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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Damjana Celcar, Harriet Meinander and Jelka Geršak

The paper aims to investigate thermal comfort properties, such as heat and moisture transmission through male business clothing systems, by using a sweating thermal manikin

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate thermal comfort properties, such as heat and moisture transmission through male business clothing systems, by using a sweating thermal manikin Coppelius that simulates heat and moisture production in a similar way to the human body and measures the influence of clothing on heat exchange in different environmental and sweating conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten different combination of male business clothing systems were measured using the sweating manikin, under three environmental conditions (10°C/50 per cent RH, 25°C/50 per cent RH and −5°C), and at 0 and 50 gm−2 h−1 sweating levels, in order to evaluate the influence of environmental and sweating conditions on thermal comfort properties of clothing systems.

Findings

The results show how business clothing systems influence on the dry and evaporative heat loss between the manikin surface and environment in different environmental and sweating conditions.

Practical implications

When using sweating thermal manikin Coppelius, water vapour transmission (WVT) through and water condensation on the clothing can be determined simultaneously with the thermal insulation (It) of clothing system. Measured thermal comfort properties of clothing systems evaluated with a sweating thermal manikin can provide valuable information for the clothing industry by manufacturing/designing new clothing systems.

Originality/value

In this investigation, the heat and moisture transmission properties of male business clothing systems were measured in different environmental and sweating conditions. In the past few years, clothing materials containing microencapsulated phase‐change materials (PCMs) have appeared in outdoor garments, particularly sportswear; therefore, we decided to investigate the thermal comfort properties of different standard male business apparel, as well as male business clothing that contain PCMs used as liner and outerwear material.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng and Hongyong Yuan

– The purpose of this paper is to study the combined effects of moisture and radiation on thermal protective performance of protective clothing exposed to low level radiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the combined effects of moisture and radiation on thermal protective performance of protective clothing exposed to low level radiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sweating manikin, the effect of radiation and moisture on heat and moisture transfer was initially analyzed under the dry manikin with sweating rate of 100 g/(m2h) exposed to 2.5 kW/m2, and then studied at 200 and 300 g/(m2h) exposed to 2 and 3 kW/m2, respectively. Finally, the combined effects of thermal radiation and moisture were predicted by fitting the relationships among heat loss and wet skin surface temperature, with the sweating rate and radiation intensity.

Findings

The results show that the heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature are affected by the combined effects of moisture and radiation, with two distinctly different trends. Heat loss from the manikin is increasing with the sweating rate, and decreasing with thermal radiation intensity. However, the wet skin surface temperature has an opposite situation.

Originality/value

Two filling equations are given to present the relationships among heat loss and wet skin surface temperature, with the sweating rate and radiation intensity. With these two equations, the heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature when exposed to radiation can be predicted by only measuring the mean radiant and ambient temperatures and controlling the sweating rate.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Joo‐Young Lee, Eun‐Sook Ko, Hyo‐Hyun Lee, Jae‐Young Kim and Jeong‐Wha Choi

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences between thermal insulation calculated by a global and a serial method using a thermal manikin, in comparison with human trials.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences between thermal insulation calculated by a global and a serial method using a thermal manikin, in comparison with human trials.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 150 single garments and 38 clothing ensembles were assessed using the manikin; 26 seasonal clothing ensembles were selected for human trials.

Findings

The results showed that total insulation of single garments was 16 percent higher in the serial method than in the global method. The difference was higher in garments with smaller covering area per unit garment mass (e.g. winter garments). For seasonal clothing ensembles, the serial values were 39.2 percent (0.18 clo) for spring/fall wear, 62.6 percent (0.15 clo) for summer wear and for winter wear 64.8 percent (0.69 clo) greater than the global values. The clothing insulation by the global method was systemically lower in all 26 seasonal ensembles than values by human trials, which suggests that the values by the global calculation can be more accurately corrected with human testing data.

Originality/value

The paper shows that values by the serial calculation were lower in spring/fall and summer ensembles but greater in winter garments than values collated by human trials. It suggests that the serial values had a lower validity when compared with thermal insulation values collated from human trials.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Anna Katarzyna Dabrowska

The purpose of this paper is to develop artificial neural networks (ANNs) allowing us to simulate the local thermal insulation of clothing protecting against cold on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop artificial neural networks (ANNs) allowing us to simulate the local thermal insulation of clothing protecting against cold on a basis of the characteristics of materials and design solutions used.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, laboratory tests of thermal insulation of clothing protecting against cold as well as thermal resistance of textile systems used in the clothing were performed. These tests were conducted with a use of thermal manikin and so-called skin model, respectively. On a basis of results gathered, 12 ANNs were developed that correspond to each thermal manikin’s segment besides hands and feet which are not covered by protective clothing.

Findings

In order to obtain high level of simulations, optimization measures for the developed ANNs were introduced. Finally, conducted validation indicated a very high correlation (above 0.95) between theoretical and experimental results, as well as a low error of the simulations (max 8 percent).

Originality/value

The literature reports addressing the problem of modeling thermal insulation of clothing focus mainly on the impact of the degree of fit and the velocity of air movement on thermal insulation properties, whereas reports dedicated to modeling the impact of the construction of clothing protecting against cold as well as of diverse material systems used within one design of clothing on its thermal insulation are scarce.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2019

Sibel Kaplan and Ceren Karaman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate thermal comfort performances of socks produced from cotton and regenerated cellulosic fiber yarns by thermal resistance (by a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate thermal comfort performances of socks produced from cotton and regenerated cellulosic fiber yarns by thermal resistance (by a newly designed foot thermal manikin), moisture management tester (MMT) parameters and permeability (air and water vapor) tests.

Design/methodology/approach

Single jersey fabrics and socks were knitted from 30 Ne yarns produced from cotton, different regenerated cellulosic fibers (viscose, modal, bamboo, micromodal, Tencel®, Tencel LF®) and their blends. Thermal resistances of the socks were compared by a newly developed thermal foot manikin in a more realistic way than measurements in fabric form. Besides air and water vapor permeability, moisture management parameters of the fabrics were tested to differentiate performances of cellulosic fibers.

Findings

Results show that air permeability, liquid absorption and transfer parameters measured by MMT are generally identical and better for regenerated cellulosic fabrics than cotton. Micromodal and Tencel® have better performances for liquid transfer and overall moisture management capacities are superior for bamboo and Tencel LF®. Thermal resistances of the socks are minimum for Tencel LF® having a cross-linked structure and maximum for viscose socks.

Originality/value

It is thought that thermal resistance measured in socks form is more realistic than fabric measurements and results of this study that can be valid for all knitted garments. Moreover, comprehensive material plan of the study is valuable for getting reliable results for regenerated cellulosic fibers that have small differences in cases of thermal resistance and liquid transfer.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Wiah Wardiningsih and Olga Troynikov

This paper aims to examine the influence of hip protective clothing on ensemble performance attributes related to thermal comfort. It also explores the effect on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of hip protective clothing on ensemble performance attributes related to thermal comfort. It also explores the effect on protective pads of various materials and the arrangements of material. The thermal comfort characteristics are thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, four ensembles of clothing were used: one ensemble without hip protective clothing and three ensembles with hip protective clothing. A thermal manikin was used to test the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the ensembles.

Findings

The findings revealed that incorporating hip protective clothing into the clothing ensembles influenced the thermal resistance and moisture vapour resistance of the ensemble. In the “all zones group,” the influence of the hip protective clothing depended on clothing style, with hipster-style clothing producing insignificant changes. In the “hip zones group” and “stomach and hip zones group,” hip protective clothing strongly influenced the thermal comfort attributes of ensembles. Pad material and volume play important roles in these changes in thermal comfort attributes.

Originality/value

These outcomes are useful for the design and engineering of hip protective clothing, where maximizing protection while minimizing thermal and moisture vapour resistance is critical for wear comfort and adherence in warm or hot conditions. The designer should consider that material, volume and thickness of protective pad affect the overall thermal comfort attributes of the hip protective clothing.

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Anna Katarzyna Dabrowska

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of design solutions used in clothing on the thermal resistance of the material systems from which the clothing is made…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of design solutions used in clothing on the thermal resistance of the material systems from which the clothing is made, design solutions used in clothing on its thermal insulation and clothing size on its thermal insulation properties.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved laboratory tests of clothing protecting against cold and textile systems used in this type of garment using a “skin model” test stand and a thermal manikin.

Findings

Analysis of the results obtained from tests carried out showed that the design solutions used in a garment can model its local and overall insulation. It was found that using a bib in trousers has a dominant influence on the thermal properties of clothing. An important parameter is also the use of a hood, as well as the length of the jacket. No significant effect of other structural solutions, such as jacket fastening, pockets and reflective tapes, on the thermal performance of the clothing set was noted.

Originality/value

Although the reports available in the literature pay a lot of attention to the impact of the design of clothing protecting against cold on its thermal performance, most of the presented research results relate to the aspects of fit, whereas the analyses of the effects of other aspects of garment construction on thermal properties are lacking. Therefore, the analysis of the impact of design solutions used in clothing on its thermal insulation properties is a key original factor of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Youngjoo Na and Jisu Kim

Empire style fashion, Greek-Roman style robe with bare shoulder and chest and short sleeved with long gloves which created a slim silhouette, was worn even in winter…

Abstract

Purpose

Empire style fashion, Greek-Roman style robe with bare shoulder and chest and short sleeved with long gloves which created a slim silhouette, was worn even in winter season in Europe, where average temperature is 0-5°C. Most women suffered with catching cold and thousands caught flu and tuberculosis of the lungs, called muslin disease. The purpose of this paper is to find out clothing insulation of the robe by measuring the thermal resistance and to guess how cold they felt in this robe in winter time.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed the investigation on original robe shape with based on historical evidence and data, such as drawings, sketches, pattern books and sewing books, and reproduced a representative robe costume and tested its thermal insulation. The fabrics of robe were thin wool, silk and cotton following the literature evidence and preserved costume. Thermal insulation of the robes was measured using thermal manikin with the test method ISO 15831. The authors analyzed the thermal insulation of reconstructed robes with an inner cotton breech as for daily use and tested them wrapped with cashmere shawl on manikin shoulder as for severe cold weather.

Findings

The dress robes had the range of 0.61-0.67 clo regardless of the type of fabric materials, and 0.80-0.81 clo with the cashmere shawl. These values were not enough for women to keep body temperature or comfort in winter time.

Originality/value

This study combined fashion historic theory for costume reproduction with clothing science and technology for thermal insulation. Combination of costume history, construction technology and measurement engineering is the ingenious idea, and the combination of historical and scientific research evidences interdisciplinary originality.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Chupo Ho, Jintu Fan, Edward Newton and Raymond Au

Maintaining air circulation between the wearer and garment layer is crucial for activating heat and moisture transfer from the body. If an air gap is trapped, air…

Abstract

Purpose

Maintaining air circulation between the wearer and garment layer is crucial for activating heat and moisture transfer from the body. If an air gap is trapped, air circulation may become ineffective and the ventilation of the garment is, thus, hindered. To maintain and extend the air gap, this study aims to propose a design method that involves placing spacer blocks underneath the garment to prevent the fabric from clinging directly to the skin.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the application of this design method, a series of T-shirts were produced and tested using a thermal manikin in standing and walking postures. All the T-shirts were made of fabric ostensibly manufactured to have high air permeability. Porous mesh fabric was used to construct the vented panels on the T-shirts. The test was conducted in a chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Total thermal insulation (Rt) and moisture vapour resistance (Ret) were measured.

Findings

The test results showed that extension of the air gap between wearer and fabric provided higher ventilation to the wearer if the vented panels were also present on the T-shirts. Different placements of the vented panels on the T-shirts also affected the heat and moisture transfer from the thermal manikin.

Research limitations/implications

Due to limited resources, the evaluation of total thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance was based on the testing result from a thermal manikin instead of any subjective wearer trial.

Practical implications

This research can contribute to the clothing designer who is developing function wear for a better ventilation.

Social implications

This research can contribute to the clothing designer who is developing function wear for a better ventilation.

Originality/value

This study aimed to further develop a new design concept in T-shirt design by improving the construction of the spacer blocks. Fabric with higher air and water vapour permeability was used to determine to what extent this design method is applicable to higher performance on heat and moisture transfer.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Shurong Hu, Mengmeng Zhao and Jun Li

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of wind direction and ease allowance on thermal comfort in sportswear.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of wind direction and ease allowance on thermal comfort in sportswear.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of wind direction (front, side, back and calm (no wind) 1.5 m/s) and seven magnitudes of ease allowance on sportswear thermal insulation and surface temperature were investigated. An 11 zones’ thermal manikin was used to acquire the static thermal insulation. Surface temperature was captured by a thermal imager.

Findings

The results showed that the wind was a significant effect on thermal performance, however, wind direction effect was only significant in the segment covered with multilayer fabric, such as the abdomen and hip (p=0.034). Although the ease allowance influenced the overall thermal insulation obviously, the difference between seven sizes suits was not significant. Nevertheless, the ease allowance affected the surface temperature of chest and back significantly (p=0.023, 0.007). Correlation between thermal insulation and surface temperature was negative, and correlation level was degraded when affected by wind factor.

Research limitations/implications

Sportswear’s fabric and style did not discussed as effect factors. It would be taken into accounted in the future research.

Originality/value

Wind direction impact thermal comfort in multilayer regions significantly. It is a reference to improve sportswear’s comfort design.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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