The purpose of this paper was to examine the rheological characterisation of thickened water under different temperature and pH conditions and thickened milk with…
The purpose of this paper was to examine the rheological characterisation of thickened water under different temperature and pH conditions and thickened milk with different fat contents.
Beverages thickened with powdered thickeners are used in the medical management of individuals who suffer swallowing difficulties (dysphagia). Each individual requires a specific level of thickness to best meet the needs of their dysphagia. Although the level of thickness is defined, obtaining the correct consistency of thickened fluids is difficult. This is due to fluctuations associated with temperature and type of fluids to be thickened. Rheological characterisation of commercially available xanthan gum-based thickener was performed under different conditions of temperature, pH and fat contents.
The viscosity and the yield stress of thickened water was found to be unaffected by pH. Similarly, temperature did not affect the viscosity at a high thickener concentration, although it did at lower concentration levels. Conversely, viscosity and yield stress increased as fat levels increased in thickened milk. Furthermore, thickened water took less than 2 minutes to reach equilibrium viscosity, while thickened milk required approximately 15 minutes to reach equilibrium viscosity.
These findings have implications for the standing time required for different beverages before they are thickened to a consistency that has been deemed safe for the patient’s physiological needs. Additionally, it highlights that different liquid base substances required different amounts of thickener to achieve the same level of thickness.
Findings from this study confirms and explores the variability of thickened fluids under different conditions of temperature, pH and fat content for the medical management of dysphagia.
It would be difficult to find, especially during the summer months, a more popular confection than “ices,” or one which, when properly made, is more harmless or wholesome. They are universally liked by the young and old of all classes everywhere, and are in demand on all and every occasion. The volume of trade done in this commodity from the barrows of itinerant street vendors and from confectioners' shops is enormous. The process of manufacture is comparatively simple and in a small way requires little outlay for appliances or materials, consequently it appeals to the vendor with little capital, and the sales generally provide a fair margin of profit. Competition in the trade is keen. The price of the article is as low as can be consistent with the use of sound ingredients, and the desire to maintain profits has caused the cheapest possible materials to be used for the manufacture, resulting in many different qualities being sold. The general descriptions of the goods very rarely convey much information as to the nature of the materials used in their composition. An inspection of the labels displayed on vendors' barrows and in shops indicates that there are ices, ice‐creams, cream‐ices and creamy‐ices, the names being sometimes enriched with a qualifying description suggesting the addition of some flavouring agent. The names appear to be very loosely and irregularly applied to a variety of frozen products which may vary from sweetened water to sweetened cream, with many intermediate qualities. A search amongst the standard recipes for making ices discloses the fact that most of them are frozen custards which should be made from sweetened milk thickened with starch or eggs, with or without the addition of cream. The idea conveyed to the more intelligent and discriminating consumer when the term “cream” forms part of the description is that a certain proportion of that substance is employed in the composition of the ices, but there are others who are indifferent to the quality or composition so long as the product is ice‐cold, sweet and palatable. If made without cream they are masquerading under false names as “ice‐creams” or “cream‐ices,” and to be correct should be termed plain “ices.” Unfortunately this is only one case amongst many in this country where legal standards are necessary but lacking. When a vendor sells as “ice‐cream” something devoid of cream he commits an offence which should be treated in the same manner as other forms of adulteration. The American Government require ice‐cream to contain not less than 14 per cent. of milk‐fat, and the Canadian Government require a standard of not less than 7 per cent. of milk‐fat. In samples recently examined by the writer and submitted as “ice‐cream,” the fat varied from 1·5 to 7·5 per cent., and in only one instance could it be definitely shown that cream was present. The others were made from milk, and the fat varied with the proportion of milk present. If proceedings had been instituted under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts in some of these cases it is doubtful if convictions could have been obtained, and failing conviction it would have probably been costly for the local authority concerned.
Differences in laws and regulations concerning the basic materials, optional ingredients and food additives authorised in yogurt manufacture in each EC member state were…
Differences in laws and regulations concerning the basic materials, optional ingredients and food additives authorised in yogurt manufacture in each EC member state were studied. Not many differences exist regarding the basic materials. However, considerable differences exist with respect to optional ingredients and food additives. Legal provisions for different yogurt types and other requirements were also studied.
In exercise of the powers conferred upon him by the Ministry of Food (Continuance) Act, 1920, and of all other powers enabling him in that behalf, the Food Controller, by arrangement with the Minister of Health, hereby orders as follows :—
Less than half a century ago almost the entire population of the United States lived upon food that was home‐grown and home‐prepared. With the exception of a few articles requiring a different climate than our own for their production, such as coffee, tea, sugar, spices, and chocolate, the inhabitants of the country lived exclusively upon food of their own producing, while the dealers of the city were supplied with the products of the neighbouring farms. Provisions of all kinds were supplied in an unprepared condition, and their preservation or preparation for the table was accomplished at the home.
In those frightening years between the two Wars and governments in France came and went with dismal frequency, it used to be said that any French Government which permitted food prices to rise had no chance whatever of surviving, and the result was that food was bountiful and incredibly cheap. Times have changed dramatically but not the attitude of people to the price and availibility of food and, in particular of political control; this is very much the same as always. Mostly, it revolves around the woman and what she sees as an abuse, greed and taking mean advantage of prevailing conditions and, make no mistake, this will be reflected in the political field; in the way she votes. It has happened in previous elections; it will happen in even greater degree in the next election and, although not decisive, it can have a not insignificant impact. None know better than the housewife how meaningless is the smug talk of the politicians when it comes to food prices. Their attitude may not have been the main factor in throwing out the last Conservative Government; this was undoubtedly the fear that their continuance in office would result in widespread strikes and the serious effect these upheavals have on food prices (and other household necessit ies), but the votes of woman were an unimportant contribution. As it was, it mattered little to the muscle men of the trade unions which party is in power. Women's talk around the shops and supermarket's, up and down the High Street to‐day is one long grumble and disillusionment with politicians generally.
The thirteenth annual report of the Ministry of Health, 1931–1932 (H.M. Stationery Office, price 5s. net), states that during the year the appointments of 23 Public Analysts were approved. The number of samples of food and drugs submitted to Public Analysts in the year 1931 was 136,169. This was a decrease of 346 as compared with the number for the previous year, which was the highest recorded; 6,324 samples were reported as adulterated or not up to standard, being 4·6 per cent. of the number examined. This is the lowest percentage recorded and compares with 4·8 per cent. in 1930 and 5·4 per cent. in 1929. The detailed statement in regard to the samples analysed is as follows:—
It is no new thing that at the present time there should be all kinds of people gazing into the future, hazarding guesses about what is going to happen to mankind in the next few years, decades, or centuries,
Uses the basic chemical and physical information discussed in “Milk and milk products I” and applies this information to a range of other milk products. Describes the…
Uses the basic chemical and physical information discussed in “Milk and milk products I” and applies this information to a range of other milk products. Describes the methods of preparation of concentrated and dried milks, cream and butter, and fermented milk products, particularly yogurt and cheese. Discusses the chemical and physical changes taking place during the preparation of these products and how these changes determine the quality characteristics.
The inaugural meeting of the newly established National Party was held in the Queen's Hall, Langham Place, on Thursday, October 25th, under the presidency of Admiral Lord Beresford. There was a large and distinguished audience numbering about 3,000 persons, among those on the platform being Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, Brigadier‐General Page Croft, M.P., Mr. Havelock Wilson, Miss Constance Williams, the Hon. G. J. Jenkins (all of whom addressed the meeting), Earl Bathurst, Sir C. Allom, Major Alan Burgoyne, M.P., Colonel Cassal, Mr. G. K. Chesterton, Sir R. Cooper, M.P., Capt. Viscount Duncannon, M.P., Sir W. Earnshaw Cooper, Mr. H. A. Gwynne, Mr. Rowland Hunt, M.P., Lieut.‐Col. Lord Leconfield, Lord Leith of Fyvie, Admiral Sir H. Markham, The Earl of Northesk, Colonel R. H. Rawson, M.P., Lord Edward St. Maur, Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, Lord Stafford and others.