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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Ewa Klimiec, Jacek Piekarski, Wiesław Zaraska and Barabara Jasiewicz

This paper aims to present a prototype of the diagnostic system for the examination of the distribution of the force applied by foot to substrate during usual human…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a prototype of the diagnostic system for the examination of the distribution of the force applied by foot to substrate during usual human moving. Presented system is competitive to other currently available devices, thanks to sensors reliability, user-friendly operation manner and design based on cheap parts. The results of examinations are transmitted by radiomodem. Its recording and visualization are possible on either personal or mobile computers.

Design/methodology/approach

During selection of the sensors substrate, many polymeric electrets were examined. Polyvinylidene fluoride films were selected, because they have good charge uniformity across the surface, wide range of acceptable temperatures, linear relation between mechanical stress and output signal and high resistance for squeezing. The system measures the charge generated in film.

Findings

The pressures are recorded in relation to maximum value; therefore, measuring system does not require calibration. The simultaneous recording of data from all eight sensors allows tracking the signal without distortion.

Originality/value

An array of sensors is installed in the shoe insole. The measuring device is fixed to the outer surface of the shoe. Its weight is 75 g. The range of transmission is suitable for examination in the natural environment, outside traditional consulting room. Software is dedicated for analysis of the pressure distribution in every moment of the foot movement. The system is suitable for examination of flat feet, diabetic foot and recovery progress after injures.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Katarina Cvejin, Libu Manjakkal, Jan Kulawik, Krzysztof Zaraska and Dorota Szwagierczak

– This paper aims to investigate different properties of synthesized perovskite Sm0.9Sr0.1CoO3-δ and its potential for application in potentiometric oxygen sensors.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate different properties of synthesized perovskite Sm0.9Sr0.1CoO3-δ and its potential for application in potentiometric oxygen sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The powder was obtained through solid-state reaction method and characterized by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer and X-ray diffraction. It was used for both making a paste and pressing into rods for sintering. The prepared paste was deposited on alumina and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, by screen printing. Thick film conductivity, bulk conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of sintered rods were measured as a function of temperature. An oxygen concentration cell was fabricated with the screen-printed perovskite material as electrodes.

Findings

Electrical conductivity of the bulk sample and thick film increases with the increase in temperature, showing semiconductor-like behavior, which is also indicated by relatively high values of the measured Seebeck coefficient. Estimated values of the activation energy for conduction are found to be of the same magnitude as those reported in the literature for similar composition. An investigation of Nernstian behavior of the fabricated cell confirmed that Sm0.9Sr0.1CoO3-δ is a promising material for application in oxygen potentiometric sensors.

Originality/value

Gas sensor research is focused on the development of new sensitive materials. Although there is scarce information on SmCoO3-δ in the literature, it is mostly investigated for fuel cell applications. Results of this study imply that Sr-doped SmCoO3-δ is a good candidate material for oxygen potentiometric sensor.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Karol Malecha

This paper aims to present a research on utilization of an irreversible bonding between non-transparent low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and transparent…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a research on utilization of an irreversible bonding between non-transparent low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The research presented in this paper is focused on the technology and performance of the miniature microfluidic module for fluorescence measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

The chemical combination of both materials is achieved through surface modification using argon-oxygen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. According to the performed spectroscopic analyses (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; attenuated total reflection-Fourier infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) and contact angle measurements, the LTCC and PDMS surfaces are oxidized during the process. The presented microfluidic module was fabricated using LTCC technology. The possibility for the fabrication of LTCC-PDMS microfluidic fluorescent sensor is studied. The performance of the sensor was examined experimentally.

Findings

As a result of DBD plasma oxidation, the LTCC and PDMS surfaces change in character from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and were permanently bonded. The presented LTCC-PDMS bonding technique was used to fabricate a microfluidic fluorescent sensor. The preliminary measurements of the sensor have proven that it is possible to observe the fluorescence of a liquid sample from a very small volume.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research is a preliminary work which is focused on the fabrication of the LTCC-PDMS fluorescent sensor. The microfluidic device was positively tested only for ethanolic fluorescein solutions. Therefore, fluorescence measurements should be performed for biological specimen (e.g. DNA).

Practical implications

The LTCC-PDMS bonding technology combines the advantages of both materials. One the one hand, transparent PDMS with precise, transparent three-dimensional structures can be fabricated using hot embossing, soft lithography or laser ablation. On the other hand, rigid LTCC substrate consisting of microfluidic structures, electric interconnections, heaters and optoelectronic components can be fabricated. The development of the LTCC-PDMS microfluidic modules provides opportunity for the construction of a lab-on-chip, or micro-total analysis systems-type system, for analytical chemistry and fast medical diagnoses.

Originality/value

This paper shows utilization of the PDMS-LTCC bonding technology for microfluidics. Moreover, the design, fabrication and performance of the PDMS-LTCC fluorescent sensor are presented.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Eduardo Garcia-Breijo, Gema Prats-Boluda, Jose Vicente Lidon-Roger, Yiyao Ye-Lin and Javier Garcia-Casado

This paper aims to present a comparison between three types of manufacturing techniques, namely, screen-printed, inkjet and gravure, using different types of inks, for the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a comparison between three types of manufacturing techniques, namely, screen-printed, inkjet and gravure, using different types of inks, for the implementation of concentric ring electrodes which permit estimation of Laplacian potential on the body surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Flexible concentric ring electrodes not only present lower skin–electrode contact impedance and lower baseline wander than rigid electrodes but are also less sensitive to interference and motion artefacts. The above three techniques allow printing of conductive inks on flexible substrates, and with this work, the authors aim to study which is the best technique and ink to obtain the best electrode response.

Findings

From the results obtained regarding ink thickness, resistivity, electrode resistance and other performance parameters derived from electrocardiographic signal recording tests, it can be said that concentric electrodes using the screen-printing and inkjet techniques are suitable for non-invasive bioelectric signal acquisition.

Originality/value

The development of new types of inks and substrates for the electronics industry and the adaptation of new manufacturing techniques allow for an improvement in the development of electrodes and sensors.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Karol Malecha, Elżbieta Remiszewska and Dorota G Pijanowska

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the technology and performance of the miniature microfluidic module for urea determination. The presented module was made using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the technology and performance of the miniature microfluidic module for urea determination. The presented module was made using low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). It shows the possibility for the integration of the bioreceptor layers with structures that have been fabricated using modern microelectronic technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented microfluidic module was fabricated using LTCC technology. The possibility for the fabrication of an enzymatic microreactor in a multilayer ceramic substrate, made of CeramTec glass ceramic (GC) material systems with an integrated thick-film heater, is studied. Different configurations of the LTCC/heater materials (gold, silvers and palladium-silver) are taken into account. The performance of the LTCC-based microfluidic module with the integrated heater and immobilized enzyme was examined experimentally.

Findings

A compatible material for the heater embedded in the CeramTec GC-based structures was found. The preliminary measurements made for the test solution containing various concentrations of urea have shown stability (for seven days of operation) and a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio (above 3 pH units) for the microreactor’s output signal.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research is a preliminary work which is focused on the fabrication of the LTCC-based microfluidic module, with an integrated heater and immobilized enzyme for urea determination. The device was positively tested using a model reaction of the hydrolysis of urea. However, urea concentration in real (biological) fluid should also be measured.

Practical implications

The development of the LTCC-based microfluidic module for urea determination provides opportunity for the construction of a lab-on-chip, or μTAS-type system, for fast medical diagnoses and the continuous monitoring of various biochemical parameters, e.g. for estimating the effectiveness of hemodialysis.

Originality/value

This paper shows the design, fabrication and performance of the novel microfluidic module for urea determination, made with LTCC technology.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Zhiwei Li

The purpose of this paper is to seek a surfactant or template-free, simple and green method to fabricate NiO nanobelts and to find an effective technique to detect the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek a surfactant or template-free, simple and green method to fabricate NiO nanobelts and to find an effective technique to detect the ethanol vapor at room temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

NiO nanobelts with high aspect ratio and dispersive distribution have been synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal reaction at 160°C for 12 h. The products are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopY, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selective area electron diffractio and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the room-temperature ethanol sensitivity of NiO nanobelts is investigated by the surface photo voltage (SPV) technique.

Findings

The prepared NiO nanobelts is single crystalline bunsenite structure with the length of approximately 10 μm and the diameter of approximately 30 nm. The atomic ratio of “Ni” to “O” is 0.92:1. When the concentration of ethanol vapor reaches 100 ppm, the sensitivity of NiO nanobelts is 7, which can meet the commercial demanding of ethanol gas sensor.

Originality/value

The NiO nanobelts can be obtained by a template-free, simple and green hydrothermal reaction at 160°C for 12 h. The NiO nanobelts-based gas sensor is a promising candidate for the application in ethanol monitoring at room temperature by SPV technique.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Muhammad Ahmad Raza Tahir, Muhammad Mubasher Saleem, Syed Ali Raza Bukhari, Amir Hamza and Rana Iqtidar Shakoor

This paper aims to present an efficient design approach for the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers considering design parameters affecting the long-term…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an efficient design approach for the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers considering design parameters affecting the long-term reliability of these inertial sensors in comparison to traditional iterative microfabrication and experimental characterization approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A dual-axis capacitive MEMS accelerometer design is presented considering the microfabrication process constraints of the foundry process. The performance of the MEMS accelerometer is analyzed through finite element method– based simulations considering main design parameters affecting the long-term reliability. The effect of microfabrication process induced residual stress, operating pressure variations in the range of 10 mTorr to atmospheric pressure, thermal variations in the operating temperature range of −40°C to 100°C and impulsive input acceleration at different input frequency values is presented in detail.

Findings

The effect of residual stress is negligible on performance of the MEMS accelerometer due to efficient design of mechanical suspension beams. The effect of operating temperature and pressure variations is negligible on energy loss factor. The thermal strain at high temperature causes the sensing plates to deform out of plane. The input dynamic acceleration range is 34 g at room temperature, which decreases with operating temperature variations. At low frequency input acceleration, the input acts as a quasi-static load, whereas at high frequency, it acts as a dynamic load for the MEMS accelerometer.

Originality/value

In comparison with the traditional MEMS accelerometer design approaches, the proposed design approach focuses on the analysis of critical design parameters that affect the long-term reliability of MEMS accelerometer.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Zoheir Kordrostami, Kourosh Hassanli and Amir Akbarian

The purpose of this study is to find a new design that can increase the sensitivity of the sensor without sacrificing the linearity. A novel and very efficient method for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to find a new design that can increase the sensitivity of the sensor without sacrificing the linearity. A novel and very efficient method for increasing the sensitivity of MEMS pressure sensor has been proposed for the first time. Rather than perforation, we propose patterned thinning of the diaphragm so that specific regions on it are thinner. This method allows the diaphragm to deflect more in response with regard to the pressure. The best excavation depth has been calculated and a pressure sensor with an optimal pattern for thinned regions has been designed. Compared to the perforated diaphragm with the same pattern, larger output voltage is achieved for the proposed sensor. Unlike the perforations that have to be near the edges of the diaphragm, it is possible for the thin regions to be placed around the center of the diaphragm. This significantly increases the sensitivity of the sensor. In our designation, we have reached a 60 per cent thinning (of the diaphragm area) while perforations larger than 40 per cent degrade the operation of the sensor. The proposed method is applicable to other MEMS sensors and actuators and improves their ultimate performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Instead of perforating the diaphragm, we propose a patterned thinning scheme which improves the sensor performance.

Findings

By using thinned regions on the diaphragm rather than perforations, the sensitivity of the sensor was improved. The simulation results show that the proposed design provides larger membrane deflections and higher output voltages compared to the pressure sensors with a normal or perforated diaphragm.

Originality/value

The proposed MEMS piezoelectric pressure sensor for the first time takes advantage of thinned diaphragm with optimum pattern of thinned regions, larger outputs and larger sensitivity compared with the simple or perforated diaphragm pressure sensors.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Marjan Refaat and Mohammad Reza Moslemi

Nanowires, nanostructures with the diameter of the order of a nanometer, have recently attracted as gas sensors because of their interesting properties such as high…

Abstract

Purpose

Nanowires, nanostructures with the diameter of the order of a nanometer, have recently attracted as gas sensors because of their interesting properties such as high sensitivity, fast response and high selectivity and stability. Among the different types of gas sensors, metallic nanowires used in high frequency applications because of their long mean free path that make the conduction ballistic.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the results of simulations to find the effects of adsorbing some molecules by silver Ag nanowires. The mechanisms of the simulated gas sensor are implemented in the Atomistix Toolkit 13.2 (ATK 13.2).

Findings

The simulation results show high sensitivity of silver nanowires in adjacent with water and ethane. The resistance of the simulated nanowire increased to about 3.65 kΩ for ethane and 4.95 kΩ for water molecules. This result shows that the sensitivity of a silver nanowire is about triple for the case of adsorbing water in comparison to the adsorption of ethane molecules.

Originality/value

This paper presents a simulation study on silver nanowires and compares their sensitivities in adjacent with water and ethane molecules.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Guohua Jiang, Dongmei Zhao and Bo Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optoelectronic properties of the multichannel ZnO UV photodetectors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optoelectronic properties of the multichannel ZnO UV photodetectors.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnO nanowires were assembled by dielectrophoresis for the UV photodetectors. Different ZnO channels were adjusted by different alternating current voltages and investigated for UV optoelectronic properties.

Findings

The number of the ZnO channels increases with the enhancing alternating current voltage. Optimum performance of the UV photodetectors is obtained with more channels.

Originality/value

Dielectrophoresis is a promising method for controllable assembly of multichannel ZnO photodetectors. ZnO photodetectors with more channels demonstrate a good response to 380-nm UV light, which shows great potential application in UV photodetector.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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