.

Findings

In some cases, what the data actually means appears to differ from what the vocabulary developers presumably intended to mean. Data based on the FRBR vocabulary appears particularly difficult to integrate with data based on different models.

Practical implications

Some of the RDF vocabularies reviewed in the paper could usefully be simplified, enabling libraries to integrate their data more easily into the wider information ecosystem on the Web. Requirements for data consistency and quality control could be met by emergent standards of the World Wide Web Consortium for validating RDF data according to integrity constraints.

Originality/value

There are few such comparisons of the RDF expressions of these models, which are widely assumed to represent the future of library cataloging.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Kevin K. Byon, Soonhwan Lee and Thomas A. Baker

The purpose of this paper is: to explain the relative influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on purchase intention of the 2010 FIFA World…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is: to explain the relative influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on purchase intention of the 2010 FIFA World Cup sponsored products; and to compare the purchase intention of American and Korean spectators toward sponsoring products of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were predictors of purchase intention. Further, multiple group analysis revealed that the path coefficient between subjective norm and purchase intention for the two groups was significantly different.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered questionnaire was developed to measure the four constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TBP) as well as demographic information. Upon completion of the psychometric properties test of the TPB, a SEM was conducted to examine the proposed hypotheses. The same fit indices as with the measurement model were adopted to evaluate the model fit. Finally, a multi-group analysis was conducted to examine if the proposed relationships are different based on nationality (American vs Korean samples). A comparison of χ2 value between unconstrained and constrained models was employed to assess whether the two groups are statistically different.

Findings

SEM revealed that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were predictors of purchase intention. In this study, a multi-group analysis was conducted to examine if the proposed relationships in our model are different based on nationality. As a result, we found that two groups (i.e. American vs Korean) exhibited notable differences in subjective norms in determining purchase intentions of the 2010 FIFA World Cup sponsored products.

Originality/value

Sponsors for mega sporting events, like the FIFA World Cup, must develop global marketing plans that appeal to worldwide audiences. Sport marketers, therefore, need cross-cultural marketing analysis on equivalence and bias so that they better understand how spectators from different cultures behave after consuming the same event. Thus, application of the TPB in cross-cultural studies aimed at understanding consumer intention after spectating the FIFA World Cup would provide marketers with valuable information for the formation of global marketing strategies.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Victoria Catterson, Angela Robb and Catriona Semple

Presents the three winning entries from the 1998 Scottish Schools Essay Competition, organized by the University of Paisley Library and sponsored by John Smith & Son…

Abstract

Presents the three winning entries from the 1998 Scottish Schools Essay Competition, organized by the University of Paisley Library and sponsored by John Smith & Son Bookshops Ltd. Victoria Catterson’s first prize winning entry discusses Jeanette Winterson’s Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit which explores the major themes of the novel: self‐identity, love and betrayal. Angela Robb discusses the theme of avariciousness, and the misfortunes that befall a family as a result of it, from John Steinbeck’s The Pearl. Catriona Semple discusses Jostein Gaarder’s The Solitaire Mystery where a Magic Island, Rainbow Fizz, the indigenous dwarfs and a pack of cards are found to be more akin to life on earth than you might at first expect.

Details

Library Review, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1919

On May 12th the case for the abolition of night baking from the operatives' point of view was placed before the Committee appointed by the Government to investigate the…

Abstract

On May 12th the case for the abolition of night baking from the operatives' point of view was placed before the Committee appointed by the Government to investigate the subject under the chairmanship of Sir WILLIAM MACKENZIE. MR. BANFIELD, the General Secretary of the Union of Operative Bakers, Confectioners and Allied Workers, said there was a general demand for legislation prohibiting night work. Bakers looked old before their time, and the Chairman of the Richmond Tribunal had stated that no baker passed A1 had ever been before him. Witness urged that new bread was not so important as the health of the night worker, although new bread could be supplied under a system of day work. The only ground for night work was that it was in the interests of certain employers, but he said that 80 per cent. of the employers had enough ovens and plant to carry on a system of day work. He suggested the prohibition of night baking between the hours of 11 p.m. and 5 a.m., with legal provision for an extension of the prohibited hours at intervals. He added that 90 per cent. of the operative bakers would prefer day work. Continued night work was bad for the health of the baker. The returns showed that the rate of mortality from bronchitis among working bakers was abnormally high. This was due to the constant change from a heated atmosphere to a cooler one. The mortality from phthisis was slightly higher than the average, while the figures for suicide were considerably higher than the average Replying to the Chairman, MR. BANFIELD said that there need be no increase in the price of bread if night baking was prohibited, as any expense which might be occasioned to the employer could come out of the profits the employer now put into his pocket, instead of using it to extend his plant. His experience was that the bulk of the bread was not sold till late in the afternoon. Witness desired the abolition of the order prohibiting the sale of bread less than twelve hours old. He said that if the order was rigidly enforced it would itself solve the problem of night baking. He did not think, however, that there was sufficient justification for continuing the order, which, in his opinion, should be revoked and replaced by an enactment prohibiting night‐baking. The order, he said, was fairly extensively ignored, simply because, in his opinion, the local food committees refused to prosecute, or would not inspect. MR. CANNON, the owner of fifty bakers' shops in working districts of London, declared that the waste of bread resulting from the order prohibiting the sale of bread less than twelve hours old was enormous. The Food Controller in introducing the order, had introduced a new business—the stale bread industry, which consisted in the buying up of stale bread. He was not prepared to say what was done with it but it was not being used as bread. A strike of bakers would be futile as it would simply mean that housewives would bake their own bread, and after a little practice they would do it better than any baker.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Diana W. Thomas and Peter T. Leeson

This paper seeks to examine how productive entrepreneurial activities, such as innovation, influence unproductive entrepreneurial activities, such as regulatory rent seeking.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine how productive entrepreneurial activities, such as innovation, influence unproductive entrepreneurial activities, such as regulatory rent seeking.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate the argument the authors consider Bavaria's brewing industry in the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries using an analytic narrative approach.

Findings

The example of Bavaria's brewing industry suggests that productive entrepreneurial activities may increase unproductive entrepreneurial activities. Confronted with a situation in which innovation erodes their monopoly returns, legally protected producers and policymakers reregulate industry to recapture lost rents. Regulation policy under such reregulation tends to be more encompassing, and thus produces more unproductive entrepreneurial activity, than pre‐innovation regulation policy. This reflects the greater number or variety of producers that new regulation policy must encompass for reregulation to recreate rents.

Originality/value

The paper builds on Thomas’ work, which suggests that innovation can undermine existing regulatory institutions and result in deregulation. This paper identifies an alternative channel through which productive entrepreneurial innovation may influence unproductive entrepreneurial rent seeking. It argues that productive entrepreneurial innovation by legally unprotected producers in an industry can also increase, rather than decrease, the extent of unproductive entrepreneurship in that industry.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Richard J. Cox

Richard Cox responds to the attacks by Nicolson Baker against the library community. Deals with each of Baker’s main points: that a lie was foisted on the public about the…

Abstract

Richard Cox responds to the attacks by Nicolson Baker against the library community. Deals with each of Baker’s main points: that a lie was foisted on the public about the care of newspapers, the insidious destruction of original newspapers, the resultant loss of trust by the public in libraries and archives and a set of wrong priorities leading to the misguided microfilming and destruction of newspapers.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

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