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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mohammad Yousefpour Navid and Mohammad Hossein Rahimi

Silicone softeners are widely used in the textile industry to improve the performance of textile products. The thermal characteristics and flammability of polyester…

Abstract

Purpose

Silicone softeners are widely used in the textile industry to improve the performance of textile products. The thermal characteristics and flammability of polyester fabrics can be influenced by these compounds, which need to be considered, as important issues of human safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes induced on the polyester fibre by silicone softener treatment using a pad/dry/cure method.

Design/methodology/approach

The fibres were first treated with nano‐ and microemulsion silicone softeners. The influence of the silicone emulsion type on thermal properties and flammability of the resultant samples were investigated by various analytical techniques, namely, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and horizontal flammability test (HFT).

Findings

Results showed that the silicone softeners increase the thermal degradation and flammability of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate.

Originality/value

The paper's study of thermal and flammability of the silicone‐treated sample is novel and can be used to optimize the properties of silicone polymers during production and consumption.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Rozanna Dewi, Nasrun Ibrahim, Novi Sylvia, Dahlan Abdullah and Medyan Riza

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to synthesize modified thermoplastic sago starch (TPS) through in-situ mechanism by reacting sago starch with…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to synthesize modified thermoplastic sago starch (TPS) through in-situ mechanism by reacting sago starch with diphenylmethanediisocyanate (MDI) and castor oil simultaneously, resulting in a more homogenous and finer-sized polyurethane prepolymer (PUP).

Design/Methodology/Approach – The methods used were Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for thermal characterization and stability of PUP, modified TPS non-extracted and extracted with toluene and water.

Findings – TGA test results presented shows that PUP begins to decompose thermally at a temperature of 300–500 °C. Weight loss occurs rapidly between these temperatures and is completely discharged at a temperature of 500°C, which is called weight loss transition.

Research Limitations/Implications – When extracted with toluene and a water solvent, the melting point and latent heat of fusion slightly decreased; however, it is still higher than the original value of sago. In terms of thermal stability, modified TPS decomposes and loses weight at 150–200 °C in small quantities, continues with weight loss rapidly, and is completely discharged at 500°C. The thermal stability is considered high; thus, modified TPS application can be varied.

Practical Implications – DSC analysis and TGA shows that modified TPS has good thermal characteristics and thermal stability. Modified TPS has a melting point of 104.69°C, and the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) is 234.27 J/g. This value is close to the PUP melting point and latent heat of fusion, which reveals the formation of cross-link between the starch and PUP.

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Wei Zhang, Shang Hao, Dandan Zhao, Guiqin Bai, Xin Zuo and Jiming Yao

This study aims to evaluate the thermal performance of phase change materials (PCMs) microcapsules (MCs) attached using SiO2 microspheres and investigate the thermal

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the thermal performance of phase change materials (PCMs) microcapsules (MCs) attached using SiO2 microspheres and investigate the thermal regulation effect on the coated denim fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

The PCM microcapsule was prepared by in situ polymerization using a mixture of solid paraffin and butyl stearate as core material (CM) and methyl methacrylate as a monomer. The SiO2 microparticles were attached to the outer layer of the membrane to enhance the thermal performance of MCs. The morphology, chemical structure, latent heat storage and thermal resistance of MCs were characterized. PCM MCs were coated on the denim fabric and thermo-gravimetric analysis was conducted; thermal insulation and thermal infrared imaging performance of the coated fabrics were also investigated.

Findings

The diameters of SiO2 particles and PCMs MCs were 300-500 nm and 1 μm, respectively. SiO2 was wrapped on single-wall PCMs MCs with the mass ratio of 1:5. With the addition of SiO2, the phase transition temperature range of MCs increased from 34°C to 39°C, and the endothermic and exothermic latent heat decreased by 5.35 J/g and 10.07 J/g, respectively. The degradation rate of MCs was significantly slowed down at high temperature. The denim fabric coated with MCs revealed thermal regulation property. After absorbing heat, the MCs slowed down the rate of heat loss and extended the heat release time.

Research limitations/implications

The phase transition temperature of the composite CM was wide, and the latent heat storage was reduced. The addition of SiO2 particles can significantly slow down the rate of heat loss, but it further reduces the latent heat storage performance.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to improve the thermal regulation performance of fabrics.

Originality/value

The method of adjusting the phase transition temperature range of the composite CM is novel and many applications could be found in preparation of PCMs and thermal management.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad and Nivin M. Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to prepare new economical thermal resistant coatings containing white sand (WS) and kaolin (K) fillers, which are cheap natural ores in Egypt…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare new economical thermal resistant coatings containing white sand (WS) and kaolin (K) fillers, which are cheap natural ores in Egypt and are sources for ceramic materials such as SiO2 and Al2O3.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the effect of heat at 500°C on the durability of mild steel samples coated with silicon coatings. The coated plates were exposed to elevated temperatures according to ASTM D 2485 to determine their stability. Thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the thermal stability of the modified films.

Findings

It was revealed that the composite fillers can enhance the thermal stability of silicon coatings. Another advantage of using the prepared composite fillers is promoting the dryness of silicon resin without heat.

Research limitations/implications

Different natural ores were used as ceramic filler to enhance the thermal stability of silicon coatings.

Originality/value

New economical thermal-resistant coatings containing white sand and kaolin were prepared to replace the expensive thermal coatings; also, they can be used in industries other than coatings, e.g. paper, rubber and plastics composites.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Bee Chin Ang, Norasikin Ahmad, Zhi Chao Ong, Shun Chi Cheok and Hui Fen Chan

The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of chicken eggshell (CES) and rice husk ash (RHA) as fillers on the mechanical and the thermal insulation properties…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of chicken eggshell (CES) and rice husk ash (RHA) as fillers on the mechanical and the thermal insulation properties of polyurethane coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

CES and RHA were ground via ball milling set at different parameters, and the smallest particles size obtained were selected and used as fillers. Fillers of different weight proportions were mixed with other components such as binder, solvent and pigment to form various coating formulations and test samples were made via dip coating. A series of characterisations were conducted to analyse the thermal and mechanical properties of the coating.

Findings

The smallest particle size of CES and RHA was obtained after both of them had undergone grinding process at 400 rpm within 180 min. Morphological studies revealed that CES and RHA have irregular shape and high porosity. In crystallographic analysis, CES mainly composed of pure calcite crystal structure and RHA contained amorphous silica. Both of fillers were found thermally stable up to 520 and 710°C for RHA and CES, respectively. In RHA individual system, as the RHA proportion increases, the thermal conductivity of the coating declined. In contrast, in the CES coating system, the thermal conductivity demonstrated an opposite trend. Thermal gravimetric analysis results displayed that by adding hybrid fillers, the residue weight and the thermal stability of the coatings were increased. In addition, the adhesion strength of the coating was increased as the filler weight content increased.

Research limitations/implications

Fillers with nano-range size were expected to be produced in this research for better performance of the coating. However, the obtained fillers were limited to micron size through dry grinding method. Another drawback in this research was the coating technique which is dip coating. The coated substrates do not have uniform coating thickness and this subsequently influenced the performance.

Originality/value

A novel attempt has been made to study the formulation coating system by mixing CES and RHA as fillers which is also known as a hybrid system.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2018

Yasser Assem, Heba A. Mohamed, Rana Said and Ahmed El-Masry

The purpose of this paper is to prepare amphiphilic block copolymers polyethylene adipate-block-polyethylene glycol (PEA-b-PEG)s and study their performance as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare amphiphilic block copolymers polyethylene adipate-block-polyethylene glycol (PEA-b-PEG)s and study their performance as plasticizers in rotogravure ink formulations.

Design/methodology/approach

Series of amphiphilic block copolymers (PEA-b-PEG1), (PEA-b-PEG2), (PEA-b-PEG3), (PEA-b-PEG4) and (PEA-b-PEG5) were prepared by the reaction of adipic acid, ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol of different molecular weights (300, 1,000, 2,000, 10,000 and 20,000 g/mol), respectively. Full characterization of the prepared copolymers was achieved using Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The performance of the prepared copolymers as plasticizers for neat nitrocellulose resin were studied in different formulations, namely, R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 containing copolymers (PEA-b-PEG1), (PEA-b-PEG2), (PEA-b-PEG3), (PEA-b-PEG4) and (PEA-b-PEG5), respectively. In addition to formula R0 that contains acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) as a commercial plasticizer. The mechanical properties, thermal analysis (DSC, TGA) and optical properties of the prepared formulations films were investigated. Theses amphiphilic block copolymers were then applied as plasticizers in different rotogravure ink formulations (F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) and compared with commercial rotogravure ink formula (F0). The color measurements and optical properties of all formulations were achieved.

Findings

It was found that the performance of the prepared copolymers as plasticizers in different formulations based on nitro cellulose resin gives better gloss, adhesion for R1 compared with the other samples and color strength for F1 compared with F0. Finally, all the samples gave excellent plasticizing effect.

Research limitations/implications

The authors believe that type of these materials open the way for a new class of plasticizers that upon application or even degradation gives small ecofriendly molecules (adipic acid and or ethylene glycol moieties) taking into consideration the simplicity of the rout of the synthesis process.

Practical implications

The prepared ecofriendly (PEA-b-PEG)s could be successfully used as plasticizers instead of commercial plasticizer ATBC.

Originality/value

The research provides that the prepared (PEA-b-PEG)s with different molecular weights can act as plasticizers in rotogravure ink formulations, and their performance was acceptable and available.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2010

Li‐zhu Liu, Hong‐jie Ma, Xing‐song Zhu, Yu‐jiang Fan and Zhen‐hao Jin

Polylactide/nano‐silica in situ composites are synthesised and characterised in order to study their mechanical and thermal properties. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Polylactide/nano‐silica in situ composites are synthesised and characterised in order to study their mechanical and thermal properties. The purpose of this paper is to study these properties and compare them with the pure polylactide (PLA).

Design/methodology/approach

Polylactide/nano‐silica in situ composites are synthesised from lactide and modified nano‐silica using stannous octoate as a catalyst. The structure and properties of the composites are characterised by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

Findings

The results of SEM showed that nano‐silica and PLA are connected with covalent bonds, and that inorganic phases are dispersed homogeneously in the PLA matrix. The results of TGA indicated that the thermal decomposition temperature rose with the increase of silica content. The tensile strength of the composites is enhanced because of the addition of nano‐inorganic particles into PLA.

Research limitations/implications

Although the preparation process is simplified by a two‐step method, attempts will be made to synthesise the polylactide/nano‐silica composites by a one‐step approach to curtail the preparation cycle.

Practical implications

The composites are expected to be suitable for applications in packaging materials, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

Originality/value

Preparation of polylactide/nano‐silica composites is expected to exert the respective advantages of the two ingredients and to produce more practical polymer materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Salwa H. El-Sabbagh, Doaa Samir Mahmoud, Nivin M. Ahmed, A.A. Ward and Magdy Wadid Sabaa

This paper aims to study the role of organobentonite (OB) as a filler to improve the mechanical strength of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Organoclay was first prepared…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the role of organobentonite (OB) as a filler to improve the mechanical strength of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Organoclay was first prepared by modifying bentonite with different concentrations of N-cetyl-N, N, N-triethyl ammonium bromide. A series of SBR composites reinforced with OB were prepared using master-batch method.

Design/methodology/approach

The curing characteristics, mechanical properties, thermal behavior, dielectric properties and morphology of SBR/OB composites were investigated.

Findings

The elastic modulus and tensile strength of composites were increased by inclusion of OB, while the elongation at break was decreased, due to the increase in the degree of cross-linking density. Thermal gravimetric analysis revealed an improvement in the thermal stability of the composite containing 0.5 cation exchange capacity (CEC) OB, while the scanning electron micrographs confirmed more homogenous distribution of 0.5CEC OB in the rubber matrix. Also, SBR/0.5CEC OB showed low relative permittivity and electrical insulating properties.

Research limitations/implications

Bentonite has been recognized as a potentially useful filler in polymer matrix composites because of their high swelling capacity and plate morphology.

Practical implications

OB improves the cured rubber by increasing the tensile strength and the stiffness of the vulcanizate.

Social implications

Using cheap clay in rubber industry lead to production of low cost products with high efficiency.

Originality/value

The clay represents a convenient source because of their environmental compatibility. The low cost and easy availability make the modified clay used as fillers in rubber matrices, and the resultant composites can be applied in variety industrial of applications such as automobile industries, shoe outsoles, packaging materials and construction engineering.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Laylay Mustafa Alhallak, Seha Tirkes and Umit Tayfun

This study aims to investigate the mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based composites after bentonite…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based composites after bentonite inclusions. Melt mixing is the most preferred production method in industrial scale and basically it has very near processing parameters compared to 3D printing applications. Rheological parameters of ABS and its composites are important for 3D applications. Melt flow behavior of ABS effects the fabrication of 3D printed product at desired levels. Shear thinning and non-Newtonian viscosity characteristics of ABS make viscosity control easier and more flexible for several processing techniques including injection molding, compression molding and 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

ABS copolymer was reinforced with bentonite mineral (BNT) at four different loading ratios of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. ABS/BNT composites were fabricated by lab-scale micro-compounder followed by injection molding process. Mechanical, thermo-mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological properties of composites were investigated by tensile, hardness and impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), melt flow index (MFI) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.

Findings

Mechanical tests revealed that tensile strength, elongation and hardness of ABS were enhanced as BNT content increased. Glass transition temperature and storage modulus of ABS exhibited increasing trend with the additions of BNT. However, impact strength values dropped down with BNT inclusion. According to MFI test measurements, BNT incorporation displayed no significant change for MFI value of ABS. Homogeneous dispersion of BNT particles into ABS phase was deduced from SEM micrographs of composites. Loading ratio of 15% BNT was remarked as the most suitable candidate among fabricated ABS-based composites according to findings.

Research limitations/implications

The advanced mechanical properties and easy processing characteristics are the reasons for usage of ABS as an engineering plastic. Owing to the increase in its usage for 3D printing technology, the ABS became popular in recent years. The utilization of ABS in this technology is in filament form with various colors and dimensions. This is because of its proper rheological features.

Practical implications

Melt-mixing technique was used as preparation of composites, as this processing method is widely applied in industry. This method is also providing similar processing methodology with 3D printing technology.

Originality/value

According to the literature survey, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first research work regarding the melt-flow performance of ABS-based composites to evaluate their 3D printing applications and processability. ABS and BNT containing composites were characterized by tensile, impact and shore hardness tests, DMA, TGA), MFI test and SEM techniques.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Emad S. Shafik, Medhat L. Tawfic and Adel F. Younan

The purpose of this study is to manufacture composites from sawdust and polymer high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different loading from alum as natural and cheap…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to manufacture composites from sawdust and polymer high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different loading from alum as natural and cheap flame retardant and subsequently characterized using standard analytical tools.

Design/methodology/approach

Artificial wood plastic composites (WPCs) were prepared by mixing HDPE with sawdust as a filler with constant ratio (2:1) using hot press. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) used as a coupling agent between two parents of the composites with different ratios (2.5, 5, 7 and 10). Alum as a flame retardant was incorporated into HDPE with 5 phr polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) with different ratios (10, 15 and 20). Flame retardant efficiency was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and the technique of ASTM E162.

Findings

The results revealed that the composite containing 5 phr from (PE-g-MAH) exhibited higher mechanical properties and this proved that (PE-g-MAH) act as an efficient coupling agent using the aforementioned ratio. The results also revealed that incorporation of alum as a flame retardant increased the thermal stability of the composites.

Originality/value

Artificial WPCs are ecofriendly materials with a wide range of applications in the constructions field. Moreover, they have high mechanical and physical properties with low cost. Evaluate alum as a natural and cheap flame retardant.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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