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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

P.A. Addison and Tungshan Chou

Fishbein and Ajzen's 1975 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), updated by Ajzen and Fishbein in 1980, is advanced in this paper as an appropriate theory for measuring…

Abstract

Fishbein and Ajzen's 1975 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), updated by Ajzen and Fishbein in 1980, is advanced in this paper as an appropriate theory for measuring student's intentions to adopt deep or surface processing and to adopt specific learning strategies. TRA is a decision theory that explains motivation by emphasising the specific processes that individuals use to make choices. TRA captures an individual's motivation by using the concept of intention to perform a behaviour. A TRA model was constructed based on a four‐latent‐variable (deep, surface, strategic and intention) framework and empirically assessed for model data fit. The survey items showed loadings on the constructs of deep, surface and strategic processing under this framework, indicating strong construct validity for the three learning factors. The TRA model was found to strongly positively influence the adoption of the deep processing construct, and to strongly negatively influence the adoption of the surface processing construct. In addition, it was found to strongly positively influence the adoption of positive learning strategies and weakly discourage the use of negative learning strategies.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Hadjer Troudi and Djamila Bouyoucef

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, the verification of applicability of reasoned action theory to analyze consumer behavior in Algerian context; and second, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, the verification of applicability of reasoned action theory to analyze consumer behavior in Algerian context; and second, the identification and analysis of factors influencing purchasing behavior in green food sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors proposed a model based on reasoned action theory that combines two types of variables, the green marketing type and personal type, in order to predict purchasing behavior of green food. The authors have established a structural equations modeling, with a path analysis on a sample of 304 Algerian consumers from Algiers town.

Findings

The model was confirmed and the results showed how green marketing and personal factors influence the green food purchasing behavior in direct and indirect way, in presence of the mediating variables’ attitude toward green food and intention to buy green food.

Research limitations/implications

There is no database or any information concerning green consumption in Algerian context. There is a lack of information about green production in food field. The choice of reasoned action theory as a theory explaining the decision-making process leading to purchasing act is based on fact that the Algerian field of food sector is virgin of this type of analysis, so the authors thought it is appropriate to apply the reasoned action theory as a first initiative in this field. Also, a more recent and more innovative psychological theory should be applied in the future studies.

Practical implications

The study will give researchers interested in Algerian context a better understanding of consumer behavior, especially in green product case, and will open new paths for future research in the same field by the application of another psychological theory that is more recent and innovative; the study can open research paths for other fields as well, such as consumer behavior toward green cosmetic products in Algeria.

Social implications

The implications of this research can assist marketers for better positioning in green food market using the results indicated in research. The better understanding of factors influencing consumer purchasing behavior will encourage contractors to invest in this field in Algiers town context.

Originality/value

The study was established in a context where consumer market data of green food are non-existent, so the research represents an orientation to green food marketers toward a better positioning in relation to influence factors of their market target.

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Yu Liu, Sigal Segev and Maria Elena Villar

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of the cognitive-affect behavior (CAB) model and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) model as well as their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of the cognitive-affect behavior (CAB) model and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) model as well as their extended forms (with product knowledge) in predicting everyday green consumption among non-Hispanic White and Hispanic consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from a convenience sample of 249 non-Hispanic Whites and 425 Hispanic adults were used to test the two models through structural equation modeling analyses.

Findings

While all tested models explained green consumption in both samples adequately, the basic TRA and the TPB (extended TRA) models were superior to the basic and extended CAB models. Including product knowledge further enhanced the predictive power of the two basic models.

Research limitations/implications

Self-reported surveys are subject to social desirability bias in the reporting of intentions and actual purchases of green products. Future research may attempt to collect data on actual green purchases. The selection of a general consumption context is limited in distinguishing between high- and low-involvement products. Future research should test the relative effectiveness of these models among specific green products with different levels of involvement.

Practical implications

Marketing and strategic communication programs should focus on increasing consumers’ positive attitudes about purchasing green products and promote green purchase intentions using intention-generating promotional tactics. This paper also stresses the need to increase consumers’ concrete knowledge about green products to drive actual purchase behavior.

Social implications

This paper can help communicators to further promote green consumption for routinely purchased consumer goods, which will ultimately enhance a healthier and more sustainable environment.

Originality/value

This paper extends the literature about green consumption, providing insights about the relative effectiveness of two widely accepted consumer behavior models. It implies that some models excel over others in terms of their explanatory power across consumer populations regardless of socio-demographic differences. It also stresses the importance of specifying explicitly behavioral control variables in green consumption research and provides a viable basis for the development of strategic marketing.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2020

Tuyet-Mai Nguyen

Two psychological models, the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) are the most common theories used to understand knowledge sharing…

Abstract

Purpose

Two psychological models, the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) are the most common theories used to understand knowledge sharing behaviour. However, the empirical results are inconclusive on whether TRA and TPB can provide reasonable prediction of knowledge sharing attitude, intention and behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a review of these models in knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews 63 papers to provide a comprehensive picture of these models in knowledge sharing.

Findings

Two main trends of modification were shown in the studies examining these models. Research gaps were identified as a guideline for future researchers to investigate potential moderators and examine these models from the participants’ perspective.

Originality/value

The model serves as a roadmap for future researchers and managers considering their strategy to enhance knowledge sharing.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Rebecca Isabella Kiconco, Waliya Gwokyalya, Arthur Sserwanga and Waswa Balunywa

This study aims to investigate the extent to which the theory of reasoned action (TRA) can be used to explain tax compliance among small business enterprises (SBEs) in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the extent to which the theory of reasoned action (TRA) can be used to explain tax compliance among small business enterprises (SBEs) in Uganda and extends the application and relevance of the theory to a new area of tax compliance. It contributes the TRA, as a predictor of tax compliance in a developing country context.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey targeting different categories of SBEs was carried out using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A sample of 384 SBEs was used in the study.

Findings

The TRA contributes critical insights on the tax compliance behaviour of small businesses in developing economies. It influences tax compliance behaviour. The study illustrates evidence about the negative attitudes SBEs have on intentions to comply with tax regulations and the extent to which these attitudes influence their compliance behaviour. Subjective norms positively influence tax compliance intentions in a positive manner. Overall, the appearance of these intentions shows a negative effect on tax compliance behaviour. These findings also imply that Uganda Revenue Authority needs to understand the social psychology of taxpayers and tailor these in their policies and efforts to increase compliance.

Research limitations/implications

The TRA has been used to explain behaviour in numerous situations in psychology. The study used this theory in a new geographical, economic and administrative environment; Uganda. This theory has proved relevant in explaining psychological, sociological and economic behaviour; specifically tax compliance. The TRA was revised to include a new construct of perceived behavioural control, which turned into the theory of planned behaviour. This could not be studied due to time and logistic constraints. Therefore, there is a need to investigate if this revised theory can explain tax compliance behaviour better.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that tax administration efforts and policies should consider the social-psychology aspects of the taxpayers to improve tax compliance.

Originality/value

This study adds a new arena of explaining tax compliance from a theory commonly used in psychology to a new setting in finance.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Rajdeep Kumar Raut, Rohit Kumar and Niladri Das

This study aims to explore and comprehend the reasons behind individual investors’ intention towards socially responsible investment (SRI) in the Indian stock market along…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore and comprehend the reasons behind individual investors’ intention towards socially responsible investment (SRI) in the Indian stock market along with examining the validity of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) model to predict such phenomenon in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The TRA has been used as an underlying framework and has been extended by adding four variables, namely, moral norms, environmental concern, financial literacy and financial performance. The study used a self-administered questionnaire and adopted a convenience sampling method for a survey to collect the data from the individual investors from the capital cities of three states of India. Further, the collected data have been analysed using two-step structural equation modelling.

Findings

Results of this study indicate a significant impact of attitude, subjective norms, moral norms, financial literacy and financial performance on investors’ intention towards SRI; however, no significant relation was found between environmental concern and investors’ SRI intention. The multiple squared correlation (R2) shows that the final model could explain 71% of the variance in investors’ intention towards SRI, which signifies a successful implementation of TRA model along with new additions to predict investors’ decision-making behaviour for SRI. Moreover, investors are found to be highly concerned primarily about their financial goals and then for their personal obligation towards society as far as SRI is concerned.

Practical implications

This study reports significant and prominent importance of subjective norms in SRI which could be a strategic theme for the government and the policymakers to influence investors through their opinion leaders to promote SRI. The government should also increase its efforts to facilitate financial literacy among citizens.

Originality/value

Using the TRA model and four variables, namely, moral norms, environmental concern, financial literacy and financial performance addition to its original variables, this study extends the understandings of SRI which is perhaps the novelty of this paper because such examination of SRI has not been conducted, especially in the case of developing countries such as India.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Philip K. Law

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors influencing the accounting students' career choice in public accounting practices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors influencing the accounting students' career choice in public accounting practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Multinomial logistic regression is used to analyze survey data of 214 accounting students from three universities in Hong Kong. Three dependent variables are: pursue a career in public accounting (CPA); general accounting; and a non‐accounting careers.

Findings

Results support the TRA model. The two constructs in the model – “intrinsic factors” (attitude toward the behavior) and “parental influence” (subjective norm), make significant and independent contributions to predicting the career choice of accounting students. Results indicate that “intrinsic factors” and “parental influence” have significant influence on the decision whether to select a CPA career. This result is not consistent with the New Zealand study and the Canadian study. Neither the “financial rewards factor” nor the “high school accounting” factor is an influencing factor on the career choice in the post‐Enron. This result is also in contrast to the findings of the literature in the pre‐Enron. The fact that financial rewards variable has no influence on career choice is an interesting finding. There may be a “cultural” factor in Hong Kong linked to the prestige of professions that may outweigh the financial rewards factor. “Flexibility of career options” factor has the highest influencing power among all the variables, possibly influenced by the US Sarbanes Oxley enactments that result in a buoyant job market, and China's convergence with the International Financial Reporting Standards in 2007. Females dominate over males in entering the CPA career or general accounting career.

Research limitations/implications

The support of the TRA model in this paper could be applied as a useful theoretical framework to examine other accounting areas.

Practical implications

The Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the Big 4 firms should exercise more efforts to improve the traditional accountants' negative image as boring and methodical so as to attract bright students to enter the accounting profession.

Originality/value

The lack of using a theoretical model and prior studies' limitations make any inferences drawn and generalizations difficult. This paper represents the first to the author's knowledge to use the theory of reasoned action (TRA) model from the social psychological literature to examine the issues into the Hong Kong environment.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Sulaiman Lujja, Mustafa Omar Mohammad and Rusni Hassan

Islamic banking (IB) has resulted in abundant cross-border financial flows and diversified economic inter-linkages with over US$2tn in assets that have extended beyond…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic banking (IB) has resulted in abundant cross-border financial flows and diversified economic inter-linkages with over US$2tn in assets that have extended beyond Muslim countries to more established global financial centres and other emerging economies. Despite this remarkable diffusion, numerous developing and least-developed countries are yet to embrace IB. This study aims to examine the factors that determine public intention to adopt IB in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

This study undertook a quantitative approach where the theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used as a theoretical framework and structural equation modelling technique was applied to determine the relationship between attitude, subjective norm and public intention to adopt IB. Thus, a sample of 300 bank customers was surveyed using a questionnaire.

Findings

Initially, the measurement model did not fit the data well. So, the model was modified by removing an indicator with a lower loading. Finally, the structural model under maximum likelihood estimate analysis confirmed a good model fit for the data. Key findings were as follows: attitude positively influenced intention to adopt IB, whereas subjective norm influence to intention is mediated by attitude. Furthermore, public intention to adopt IB in Uganda can be predicted by attitude (R2 = 0.89) which also mediates the prediction of subjective norm to intention (R2 = 0.58).

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has used the TRA on the feasibility and adoption of IB. Thus, the present study is relevant in extending the theoretical body of knowledge by validating the TRA in a new field.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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