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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Madjid Tavana, Amir Karbassi Yazdi, Mehran Shiri and Jack Rappaport

This paper aims to propose a new benchmarking framework that uses a series of existing intuitive and analytical methods to systematically capture both objective data and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a new benchmarking framework that uses a series of existing intuitive and analytical methods to systematically capture both objective data and subjective beliefs and preferences from a group of decision makers (DMs).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed framework combines the excellence model developed by the European Foundation for Quality Management with the Rembrandt method, the entropy concept, the weighted‐sum approach, and the theory of the displaced ideal. Hard data and personal judgments are synthesized to evaluate a set of business units (BUs) with two overall performance scores plotted in a four quadrant model.

Findings

The two performance scores are used to benchmark the performance of the BUs in accordance with their Euclidean distance from the “ideal” BU. Quadrants are used to classify the BUs as efficacious, productive ineffectual, proficient unproductive, and inefficacious. The efficacious BUs, referred to as “excellent”, fall in the competency zone and have the shortest Euclidean distance from the ideal BU relative to their peers.

Originality/value

The benchmarking framework presented in this study has some obvious attractive features. First, the generic nature of the framework allows for the subjective and objective evaluation of a finite number of BUs by a group of DMs. Second, the information requirements of the framework are stratified hierarchically allowing DMs to focus on a small area of the large problem. Third, the framework does not dispel subjectivity; it calibrates the subjective weights with the objective weights determined through the entropy concept.

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Madjid Tavana, Brian S. Bourgeois and Mariya A. Sodenkamp

The US Government adopted the base realignment and closure (BRAC) to resolve the military, economic and political issue of excess base capacity. There have been five…

Abstract

Purpose

The US Government adopted the base realignment and closure (BRAC) to resolve the military, economic and political issue of excess base capacity. There have been five rounds of BRAC since 1988, and more are expected to come in the years ahead. The complexity of the closure and realignment decisions and the plethora of factors that are often involved necessitate the need for a sound theoretical framework to structure and model the decision‐making process. This paper aims to address the issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a multiple criteria benchmarking system that integrates the employment, environmental, financial, strategic, and tactical impacts of the closure and realignment decisions into a weighted‐sum measure called the “survivability index.” The proposed index is used to determine whether the returns generated by each military base on the Department of Defense (DoD) hit list meet a sufficient target benchmark.

Findings

There is a significant amount of evidence that intuitive decision making is far from optimal and it deteriorates exponentially with problem complexity. The benchmarking system presented in this study helps decision makers (DMs) crystallize their thoughts and reduce the environmental complexities inherent in the BRAC decisions. The presented model is intended to create an even playing field for benchmarking and pursuing consensus not to imply a deterministic approach to BRAC decisions.

Originality/value

An iterative process is used to consistently analyze the objective and subjective judgments of multiple DMs within a structured framework based on the analytic network process and fuzzy logic. This iterative and interactive preference modeling procedure is the basic distinguishing feature of the presented model as opposed to statistical and optimization decision‐making approaches.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Madjid Tavana and Aidan O'Connor

Promoting security, stability and cooperation is the raison d'être of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and these are the aims of its strategy of membership…

Abstract

Purpose

Promoting security, stability and cooperation is the raison d'être of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and these are the aims of its strategy of membership enlargement. The incentive of NATO membership has led some former Warsaw Pact applicant countries to reform their political systems, transform their economies, deal with corruption and improve social justice and human rights. However, controversy has surrounded NATO's enlargement because of the current ambiguous and subjective decision‐making process and the effect that it could have on the organization. This paper aims to present the results of a study to develop a benchmarking model as a means to assist NATO evaluate and screen potential applicant countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel and structured multiple‐criteria decision analysis model that considers specific NATO applicant evaluation criteria and environmental forces is offered and a template for a membership evaluation process is proposed. A total of 120 researchers in France, Germany, Switzerland and the USA provided the necessary data on the 23 countries that are analyzed in order to develop the benchmarking model. Four distinct categories were established to categorize these countries. The ranking of the countries based on Euclidean distance from the ideal state is illustrated with a classification schema outlining four typologies as beneficial believers, detrimental disadvantaged, perilous partners and apathetic acquaintances.

Findings

Among the potential applicant countries considered as “beneficial believers” are Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Finland and Ireland while other countries, such as, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Montenegro, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are considered as “detrimental disadvantaged”. Furthermore, Russia and Ukraine were identified as “perilous partners” and Malta, FYR Macedonia, Cyprus, Serbia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Armenia and Moldova were identified as “apathetic acquaintances”.

Practical implications

This model could be applied to other supranational organizations and multinational firms when assessing international strategic alliances.

Originality/value

The paper presents the results of a study to develop a benchmarking model as an aid in evaluating and screening potential NATO applicant countries.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Rema Gopalan, Sreekumar . and Biswajit Satpathy

With the growing importance of service quality in Indian retail, it becomes critical for the retailers to identify the appropriate dimensions for their retail stores. In…

Abstract

Purpose

With the growing importance of service quality in Indian retail, it becomes critical for the retailers to identify the appropriate dimensions for their retail stores. In the process of evaluating service quality the decision maker is often faced with ambiguities due to the imprecise information gained from the respondents. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated fuzzy (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) approach to help the decision makers/retailers in practicing and judging the priorities of service quality strategies and accordingly benchmarking retail stores in Indian retail environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporated the five basic dimensions of Retail Service Quality Scale proposed by Dabholkar et al. (1996) and the FAHP approach to three leading apparel retail stores of a major city (Rourkela) of Orissa (an Indian state located in eastern part of the country) to determine the weights of criteria and sub-criteria of retail service quality.

Findings

The study identified that the dimensions, namely, personal interaction, physical aspects, reliability and policy are perceived as important by the Indian consumers. Merchandise and the store’s willingness to handle returns and exchanges emerge as the most influencing variable affecting the overall service quality of the store.

Research limitations/implications

The study was restricted to a major city of Orissa and to three apparel stores. The results obtained may not be extrapolated to the country as a whole. The authors believe that the integrated approach of FAHP could be used by a variety of service industries to evaluate the service quality. The study did not investigate switching behavior among the respondents as they had been visiting all the three apparel stores during the preceding months.

Practical implications

The integrated approach of FAHP makes an empirical contribution to the service quality and retail marketing literature by overcoming the uncertainty of concepts those are associated with human beings’ subjective judgments.

Social implications

The retailer can improve the quality of service provided by them based on the parameters important in Indian context, which will lead to higher customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

This paper can help the retail service providers to identify which of the retail service quality dimensions requires much attention to create sustainable competitive advantage.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Madjid Tavana

The overwhelming majority of scientists agree the earth's temperature has risen during the past century. Nature maintains a balance to keep the earth's average surface…

Abstract

Purpose

The overwhelming majority of scientists agree the earth's temperature has risen during the past century. Nature maintains a balance to keep the earth's average surface temperature at 59 degrees Fahrenheit. About 59 degrees is to earth what 98.6 degrees is to our body. Although, the fact that the earth's temperature has risen is generally not in dispute by scientists, environmental decisions remain among the most difficult facing policy makers. Fahrenheit 59 is an environmental decision support system developed at Johnson Space Center for benchmarking global warming. This paper aims to present the details of the benchmarking model embedded in Fahrenheit 59.

Design/methodology/approach

The model attempts to establish benchmark scores that are weighted sum measures of subjective and intrinsic weights and performance scores associated with a series of global warming opportunities and threats. Fahrenheit 59 has the potential to monitor continuous progress towards countering the threat of global warming worldwide.

Findings

The European Union (EU) is at the forefront of international efforts to combat global warming. The EU has been taking serious steps to address its own greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes. A pilot study conducted resulted in a benchmarking scheme that shows of the 27‐member EU states, seven were global protectors, four were global remediators, 12 were global defectors, and four were global predators.

Originality/value

Fahrenheit 59 assists policy makers concerned about global warming to compare environmental performance with “best‐in‐class” achievements. The proposed system bridges the gap between technology and decision making to stimulate environmental awareness and activism.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2021

Amir Karbassi Yazdi, Thomas Hanne and Juan Carlos Osorio Gómez

The aim of this paper is to find and prioritise multiple critical success factors (CSFs) for the implementation of LSS in the oil and gas industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to find and prioritise multiple critical success factors (CSFs) for the implementation of LSS in the oil and gas industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a preselected list of possible CFSs, experts are involved in screening them with the Delphi method. As a result, 22 customised CSFs are selected. To prioritise these CSFs, the step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) method is applied to find weights corresponding to the decision-making preferences. Since the regular permutation-based weight assessment can be classified as NP-hard, the problem is solved by a metaheuristic method. For this purpose, a genetic algorithm (GA) is used.

Findings

The resulting prioritisation of CSFs helps companies find out which factors have a high priority in order to focus on them. The less important factors can be neglected and thus do not require limited resources.

Research limitations/implications

Only a specific set of methods have been considered.

Practical implications

The resulting prioritisation of CSFs helps companies find out which factors have a high priority in order to focus on them.

Social implications

The methodology supports respective evaluations in general.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the very limited research on the implementation of LSS in the oil and gas industry, and, in addition, it suggests the usage of SWARA, a permutation method and a GA, which have not yet been researched, for the prioritisation of CSFs of LSS.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2012

Naomi Murakawa

This chapter evaluates the allure and the danger of attributing race-laden crime politics to displaced anxiety. Stuart Scheingold's “myth of crime and punishment” was a…

Abstract

This chapter evaluates the allure and the danger of attributing race-laden crime politics to displaced anxiety. Stuart Scheingold's “myth of crime and punishment” was a path-setting theory of redirected fear, arguing that socioeconomic “fear of falling” is displaced onto street crime, where the simple morality tale of lawbreaker-versus-state offers the illusion of control. The danger of this theory, I argue, is that it purports to analyze post-1960s’ structural inequality, but it replicates the post-civil rights logic and language of racism as nonstructural – an irrationality, a misplaced emotion, a mere epiphenomenon of class. As a theory that hinges on the malfunction of redirecting structural anxieties onto symbols and scapegoats, the vocabulary of displaced anxieties links punitive (white) subjects to punished (black and Latino) objects through a diagnosis that is, by definition, beyond rationality. The vocabulary of displaced anxiety categorizes the racial politics of law and order as an emotional misfire, thereby occluding the ways in which racial interests are at stake in crime policy and carceral state development.

Details

Special Issue: The Legacy of Stuart Scheingold
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-344-5

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2017

Ricarda Hammer

Examining the work of Frantz Fanon and Stuart Hall, this article argues that their biographic practices and experiences as colonial subjects allowed them to break with…

Abstract

Examining the work of Frantz Fanon and Stuart Hall, this article argues that their biographic practices and experiences as colonial subjects allowed them to break with imperial representations and to provide new, anticolonial imaginaries. It demonstrates how the experience of the racialized and diasporic subject, respectively, creates a kind of subjectivity that makes visible the work of colonial cultural narratives on the formation of the self. The article first traces Fanon’s and Hall’s transboundary encounters with metropolitan Europe and then shows how these biographic experiences translate into their theories of practice and history. Living through distinct historical moments and colonial ideologies, Fanon and Hall produced theories of historical change, which rest on epistemic ruptures and conjunctural changes in meaning formations. Drawing on their biographic subjectivities, both intellectuals theorize cultural and colonial forms of oppression and seek to produce new knowledge that is based on practice and experience.

Details

International Origins of Social and Political Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-267-1

Keywords

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