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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Gerhard Wachutka

The “thermodynamic model” constitutes a unified theoretical framework for the coupled simulation of carrier and energy flow in semiconductor devices under general ambient…

Abstract

The “thermodynamic model” constitutes a unified theoretical framework for the coupled simulation of carrier and energy flow in semiconductor devices under general ambient conditions such as, e.g., the presence of a quasi‐static magnetic field or the interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field (light). The current relations governing particle and heat transport are derived from the principles of irreversible phenomenological thermodynamics; the driving forces include drift, diffusion, thermal diffusion, and deflection by the Lorentz force. All transport coefficients may be interpreted in terms of well‐known thermodynamic effects and, hence, can be obtained from theoretical calculations as well as directly from experimental data. The thermodynamic model allows the consistent treatment of a wide variety of physical phenomena which are relevant for both the operation of electronic devices (e.g., lattice heating, hot carrier and low temperature effects) and the function of microsensors and actuators (e.g., thermoelectricity, galvanomagnetism and thermomagnetism).

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Gopal Priyadarshi and B.V. Rathish Kumar

In the past few years, Haar wavelet-based numerical methods have been applied successfully to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the past few years, Haar wavelet-based numerical methods have been applied successfully to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. This study aims to propose a wavelet collocation method based on Haar wavelets to identify a parameter in parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs). As Haar wavelet is defined in a very simple way, implementation of the Haar wavelet method becomes easier than the other numerical methods such as finite element method and spectral method. The computational time taken by this method is very less because Haar matrices and Haar integral matrices are stored once and used for each iteration. In the case of Haar wavelet method, Dirichlet boundary conditions are incorporated automatically. Apart from this property, Haar wavelets are compactly supported orthonormal functions. These properties lead to a huge reduction in the computational cost of the method.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the source control parameter arises in quasilinear parabolic partial differential equation using Haar wavelet-based numerical method. Haar wavelets possess various properties, for example, compact support, orthonormality and closed form expression. The main difficulty with the Haar wavelet is its discontinuity. Therefore, this paper cannot directly use the Haar wavelet to solve partial differential equations. To handle this difficulty, this paper represents the highest-order derivative in terms of Haar wavelet series and using successive integration this study obtains the required term appearing in the problem. Taylor series expansion is used to obtain the second-order partial derivatives at collocation points.

Findings

An efficient and accurate numerical method based on Haar wavelet has been proposed for parameter identification in quasilinear parabolic partial differential equations. Numerical results are obtained from the proposed method and compared with the existing results obtained from various finite difference methods including Saulyev method. It is shown that the proposed method is superior than the conventional finite difference methods including Saulyev method in terms of accuracy and CPU time. Convergence analysis is presented to show the accuracy of the proposed method. An efficient algorithm is proposed to find the wavelet coefficients at target time.

Originality/value

The outcome of the paper would have a valuable role in the scientific community for several reasons. In the current scenario, the parabolic inverse problem has emerged as very important problem because of its application in many diverse fields such as tomography, chemical diffusion, thermoelectricity and control theory. In this paper, higher-order derivative is represented in terms of Haar wavelet series. In other words, we represent the solution in multiscale framework. This would enable us to understand the solution at various resolution levels. In the case of Haar wavelet, this paper can achieve a very good accuracy at very less resolution levels, which ultimately leads to huge reduction in the computational cost.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Piotr Markowski

– The purpose of this work was fabrication of a small energy harvester.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work was fabrication of a small energy harvester.

Design/methodology/approach

The multilayer thermoelectric power generator based on thick-film and low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was fabricated. Precise paths printing method was used to fabricate Ag/Ni and Ag/PdAg thermocouples on a number of unfired LTCC tapes. The tapes were put together to form a multilayer stack. The via holes were used to make the electrical connections between adjacent layers. Finally, the multilayer stack was fired in the appropriate thermal profile.

Findings

It consists of 450 thermocouples and generates output voltage of about 0.45 V and output electrical power of about 0.13 mW when a temperature difference along the structure is 135°C. In the paper, individual stages of energy harvester fabrication process as well as its output parameters are presented.

Originality/value

Miniaturized thermoelectric energy harvester based on thick-film and LTCC technology was fabricated. As materials, metal-based pastes were used. This is the first paper where multilayer thermoelectric harvester, fabricated with the aid of LTCC technology, was described.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Mirosław Gracjan Gierczak, Eugeniusz Prociów and Andrzej Dziedzic

This paper aims to focus on the fabrication and characterization of mixed thin-/thick-film thermoelectric microgenerators, based on magnetron sputtered constantan…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the fabrication and characterization of mixed thin-/thick-film thermoelectric microgenerators, based on magnetron sputtered constantan (copper–nickel alloy) and screen-printed silver. To improve the adhesion of the constantan layer to the applied substrates, the additional chromium sublayer was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of chromium sublayer on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of such hybrid microgenerators.

Design/methodology/approach

Fabrication of such structures consisted of several steps – magnetron sputtering of the chromium and then constantan layer, exposing the first arms of thermocouples, applying the second arms by screen-printing technology and firing the prepared structures in a belt furnace. The structures were made both on Al2O3 (alumina) and low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) substrates.

Findings

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, laser ablation process was applied to fabricate the first arms of thermocouples from a layer of constantan only or constantan with a chromium sublayer. Geometric measurements have shown that the mapping of mask pattern by laser ablation technique is very accurate.

Originality/value

The determined Seebeck coefficient of the realized structures was about 40.4 µV/K. After firing the exemplary structures at 850°C peak temperature, Seebeck coefficient is increased to an average value of 51 µV/K.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Olukayode Lawrence Ayodele, Kazeem Oladele Sanusi and Mohamed Tariq Kahn

The nuclear battery technology depends on the spontaneous decay of the atomic nuclei of radioactive isotopes to generate electricity. One of the merits of a nuclear…

Abstract

Purpose

The nuclear battery technology depends on the spontaneous decay of the atomic nuclei of radioactive isotopes to generate electricity. One of the merits of a nuclear battery is its high-energy density, which can be around ten times higher than that of hydrogen fuel cells and a thousand times more than that of an electrochemical battery. A nuclear battery has an extremely long life and low maintenance and running costs coupled with applications in remote and hostile environmental environments. The rise of silicon technology has intensified research activities in the area of nuclear batteries. The paper aims to present a general overview of a nuclear battery.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a general overview of a nuclear battery and will significantly reduce reliance on non-renewable energy source. The requirement for long-lived power supplies have necessitated the pragmatic shift toward the realization of cleaner, safer and renewable energy sources.

Findings

Nuclear battery is a safe enabling technology for many applications including military and commercial applications. They have very long operating life under harsh environmental conditions. These cells demonstrate high potential for use in low power applications under a broad range of temperatures.

Originality/value

The nuclear battery technology has been receiving considerable in-depth research for applications that require long-life power sources.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Igor O. Golosnoy and Jan K. Sykulski

The purpose of this paper is to access performance of existing computational techniques to model strongly non‐linear coupled thermo‐electric problems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access performance of existing computational techniques to model strongly non‐linear coupled thermo‐electric problems.

Design/methodology/approach

A thermistor is studied as an example of a strongly non‐linear diffusion problem. The temperature field and the current flow in the device are mutually coupled via ohmic heating and very rapid variations of electric conductivity with temperature and applied electric field, which makes the problem an ideal test case for the computational techniques. The finite volume fully coupled and fractional steps (splitting) approaches on a fixed computational grid are compared with a fully coupled front‐fixing method. The algorithms' input parameters are verified by comparison with published experiments.

Findings

It was found that fully coupled methods are more effective for non‐linear diffusion problems. The front fixing provides additional improvements in terms of accuracy and computational cost.

Originality/value

This paper for the first time compares in detail advantages and implementation complications of each method being applied to the coupled thermo‐electric problems. Particular attention is paid to conservation properties of the algorithms and accurate solutions in the transition region with rapid changes in material properties.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

G. Takyi, E.H. Amalu and P.K. Bernasko

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of solder wettability on the thermal performance of a thermo‐electric cooler (TEC) of a 980 nm pump laser module.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of solder wettability on the thermal performance of a thermo‐electric cooler (TEC) of a 980 nm pump laser module.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, TEC thermal performance has been evaluated using a heat pump test. The results were compared with scanning acoustic microscopy (C‐SAM) results in order to have a better understanding of the thermal behaviour of the TEC. In the C‐SAM experiments, images were taken at the interfaces between the housing and TEC, as well as at the interfaces between the chip‐on‐carrier (CoC) and TEC.

Findings

The heat pump test results indicate a strong correlation with the C‐SAM test results. The C‐SAM observations show good solder joint at the interface between the TEC and housing in the case of the device that yielded a good heat pump test result (11.5°C) and poor solder joints (gross de‐lamination) at the interface between the TEC and housing in the case of the device that yielded a poor heat pump test result (24.4°C). The C‐SAM observations did not show much difference at the interface between the CoC and TEC. The results from this study were used to qualify the post‐vacuum soldered laser pump devices at JDS Uniphase, Plymouth, UK.

Originality/value

The findings presented in this paper indicate that the level of solder wettability at the interfaces between the piece parts impacts the thermal performance of the TEC.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Dipak Sudam Patil, Rachayya R. Arakerimath and Pramod V. Walke

This paper aims to present an experimental investigation and optimization of a low-temperature thermoelectric module to examine the influence of the main operating conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an experimental investigation and optimization of a low-temperature thermoelectric module to examine the influence of the main operating conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, a comparison was made by varying the various operating parameters such as heat source temperature, the flow rate of the cold fluid and the external load resistance. A Taguchi method was applied to optimize the parameters of the system. Three factors, including the external load resistance, mass flow rate of water (at the heat sink side) and heater temperature (at the heat source side) along with different levels were taken into account. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter.

Findings

The experimental results show that the maximum power output 8.22W and the maximum conversion efficiency 1.11 per cent were obtained at the heater temperature of 240°C, the cold fluid mass flow rate of 0.017 kg/s, module temperature difference of 45°C and the load resistance of 5 O. It was observed that the optimum parameter levels for maximum power output determined as 5 O external load resistance, 0.17 kg/s mass flow rate of water and 240°C heater temperature (A1B3C3). It reflects that these parameters influence on the optimum conditions. The heater temperature is the most significant parameter on the power output of the thermoelectric module.

Originality/value

It is clear from the confirmation test that experimental values and the predicted values are in good agreement.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Piotr Markowski, Eugeniusz Prociów and Łukasz Urbaniak

The purpose of this paper is to determine the thermoelectric properties of the germanium-based thin films and selecting the most suitable ones for fabrication of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the thermoelectric properties of the germanium-based thin films and selecting the most suitable ones for fabrication of micrognerators.

Design/methodology/approach

The germanium layers were deposited by low pressure magnetron sputtering method, in the pressure of 10−3/104 mbar range. The amount of dopants (germanium or vanadium) was changed in a limited extent. The influence of such changes on the layers output properties was studied. Post-processing heat treatment at temperature below 823 K was applied to activate the layers. It leads to improve the electrical and thermoelectrical performance.

Findings

The special attention was paid to the power factor (PF = S2/ρ) of the layers. To estimate power factor (PF) electrical resistivity (ρ) and Seebeck coefficient (S) were determined. The achieved Seebeck coefficient value was 185 Volt/Kelvin (μV/K) for germanium doped with vanadium (Ge:V1.15) and 225 μV/K for germanium doped with gold(Ge:Au3.13) layers at room temperature. After activation process, the PF reached a value of 2.5 × 10−4 W/m · K2 for the Ge:Au3.13 and 1.1 × 10−4 W/m · K2 for the Ge:V1.15 layers.

Originality/value

The fabricated thermoelectric layers can be thermally annealed in temperature up to 823 K in the air and in 1,023 K under a nitrogen atmosphere. This enables integration of thin layers with thick-film technology. Corning glass or low temperature cofired ceramic was used as a substrate.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Arkadiy Skvortsov, Nikolay A. Khripach, Boris A. Papkin and Danila E. Pshonkin

This study aims to examine the electromigration processes resulting from thermal overloads of semiconductor devices. While in operation, parts of such devices can heat up…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the electromigration processes resulting from thermal overloads of semiconductor devices. While in operation, parts of such devices can heat up to 330°C for a short period, resulting in the emergence of molten zones and the devices’ inevitable degradation. Therefore, this study examines the mechanisms behind the formation and migration of silver-based molten zones in bulk germanium and on its surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental data concerning the correlation between the migration velocities of the inclusions and their sizes are obtained.

Findings

By comparing these experimental data with known electromigration models, it is concluded that inclusions move through the mechanism of melting and crystallization. The dynamics of Ge–Ag zones in the volume of a germanium crystal are compared to those on its surface and accelerated electromigration on the surface of the crystal is observed. This increased migration velocity is shown to be associated with additional contributions of the electrocapillary component.

Originality/value

The results of this study can be used to calculate the operating modes of semiconductor power devices under intense heat loading.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

1 – 10 of 25