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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Helen Duh

About 80 per cent of consumers in the world reside in emerging consumer markets (ECM). Thus, consumer behaviour theories and models should be tested for validation in ECM…

Abstract

Purpose

About 80 per cent of consumers in the world reside in emerging consumer markets (ECM). Thus, consumer behaviour theories and models should be tested for validation in ECM such as South Africa (socio-economically and culturally diverse). The purpose of this paper is to test three (human capital, stress and socialization) life-course theoretical perspectives on materialism among South African young adults. Employing the three life-course theoretical perspectives, it was posited that disruptive family events experienced during adolescence will affect materialism at young adulthood directly and indirectly through family resources received, perceived stress from family disruptions and peer communication about consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 300 South African young adults were surveyed. Structural equation modelling was used to test eight hypotheses developed from the three life-course theoretical perspectives on materialism. Independent-samples t-test was first conducted to assess whether the respondents were materialistic.

Findings

The South African young adults were found to be materialistic and this was explained by peer communication about consumption during adolescence (socialization life-course theoretical perspective). Disruptive family events experienced during adolescence significantly affected family resources negatively, and perceived stress positively, but these outcomes had no impact on materialism at young adulthood as the human capital and stress life-course theoretical perspectives suggest.

Originality/value

The results reinforce the need to test the validity of western theories in an African context. The test can improve theories and can help advance knowledge about consumer diversity across cultures.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Chau-kiu Cheung

The study aims to examine the effectiveness of socially available measures such as concessive messaging, deradicalizing messaging, punishment, and reward in…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the effectiveness of socially available measures such as concessive messaging, deradicalizing messaging, punishment, and reward in deradicalization, which remains theoretically debatable and empirically unclear and concern social policymakers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 4,385 Chinese youths in Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China, to clarify the effectiveness.

Findings

Results show that receiving concessive messages about radicalism raised radicalism in 2020. Meanwhile, receiving deradicalization messages and rewards reduced radicalism. Receiving punishments for radicalism reduced radicalism when radicalism in 2019 had been high.

Originality/value

These results support social learning theory and imply its usefulness for deradicalization. That is, deradicalization can rely on messaging countering as opposed to conceding to radicalism and reinforcement for deradicalization and against radicalism.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Hélène de Largentaye

The 40-letter correspondence concerning the French translation of The General Theory, between John Maynard Keynes and his translator, Jean de Largentaye, is a testimony of…

Abstract

The 40-letter correspondence concerning the French translation of The General Theory, between John Maynard Keynes and his translator, Jean de Largentaye, is a testimony of their close collaboration, which also involved Piero Sraffa in 1938 and 1939. Largentaye’s lexicon appears at the end of the French edition, providing definitions in French of technical terms used by Keynes. After its publication by Payot in 1942, the French edition of The General Theory was well received in France and no doubt contributed to the economic and social successes of the country in the subsequent 25 years.

Details

Including a Symposium on Ludwig Lachmann
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-862-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Wilfred J. Ethier

Over the last 60 years, multilateral trade liberalization has reduced tariffs to historically low levels. The dominant theory of multilateral trade agreements, based…

Abstract

Over the last 60 years, multilateral trade liberalization has reduced tariffs to historically low levels. The dominant theory of multilateral trade agreements, based solely on terms-of-trade externalities between national governments, is the conventional wisdom among international trade theorists. But it features two defects that render it inconsistent with reality. This chapter proposes a simple formulation of the political economy of protection that dispenses with terms-of-trade externalities, predicts the properties that empirical work has confirmed, and is free of the counterfactual implications of the dominant approach. The model is applied to trade agreements.

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Erkko Autio, Harry J. Sapienza and Pia Arenius

Internationalizing new firms face the dual challenge of overcoming the liabilities of newness and liabilities of foreignness (Stinchcombe, 1965; Dunning, 1981; Zaheer, 1995

Abstract

Internationalizing new firms face the dual challenge of overcoming the liabilities of newness and liabilities of foreignness (Stinchcombe, 1965; Dunning, 1981; Zaheer, 1995). Because of their newness, new firms are constrained in their ability to access external resources required for survival and growth. Because of their foreignness relative to the foreign target market, internationalizing firms are disadvantaged relative to domestic firms when establishing business relationships. These disadvantages are exacerbated by the additional knowledge inputs required by the internationalization process itself: internationalizing firms face the dual challenge of both learning how to do business in a new national and institutional environment while also learning to manage the inherently complex international business organization (Johanson & Vahlne, 1990).

Details

International Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-227-6

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Alma Whiteley

To report on an exploratory study on unwritten rules carried out in Australia, place this study in the context of the historical development of thought on rules and…

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Abstract

Purpose

To report on an exploratory study on unwritten rules carried out in Australia, place this study in the context of the historical development of thought on rules and discuss implications for management learning.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has three parts. The first part reviews the theoretical scholarly writings on rules as social structures from the early sociology of the nineteenth century to the organizational theory of the present day. Theories of structural functionalism and institutionalism are acknowledged as historical influences on rules and the assumptions likely to be made by managers about compliance and implementation. In the second part, the research is described in which staff members from five organizations were invited to technology‐supported focus groups. The data collection was supported by group support systems technology, which allowed anonymous inputs. Staff were asked, in various ways, about both official rules and unwritten rules. These included the use of scenarios, reported here. In the third part, the findings are discussed and three implications for management learning are suggested.

Findings

The research produced evidence that rules exist, are acted upon and require a view of the rule‐implementer as complex and holistic. The findings supported Giddens' theory of structuration which suggests that the individual rule taker draws on rules and also personal sensibility when involved in social encounters.

Originality/value

This paper provides contemporary data on rules as perceived practice which is presented within the context of the historical development of relevant management theory. Attention is drawn to three implications for management learning, which are: what rules mean, assumptions of managers, and deep listening as social responsibility. The future research agenda should be of value to those considering a practical contribution to this original field of institutional inquiry.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Paul Lyons

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P‐T). The efficacy…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P‐T). The efficacy of P‐T, with limitations, has been demonstrated in this journal and in others. However, the theoretical bases of the P‐T approach had not been well‐developed. The other purposes of this paper are to: explain the features and functions of the P‐T and to highlight the action theory of Frese as the theory supports P‐T and offers trainers some information regarding the regulation of feedback and learning. This paper adds to the procedures and practices of human resource development.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach in this paper is to explain how a training and development partnership among trainers, managers, and employees is forged so as to create P‐T for use in the field. The main aspect of the methodology was to attempt to map the elements of action theory onto the specific steps (phases) of the P‐T approach. This mapping activity was achieved.

Findings

The key findings in this study is that action theory offers a hierarchical and reasonably complete explanation of how learning occurs and how individuals regulate what they know. As explained in this paper action theory provides a map of the cognitive elements in the training model employed.

Practical implications

Assuming that the P‐T approach has value, it is important to demonstrate how theory helps to ground the approach. In this paper, action theory has been used to offer a substantial foundation for the P‐T approach. In addition, action theory helps trainers to examine learning, feedback, and regulation of performance in a comprehensive manner.

Originality/value

Action theory offers several features that help explain the regulation of learning and behavior, yet the theory has received very little attention in formal literatures. Value: the template approach adds to our repertoire of training methods. This paper helps to better explain the approach and it offers useful theories to support practice.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Peter J. Buckley

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which we require a special theory of foreign direct investment (FDI) for extractive industries.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which we require a special theory of foreign direct investment (FDI) for extractive industries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the general theory of FDI using internalising theory and location theory and augments this by using special features that apply to the extractive industries including the obsolescing bargaining argument.

Findings

The paper shows that a special theory is clearly required to explain the particular circumstances of extractive industries. However, the received theory relying on internalisation and location elements performs well.

Practical implications

Despite the current issues around extractive industries and its peculiarities, analysis of the reasons for FDI (including Chinese FDI) remains explicable by standard theory.

Originality/value

FDI in the extractive industry provides a good test of the general theory of FDI and a special theory nested within this gives a great deal of insight into current issues of FDI in extractive industries.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2015

Steven G. Medema

The question of whether, and to what extent, Chicago price theory is Marshallian is a large one, with many aspects. The theory of individual behavior is one of these, and…

Abstract

The question of whether, and to what extent, Chicago price theory is Marshallian is a large one, with many aspects. The theory of individual behavior is one of these, and the treatment of altruism, or, more generally, other-regarding behavior, falls within this domain. This chapter explores the analysis of other-regarding behavior in the work of Alfred Marshall and Gary Becker with a view to drawing out the similarities and differences in their respective approaches. What emerges is sense that we find in Becker’s work important commonalities with Marshall but also significant points of departure and that the line from Marshall to modern Chicago is neither as direct as it is sometimes portrayed, nor as faint as it is sometimes claimed by Chicago critics.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-857-1

Keywords

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