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Reports that major advances have been achieved on computational simulations of multidimensional fluid flow, heat and mass transfer during the last 20 years. Focuses on the…
Reports that major advances have been achieved on computational simulations of multidimensional fluid flow, heat and mass transfer during the last 20 years. Focuses on the numerical prediction of fluid flow, combustion and gas radiation in a combustion chamber of a typical industrial glass‐melting furnace. Carries out the flow simulation in a three‐dimensional calculation domain by using computer models in conjunction with the standard k ‐ ε turbulence model. Tests the predictions of spectral intensity by solving the equation of radiative transfer. Employs the Goody statistical narrow band model with the Curtis‐Godson approximation to calculate radiative properties for inhomogeneous gas mixtures.
The main purpose of this paper is to produce high‐nitrogen martensitic stainless steels (HNMSS) using a conventional induction furnace with better mechanical properties…
The main purpose of this paper is to produce high‐nitrogen martensitic stainless steels (HNMSS) using a conventional induction furnace with better mechanical properties and to improve the properties by thermo‐mechanical treatment (TMT).
Production of two types of HNMSS alloys with Chromium – 8.22 and 15.84 wt% was carried out using a conventional melting furnace. The theoretical nitrogen solubility of the produced alloys was calculated and compared with the actual nitrogen solubility of the alloys. The produced alloys were subjected to TMT, characterized by hardness measurement, tensile testing micro examinations in the as cast, hardened, TMT treated and TMT hardened and tempered conditions.
The actual nitrogen solubility achieved in the HNMSS specimens was in agreement with the calculated theoretical nitrogen solubility using thermodynamic relationships. Thermo‐mechanically treated specimens exhibited the break‐up and refinement of the original coarse cast structure by repeated recrystallization as fine grain size in the austenitic condition and reduced proportion of residual deformed δ ferrite. Thermo‐mechanically treated, hardened and tempered specimens showed higher hardness up to 525 VHN, with strength and toughness.
In the conventional melting process, purging nitrogen into the melt and increasing the percentage of nitrogen is the primary limitation and retaining the same into the solution during thermo‐mechanical treatment is the secondary limitation.
Work on melting of nitrogenated steels using controlled atmospheric conditions with special equipment was carried out earlier. This practice cannot be adopted on a commercial basis, where mass production is the prime requirement. Therefore, the uniqueness of this paper lies in communicating the melting practice of HNMSS using a conventional induction furnace followed by the optimum TMT. This takes the production and TMT of HNMSS into the commercial casting industry for mass production.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the space thermal effect on satellite antenna.
In this paper, according to the geometric characteristics of parabolic reflector, the transient temperature field of an element along its thickness direction is built for shell structures using finite element discretization and the quadratic function interpolation, and heat conduction equations are derived based on the theory of the thermo-elastic dynamics. The modeling theory of rigid–flexible coupling system considering thermal effect is extended to the satellite antenna system. Then, the coupling dynamic equations are established including coupling stiffness matrix and thermal loaded undergoing a large overall motion. Finally, an adaptive controller is proposed and the adaptive update laws are designed under the parameter uncertainty.
The results of dynamic characteristic analysis show that the dynamic thermal loaded coupled with structure deformation induce the unstable vibration and coupled flutter. Further, the coupling effect degrades the antenna pointing accuracy seriously and leads to disturbances on satellite base. The results of the simulation show that the adaptive controller can ensure that antenna pointing closes to the expected trajectory progressively, and it demonstrates that the proposed control scheme is feasible and effective.
The paper considers only the effect of space thermal effect to satellite antenna. Further research could be done on the flexible multibody system by considering joint clearance in the future research.
The conclusions of this paper would be an academic significance and engineering value for the analysis and control of satellite antenna pointing.
Laminar fully developed periodic heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in corrugated two‐dimensional ducts with constant cross‐sectional area are numerically…
Laminar fully developed periodic heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in corrugated two‐dimensional ducts with constant cross‐sectional area are numerically investigated. The governing equations are solved numerically by a finite‐volume method for elliptic flows in complex geometries using colocated variables and Cartesian velocity components. The results were obtained for a uniform wall temperature for two inclination angles and three duct aspect ratios (H/L) and for Reynolds number ranging from 30 to 1200. The plot of the velocity vectors show a complex flow pattern. Unexpected high enhancement of the average Nusselt number was observed at low Reynolds number for H/L = ½ and ⅓. A moderate increase in Nusselt number was obtained as Reynolds number was increased further.
There is much confusion and misunderstanding among students regarding the meaning and use of the word ‘heat’ in the subject of heat engines and applied thermo‐dynamics…
There is much confusion and misunderstanding among students regarding the meaning and use of the word ‘heat’ in the subject of heat engines and applied thermo‐dynamics, and much argument among teachers as revealed by Mr Helsdon in his article published in your issue of August 1961. The points of difficulty need to be pursued from the point of view of introducing students to the first law (Q = δE + W or σQ = σE + σW) which involves, and distinguishes between, the funda‐mental concepts of work, heat and energy.
On Thursday, October 9, 1958, a new aero‐thermo‐dynamics laboratory in the mechanical engineering wing of the R.A.F. Technical College at Henlow was formally opened by Sir William Farren, Technical Director of A. V. Roc & Co. Ltd.
What's in a name? What we're doing is Estimating Energy. And every school‐boy knows at least two things about energy: that it is conserved, and that it is interconvertible. The first law of thermo‐dynamics, as enunciated by Flanders and Swann, sets this out very plainly: ‘Heat is Work and Work is Heat’.
Turbulent fully developed periodic heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in corrugated two‐dimensional ducts with constant cross‐sectional area are numerically…
Turbulent fully developed periodic heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in corrugated two‐dimensional ducts with constant cross‐sectional area are numerically investigated. The governing equations are solved numerically by a finite‐volume method for elliptic flows in complex geometries using collocated variables and Cartesian velocity components. Two different turbulence models (the second moment closure and the k—ε) for approximation of the Reynolds stresses are applied. The performance of the models were assessed by comparing the results with experimental data. The results show the advantages of the stress closure model compared to the k—ε model. The overall Nusselt number and the pressure drop ratio results are obtained for the boundary condition of a uniform wall temperature for two inclination angles ø and two duct aspect ratios (H/L) and for Reynolds number ranging from around 3000 to 35,000. The overall Nusselt number predicted by the k—ε model is upto 25% higher than the values predicted by the second moment closure. The plots of the velocity vectors show a complex flow pattern. The mechanisms of heat transfer are explained by the flow phenomena separation, deflection, recirculation, and reattachment.
WHEN talking about airbreathing engines it is now generally understood that they are either turbine engines when the maximum flight Mach number is subsonic or moderately…
WHEN talking about airbreathing engines it is now generally understood that they are either turbine engines when the maximum flight Mach number is subsonic or moderately supersonic, or ramjets when the Mach number is definitely high. When trying to meet the propulsion requirements from take‐off to a high enough speed the joint use of both engine types has to be considered. In such case most people would think of the ramjet as taking over the propulsion task from the turbine engine when reaching a certain value of the flight Mach number, or more precisely of the air stagnation temperature, above which the turbine engine is no longer able to operate. The most elementary view is that of presenting it as a limitation in the engine structure, with improvements calling for the use of better materials. Bringing thermo‐dynamics into the picture shows that increased air stagnation temperature results in a deterioration in the cycle efficiency of the turbine engine proper and this may result in the specific fuel consumption of the turbojet becoming higher than that of the ramjet. Such a performance limitation can be shifted to higher Mach numbers while using increased turbine intake temperatures. The consideration of the aerodynamics of the internal flow brings out another type of limitation due to the difficulty of keeping the operating line of the turbojet over the flight profile far enough from the surge limit though within the range of good compresser efficiency. Variable geometry in the compressor and turbine stators may produce some improvement in this respect.