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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 1994

E. Eide

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Economics of Crime: Deterrence and the Rational Offender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-072-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Muhammad al Hasan Biraima

This is a paper of methodological orientation. An attempt has been made to delineate the basic elements of a Qur'anic view of social reality as an integral part of the…

Abstract

This is a paper of methodological orientation. An attempt has been made to delineate the basic elements of a Qur'anic view of social reality as an integral part of the worldview of the Qur'an. The theoretical frame thus derived from the Qur'an is then shown to lay the foundation for a universal theory of social science. A theory of action based on the concept of the righteous actor is contrasted with a theory of action based on the concept of the rational actor, the former representing Homo‐Islamicus, the second representing Homo‐economicus. The theory of action suggested rests on the work of Imam al Shatibi on the purposes (magasid) of Shari'ah, which is shown to emanate logically from the Qur'anic view of social reality suggested by the author.

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Humanomics, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Individualism, Holism and the Central Dilemma of Sociological Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-038-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2009

Robb Willer

Here I present a theory of collective action that emphasizes the role of status. I argue that collective action contributions earn individuals improved status by signaling…

Abstract

Here I present a theory of collective action that emphasizes the role of status. I argue that collective action contributions earn individuals improved status by signaling their concern for the group's welfare relative to their own. Having received greater prestige for their contributions to group goals, individuals’ actual motivation to help the group is increased, leading to greater subsequent contributions to group efforts and greater feelings of group solidarity. This “virtuous cycle” of costly contributions to group efforts and enhanced standing in the group shows one way in which individuals’ prosocial behaviors are socially constructed, a consequence of individuals’ basic concern for what others think of them. I discuss a variety of issues related to the theory, including its scope of application, theoretical implications, relationship to alternative models of reputation and prosocial behavior, possible practical applications, and directions for future research.

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Altruism and Prosocial Behavior in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-573-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Arjen Adriaanse and Hans Voordijk

Although communication is of vital importance in construction projects, the construction industry is confronted with great communication difficulties and an ineffective…

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Abstract

Although communication is of vital importance in construction projects, the construction industry is confronted with great communication difficulties and an ineffective use of information and communication technology (ICT) systems. In this study, the objective is to analyse obstacles and preconditions for an effective use of ICT by focusing on characteristics of interorganizational communication in construction projects. Interorganizational communication and ICT are studied by elaborating on these phenomena from the perspective of two paradigms – the traditional functionalist and the radical humanist – and theories representative for these paradigms – the agency theory and Habermas’ critical social theory. By using the method of metatriangulation, it is shown that in addition to the functionalist perspective, the critical social theory of Habermas is an appropriate theory for analysing obstacles and preconditions for an effective interorganizational communication and use of ICT. Based on this analysis, a critical research agenda on communication and ICT in construction is formulated. It is concluded that this type of research will lead to a more articulated view on the alignment between ICT applications and communication in construction projects and will show new directions for ICT development in the future.

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Construction Innovation, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Richard Jung

To develop a conception of experience and action.

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a conception of experience and action.

Design/methodology/approach

Phenomenological concepts of subjectivity and meaning are combined with cybernetic concepts of constraint.

Findings

A unified theory of action and experience is developed.

Originality/value

The theory provides a scientific, cybernetic, unifying theory of experience and action applicable to individuals, groups and aggregates.

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Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

David M. Townsend

Despite the growing importance of young, entrepreneurial ventures in modern economic systems, many such ventures fail quite early in their lifecycles. While both…

Abstract

Despite the growing importance of young, entrepreneurial ventures in modern economic systems, many such ventures fail quite early in their lifecycles. While both evolutionary theory and organizational learning theory yield important insights for the literature on young venture survival, questions remain as to why ventures facing similar environments experience differential rates of survival. In response, I propose a theory of entrepreneurial agency – defined as the emergence and/or transformation of firms, markets, industries governed by the evolving interaction of temporally situated, intentional strategic action with a malleable external environment – to complement prevailing viewpoints on the causes of young venture survival. My central thesis in this chapter is that to develop more comprehensive explanations of differential survival rates, a theory of entrepreneurial agency – illuminating the transformative potential of entrepreneurial action – is necessary to complement evolutionary perspectives in the literature on firm survival. With this objective in mind, I construct a theoretical model linking diverse perspectives on the duality of human agency and theories of environmental selection, and offer several theoretical and empirical suggestions to guide future research.

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Entrepreneurial Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-901-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Paul Lyons

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P‐T). The efficacy…

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548

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P‐T). The efficacy of P‐T, with limitations, has been demonstrated in this journal and in others. However, the theoretical bases of the P‐T approach had not been well‐developed. The other purposes of this paper are to: explain the features and functions of the P‐T and to highlight the action theory of Frese as the theory supports P‐T and offers trainers some information regarding the regulation of feedback and learning. This paper adds to the procedures and practices of human resource development.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach in this paper is to explain how a training and development partnership among trainers, managers, and employees is forged so as to create P‐T for use in the field. The main aspect of the methodology was to attempt to map the elements of action theory onto the specific steps (phases) of the P‐T approach. This mapping activity was achieved.

Findings

The key findings in this study is that action theory offers a hierarchical and reasonably complete explanation of how learning occurs and how individuals regulate what they know. As explained in this paper action theory provides a map of the cognitive elements in the training model employed.

Practical implications

Assuming that the P‐T approach has value, it is important to demonstrate how theory helps to ground the approach. In this paper, action theory has been used to offer a substantial foundation for the P‐T approach. In addition, action theory helps trainers to examine learning, feedback, and regulation of performance in a comprehensive manner.

Originality/value

Action theory offers several features that help explain the regulation of learning and behavior, yet the theory has received very little attention in formal literatures. Value: the template approach adds to our repertoire of training methods. This paper helps to better explain the approach and it offers useful theories to support practice.

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Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Alexander Styhre

The purpose of this paper is to question whether the management studies is rigorous and/or relevant is a recurrent debate in the discipline. There is reason to believe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to question whether the management studies is rigorous and/or relevant is a recurrent debate in the discipline. There is reason to believe that this dichotomy is simplistic as relevance is a consequence of rigor (defined in a variety of ways in the literature), whereas the epistemic value of rigor must per se be examined in more detail.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the study of the analytical philosophy of Donald Davidson, rigor is here conceptualized as the capacity to examine how intersubjective meaning is constituted on the basis of the semantics of the everyday language.

Findings

In Davidson’s pragmatist view, individual beliefs are established through communication, and beliefs generate preferences and “pro-attitudes” that result in social action. Using Ian Hacking’s term undoing as a critique of a proposition or idea as being no contender for truth (or some other quality) at all, the paper questions the proposition that scientific rigor can be operationalized as the use of data collection and analysis methods developed in other and more authoritative disciplines, e.g. economics. On the contrary, to make accurate descriptions of beliefs, preferences and actions on the basis of the use of everyday language is the mark of scientific rigor in management studies.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the question of how rigorous research in management studies is essentially a matter of explanation, and that explanation, in turn, demands a more elaborate theory of action. The paper also introduces the work of Donald Davidson as an important figure when theorizing action.

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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The Systemic Approach in Sociology and Niklas Luhmann: Expectations, Discussions, Doubts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-032-5

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