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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Tony Garry and Tracy Harwood

This paper aims to provide empirically derived insights into trust and its predictors within a cyber-physical system context of a household service.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide empirically derived insights into trust and its predictors within a cyber-physical system context of a household service.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology comprises an innovative mixed methods design encompassing a videographic animated film portraying a potential “slice of life” household service-system scenario that was subsequently incorporated into a quantitative survey. A total of 400 responses were then used to examine trust dimensions and their hypothesised predictors.

Findings

Findings suggest trust is two-dimensional, with “online networking competency”, “perceptions of risk”, “propensity to trust technology in general” and “concerns about security” being significant predictors. Surprisingly, “concerns about privacy” do not have a significant effect.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research is twofold. Firstly, from a theoretical perspective, the paper offers empirical insights into trust and its predictors within a cyber-physical system context of a household service. Secondly, and from a pragmatic perspective, the model derived from this study may aid practitioners in developing trust strategies and trust management systems within such contexts.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2017

Leana Bouffard and Amanda Goodson

Definitions of rape and sexual aggression have varied widely in the research literature, resulting in a wide range of estimates for perpetration and remaining questions as…

Abstract

Purpose

Definitions of rape and sexual aggression have varied widely in the research literature, resulting in a wide range of estimates for perpetration and remaining questions as to the factors that may affect involvement in sexual violence. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study uses a sample of college men to assess multiple forms of measurement of sexual aggression and theoretical predictors.

Findings

Findings indicate that the different measures of sexual aggression (broad vs narrow; hypothetical vs behavioral) are significantly correlated with each other. Additionally, many theoretical predictors (rape myths, low self-control, sexual entitlement, and pornography use) are consistently related to all measurement forms. However, some variables (masculinity, peer support for violence against women, sexual partners, and alcohol and drug use) are only related to broad measures of sexual aggression, and some are related only to hypothetical (i.e. certainty of apprehension) or behavioral measures (i.e. fraternity membership).

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen approach, the results may lack generalizability. Findings do, however, point to important considerations in defining sexual aggression moving forward.

Practical implications

Results point to the importance of aiming policy and programs at the particular characteristics that most consistently impact sexual aggression.

Originality/value

This paper addresses lingering questions about the impact of differences in definition and measurement on understanding sexual aggression.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Maura Pozzi, Daniela Marzana, Elena Marta, Maria Luisa Vecina and Giovanni Aresi

This study aimed to examine factors associated with volunteer role identity in mentors of school-based mentoring programmes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine factors associated with volunteer role identity in mentors of school-based mentoring programmes.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on established theoretical models of volunteerism (the Role Identity Model), and research and theory on mentoring programmes, an integrated model of predictors of mentor volunteer role identity was tested. Seventy-one mentors (63 females, mean age 36 years) completed a survey with measures of habit, subjective norms, satisfaction with the mentor-mentee relationship, relationship closeness, social skills and mentor role identity. Path analysis was used for data analysis.

Findings

Fit indexes revealed an acceptable fit to the data. There were six significant paths. Habit and subjective norms were directly related to role identity. The association between mentor role identity and two further predictors, satisfaction with the mentor–mentee relationship and social skills was respectively fully and partially mediated by relationship closeness.

Practical implications

Findings can inform mentoring programmes in supporting mentors to develop a close relationship with their mentees and promote the development of a role identity as a volunteer among mentors. A stronger role identity is in turn expected to enhance mentor retention in the programme.

Originality/value

An important and novel finding of this study is that relationship closeness contributes to mentors developing a volunteer role identity. Also, for the first time, the importance for mentors of support from significant others in fostering sustained volunteer engagement has been examined.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Hilary Fussell, Jill Harrison‐Rexrode, William R. Kennan and Vincent Hazleton

The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between social capital, transaction costs, and organizational outcomes.

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2929

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between social capital, transaction costs, and organizational outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a survey of 176 employees of a high‐tech manufacturer of electronics located in the Mid‐Atlantic region of the USA. The survey included three self‐report measures: social capital, transaction costs, and organizational outcomes. Self‐report items were used to measure three dimensions of social capital: structure, relationships, and communication. Transaction cost items measured information exchange, problem solving, conflict management, and behavior regulation. Questions measuring organizational outcomes included quality, change, equity, and fairness.

Findings

The central finding of this research is the significant association between social capital and both transaction costs and organizational outcomes. As expected, trust served as a predictor of both transaction costs and organizational outcomes. In addition, the social capital components of access, timing, and network ties were significantly associated with transaction costs and organizational outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The items used to measure the communication dimension of social capital did not demonstrate sufficient reliability to be entered into the analysis.

Practical implications

The results suggest an alternative approach to considering the connection between communication management and organizational achievement. This approach, also, theoretically centralizes communication and communication related concerns as foundational for social capital analysis.

Originality/value

This study offers a valuable alternative theoretic approach to understanding the impact of communication on organizational affairs.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Beatrice I.J.M. van der Heijden

The present study describes the relationship between three individual predictor variables and the degree of occupational expertise of middle and higher‐level employees in…

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1071

Abstract

The present study describes the relationship between three individual predictor variables and the degree of occupational expertise of middle and higher‐level employees in three different career stages working in small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). Occupational expertise is operationalised by means of five dimensions, i.e. knowledge, meta‐cognitive knowledge, skills, social recognition and growth and flexibility. The predictors in question are: the degree of participation in social networks, the degree of participation in training and development programmes and the degree of initiatives that are taken by the individual employee. Hypotheses have been tested with original survey data from 233 higher‐level employees and 217 direct supervisors.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Lisa Fiksenbaum, Zdravko Marjanovic and Esther Greenglass

Financial threat is defined as fearful-anxious uncertainty regarding one’s current and future financial situation. The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors and…

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3020

Abstract

Purpose

Financial threat is defined as fearful-anxious uncertainty regarding one’s current and future financial situation. The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors and outcomes of financial threat in two samples of students who completed an online questionnaire for course credit. The theoretical model the authors proposed tested the association between personal debt, anxiety, and economic hardship with financial threat, and in turn, financial threat’s relationship with willingness to change financial behavior (e.g. increase income, cut expenses, and reduce debt), job search activity, and psychological distress. Consistent across samples, structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that the data fit the model and supported all four hypotheses. Debt, economic hardship, and anxiety were all related positively to financial threat, which itself related positively to willingness to change, job search, and psychological distress. Importantly, financial threat mediated the relationship between these economic-situational predictors and affective-behavioral outcomes of financial stain. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an online questionnaire, participants completed measures of economic hardship, intolerance of uncertainty, job search behavior, financial threat, life satisfaction, general health, perceived stress, and willingness to change to financial behavior. The authors developed and tested a model that explores emotional and cognitive reactions to financial stressors following the recession.

Findings

Results of SEM revealed that the data fit the model and no modification indices were suggested. Examination of parameter estimates indicated that total debt, economic hardship, and anxiety were positively related to financial threat. Financial threat, in turn, positively related to willingness to change one’s financial behaviors, job search, and psychological distress. In addition, economic hardship and anxiety were positively related to psychological distress. That is, individuals who were feeling more threatened by their financial situation were more willing to change their financial situation and were more likely to engage in job search behavior. They were also more likely to report more psychological distress than individuals reporting lower levels of financial threat.

Research limitations/implications

This study was cross-sectional and therefore precludes causal interpretations of the findings. Longitudinal data with repeated assessments of all measures would help determine the direction of causation. Also, the study relied on self-report data, which is prone to bias. For example, it is possible that some participants did not know their exact debt levels, which may have resulted in an under- or overestimation of debt levels. Future research should extend this line of research using objective measures. While the model tested in this study examined the impact of economic factors on perceived threat, behavior, and psychological distress, it did not include social and psychological resources. For example, the authors did not include measures of social support, coping, or personality, which may moderate the impact of economic variables and stress on psychological distress. Although financial knowledge/literacy was not studied here, future research could include it since it has been associated with a variety of financial behaviors such as cash-flow management, credit management, saving, and investing. There is some evidence that financial literacy can decrease emotional stress and anxiety (Vitt et al., 2000).

Practical implications

The current study can help researchers and practitioners understand the concept of financial threat among university students. For example, if students have incurred student loans and debt and begin displaying symptoms of distress, like anxiousness, worry, and irritability, they could be referred to a professional experienced in working with emotional and behavioral disorders related to financial issues. It can also help practitioners gain an understanding and insight into clients’ poor financial decision making. Government could initiate programs that help individuals cope with the negative effects of unemployment. Given that young people are experiencing disproportionately high unemployment that can have a lasting adverse effect on employment prospects and future earnings, the current post-secondary curriculum needs to prepare young people for the world of work, and gain a footing in the labor market. One way to achieve this is through high-quality work experiences (e.g. internships/apprenticeships). Identifying ways to mitigate the effects of debt and economic hardship is also imperative. For example, money and debt advice may improve one’s financial circumstances, which, in turn, may improve their physical and psychological well-being.

Social implications

Future studies could focus on developing models predicting to financial stress using personality, psychological resources, and an objective measure of financial knowledge. Despite these limitations, this research demonstrates how emotional factors need to be included in economic models that also include debt and economic hardship. The study contributes to the economic and psychological literature by documenting how economic hardship and debt influence perceptions of threat, planned behavior, and psychological distress. The authors take a unique approach to describing economic hardship and financial threat as antecedents of distress, job search, and willingness to change. Future research could be directed toward employing the model for predicting behavior that would lessen economic stress and thereby leading to increased psychological well-being.

Originality/value

The study develops and tests an original theoretical model linking financial, emotional, and psychological variable in a comprehensive framework that is then tested empirically. This model is original with this paper.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Anup Menon Nandialath, Emily David, Diya Das and Ramesh Mohan

Much of what we learn from empirical research is based on a specific empirical model(s) presented in the literature. However, the range of plausible models given the data…

Abstract

Purpose

Much of what we learn from empirical research is based on a specific empirical model(s) presented in the literature. However, the range of plausible models given the data is potentially larger, thus creating an additional source of uncertainty termed: model uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of model uncertainty on empirical research in HRM and suggest potential solutions to deal with the same.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of call center employees from India, the authors test the robustness of predictors of intention to leave based on the unfolding model proposed by Harman et.al. (2007). Methodologically, the authors use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to identify the specific variables within the unfolding model that have a robust relationship with turnover intentions after accounting for model uncertainty.

Findings

The findings show that indeed model uncertainty can impact what we learn from empirical studies. More specifically, in the context of the sample, using four plausible model specifications, the authors show that the conclusions can vary depending on which model the authors choose to interpret. Furthermore, using BMA, the authors find that only two variables, job satisfaction and perceived organizational support, are model specification independent robust predictors of intention to leave.

Practical implications

The research has specific implications for the development of HR analytics and informs managers on which are the most robust elements affecting attrition.

Originality/value

While empirical research typically acknowledges and corrects for the presence of sampling uncertainty through p-values, rarely does it acknowledge the presence of model uncertainty (which variables to include in a model). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first study to show the effect and offer a solution to studying total uncertainty (sampling uncertainty + model uncertainty) on empirical research in HRM. The work should open more doors toward more studies evaluating the robustness of key HRM constructs in explaining important work-related outcomes.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

David S. DeGeest and Ernest H. O’Boyle

To review and address current approaches and limitations to modeling change over time in social entrepreneurship research.

Abstract

Purpose

To review and address current approaches and limitations to modeling change over time in social entrepreneurship research.

Methodology

The article provides a narrative review of different practices used to assess change over time. It also shows how different research questions require different methodologies for assessing changes over time. Finally, it presents worked examples for modeling these changes.

Findings

Our review suggests that there is a lack of research in social entrepreneurship that takes into account the many different considerations for addressing how time influences outcomes.

Originality/value

This chapter introduces an analytic technique to social entrepreneurship that effectively models changes in predictors and outcomes even when data are non-normal or nested across time or levels of analysis.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Daniel Yar Hamidi, Karl Wennberg and Henrik Berglund

The purpose of this paper is to use social cognitive theory to investigate entrepreneurial intent among participants in graduate entrepreneurship programs. Specifically…

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8900

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use social cognitive theory to investigate entrepreneurial intent among participants in graduate entrepreneurship programs. Specifically, the authors test whether students' creative potential is related to their intention to engage in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically derived hypotheses are tested using multiple and ordinal regression analyses.

Findings

High scores on a creativity test and prior entrepreneurial experiences are positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions, whereas perception of risks has a negative influence.

Research limitations/implications

The authors' theoretical predictors of entrepreneurial intention received strong support, indicating that creativity should be considered in models of entrepreneurial intentions. However, the use of intentions as dependent variable has its own weaknesses in that it may not distinguish between “dreamers” and “doers”.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that exercises in creativity can be used to raise the entrepreneurial intentions of students in entrepreneurship education. Heterogeneity in creative styles among students also points to the problems of a “one‐size‐fits‐all” approach to entrepreneurship education.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to investigate the importance of creativity in entrepreneurship education and theoretical models of entrepreneurial intentions.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Caroline Emberson, John Storey, Janet Godsell and Alan Harrison

This paper aims to investigate the managerial challenges arising from the deployment of cross‐company boundary‐spanning teams to improve on‐shelf availability.

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2464

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the managerial challenges arising from the deployment of cross‐company boundary‐spanning teams to improve on‐shelf availability.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focuses on two supplier‐employed teams, each merchandising their employers' timber‐products within the stores of two leading UK DIY retail groups. Non‐participant observation and self‐administered questionnaires were used to investigate, first, the association between reported merchandiser job satisfaction and various theoretical predictors (role ambiguity, role conflict, perceived organisational support and recognition) and, second, differences in role perceptions between the two teams and their (retail store) customer representatives.

Findings

The study reveals differentiated perceptions of merchandising management practice within the UK DIY retail sector. Whilst perceived organisational recognition was found to be positively associated with merchandiser job satisfaction, there was a significant difference in the perception of organisational support reported by members of the two merchandising teams.

Research limitations/implications

The small number of merchandisers within each team limits more complex statistical analyses and the identification of potential interaction effects of other variables: notably retail store size and format.

Practical implications

The findings from these cases suggest that practitioners need to attend to the behavioural aspects of boundary‐spanning, inter‐organisational supply chain activities, such as the deployment of supplier‐employed, in‐store merchandising teams, if these practices are to be effective.

Originality/value

The behavioural aspects of inter‐organisational supply chain practice have received little research attention to date, despite their acknowledged importance. This paper starts to redress this imbalance.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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