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Article

Jin Su and Vidyaranya B. Gargeya

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine supplier selection among small- and medium-sized firms in the US textile and apparel industry. For small- and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine supplier selection among small- and medium-sized firms in the US textile and apparel industry. For small- and medium-sized firms, one powerful method of improving the firm’s competitiveness in the dynamic business environment is through strategic approach of supplier selection, which emphasizes supplier’s contributions to the total product and to overall customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical survey-based research methodology was implemented and data were collected from small and medium firms in textile and apparel business in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, California, and New York which are the major areas of the US textile and apparel industry.

Findings

This study demonstrates the supplier selection practices of the small- and medium-sized firms in the US textile and apparel industry and their perceptions of supply market and supplier evaluation systems. Results indicate that supplier selection criteria impact firm performance in different ways. Small- and medium-sized firms carry out supplier selection based on product quality, supplier responsiveness, and strategic consideration which positively impact overall customer service level and overall customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on supply chain management practices, specifically the supplier selection issue in small- and medium-sized firms in the textile and apparel industry.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article

S. Gary Teng and Hector Jaramillo

The South American textile industry is experiencing unprecedented opportunities to enter the US textile/apparel market and be a collaborator in the US textile/apparel

Abstract

Purpose

The South American textile industry is experiencing unprecedented opportunities to enter the US textile/apparel market and be a collaborator in the US textile/apparel supply chain. This study intends to provide an illustration of South American small to medium‐sized companies in the textile/apparel industry concerning supply chain management such as quality, logistics, forecasting techniques, lead time, inventory management, and integration of supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The study in this paper first identifies the principal issues that concern US companies that must be addressed by small companies in their chase to become suppliers in the US textile/apparel industry. Second, this paper provides general descriptions of small textile companies in South America and discusses their performance in the different areas of supply chain management such as quality, logistics, forecasting, production planning, and supply chain integration. A survey is done to provide the comparison between what is expected in the US textile/apparel industry and the performance of South American companies.

Findings

The analyzed results provide recommendations based on the evaluation of strengths and weaknesses that may be used as references for these small companies to increase their potential of being active partners in the US supply chain.

Practical implications

This research provides the US and South American textile/apparel companies with the understanding of the issues and constraints of potential South American suppliers and allows them to establish strategic alliances with South American suppliers.

Originality/value

The study provides a clear view of the strengths and weaknesses of South American small to medium‐sized textile/apparel companies that can help both US and South American companies in the pursuit of new opportunities in textile/apparel supply chain collaborations.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article

Hyunjoo Oh and Eunjung Kim

The paper seeks to develop strategic planning to enhance sustainable competitiveness in the US textile industry with a consideration of DR‐CAFTA as an opportunity to…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to develop strategic planning to enhance sustainable competitiveness in the US textile industry with a consideration of DR‐CAFTA as an opportunity to establish responsive supply chain networks in the Western hemisphere.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis was based on literature reviews, trade data analyses, and site visits for personal interviews at textile and apparel companies in North Carolina and the Office of Textile and Apparel at the US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

Findings

DR‐CAFTA countries constitute the only remaining region that the US textile industry can use to achieve speed‐to‐market advantages from geographical proximity. Market analysis indicated both voids and opportunities in “fast retailing” supply chain networks. In developing time‐to‐market supply chain networks, it is suggested that the implementation of DR‐CAFTA should focus on: streamlining the rules of origin, expanding the short‐supply list, and coordinating custom procedures; financing options for DR‐CAFTA countries' procurement of fabrics and other raw materials from the USA.

Practical implications

Two models are proposed which can possibly be implemented by the US textile industry: a shortened supply chain for knitted sportswear and fashionable shirts that can capitalize on time‐to‐market; and triangular supply‐chain networks among US retailers and textile companies, Asian textile manufacturers, and DR‐CAFTA apparel manufacturers for fashion basics.

Originality/value

This study has an implication for the US textile industry and policy makers to develop future strategic planning in the post‐quota era. The suggestions will contribute to enhancing the competitiveness of the US textile industry in the intense global competition by achieving speed‐to‐market with DR‐CAFTA countries.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Simone Guercini

In the 1990s the trend of textile and apparel manufacturing in Italy differed considerably from other European countries with high labour costs. The examination of the…

Abstract

In the 1990s the trend of textile and apparel manufacturing in Italy differed considerably from other European countries with high labour costs. The examination of the peculiar factors generating the Italian specificity represents the first aims of this paper, and will be discussed employing statistical sources concerning market performance, industrial organization and retail structure. A second aim, of no less central importance, is the evaluation of the strategic behaviour adopted by Italian textile and apparel firms in front of competitive change on international market. Results emerging from a secondary research are presented. The analysis proposed focuses mainly on strategic market positioning and integration between manufacturing firms of the textileapparel pipeline and clothing retail.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Merertu Wakuma Rundassa, Daniel Kitaw Azene and Eshetie Berhan

Ethiopia’s economy is primarily based on agriculture, but starting form 2010, the government has been determined to diversify the exports with a priority set for strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethiopia’s economy is primarily based on agriculture, but starting form 2010, the government has been determined to diversify the exports with a priority set for strategic sectors like light manufacturing in which textile and apparel manufacturing industries are included. The purpose of this paper is to measure the comparative advantages of the Ethiopian textile and apparel industry using the revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in the period from 2007 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of the paper, secondary data were collected from the UN comtrade site, and related data sources were cited in the literature review for the purpose of triangulation (cross-checking of the analysis with theoretical background). From the theoretical background, the two indices of RCA (Balassa index and Lafay index) were used for the evaluation of the industries’ competitive advantage and to identify which industry (textiles or apparel) was of more importance in the country.

Findings

The findings of the study showed that Ethiopia was more competitive in the textile sector. However, and with reference to the Lafay index, the country has been focusing on apparel sector, because of the opportunities for job creation.

Research limitations/implications

For the purpose of this study, secondary data were used and the general conclusions are limited to the corresponding sources of data.

Practical implications

Because of the labor-intensive nature, the textile and apparel sector has been one of the areas promoted by the Ethiopian Government in its industrialization policy. The finding of this paper can be used by policy makers to evaluate the competitiveness of the country.

Social implications

The findings can be used to assess social upgrading issues in the textile and apparel sector.

Originality/value

The work is the first of its kind in the sector as well as the country.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article

Ruth K. Shelton and Kathy Wachter

1 January 2005 sees quota elimination in textile and apparel trade. This study traces textile and apparel trade, since 1994 and analyzes how trade agreements have…

Abstract

Purpose

1 January 2005 sees quota elimination in textile and apparel trade. This study traces textile and apparel trade, since 1994 and analyzes how trade agreements have influenced sourcing within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the world. Statistical measurements of offshore sourcing of textile and apparel are analyzed with emphasis on developments in countries within NAFTA and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Design/methodology/approach

Prior to NAFTA, the United States major textile and apparel trade involved the “far shore” countries of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and the “near shore” countries of Canada and Mexico. Charting statistical measurements from the databases of the Office of Textile and Apparel, US Department of Commerce for the past decade reveals dramatic changes in sourcing locations for US firms.

Findings

Trade agreements have influenced the production, manufacturing, and sourcing of textile and apparel products. Small‐ and large‐scale restructuring of the industries of the world are required in response to the changes in trade of textiles and apparel. As a result of the Multi‐Fiber Agreement (MFA) 1974, Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) 1994, NAFTA 1994, and the transitional program of the WTO of 1995 global sourcing had re‐directed the course of US textiles and apparel trade markets to low cost offshore locations at the expense of US jobs.

Originality/value

This study gives insight into concerns and problems facing the US and other developed countries as jobs in many areas are transferred to low wage countries.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Ning Cao, Zhiming Zhang, Kin Man To and Keng Po Ng

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the empirical issues of the implementation of coordination for textileapparel supply chains.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the empirical issues of the implementation of coordination for textileapparel supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing case study, the paper examines three different types of coordination practice in three different structures of textileapparel supply chains: vertical integration chain, efficiency oriented chain and 3P‐hub chain. The coordinators are three leading Hong Kong based international textiles and apparel companies in these cases. The case sources are published articles, company web sites and some open seminars offered by the case companies.

Findings

In textile and apparel industries, brand owners generally coordinate the supply chain. There are also other coordination practices in industries. Through the research observations and analyses in the cases it is found that the integrated company, powerful garment manufacturer and trade agent play the role of coordinators in vertical integration chain, efficiency oriented chain and 3P‐hub chain, respectively. No matter what type of coordination practice, information sharing and product flow coordination should be comprehensive. Coordinators are the information centers of the whole supply chain. They should have power to manage the supply chain. They should actively integrate the whole chain for maximum total profitability.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is just an overview of coordination practice in textileapparel supply chains. The case sources are published articles, company web sites and some open seminars made by the case companies. The methodology should be more systematic.

Originality/value

Coordination in textileapparel supply chains is still an unresolved question both from the theoretic and practical points of view. This paper fills in some of the gaps.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Peter Kilduff

The paper seeks to explain the pattern of strategic responses by the US textile and apparel industries to changes in their business environment since 1979.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to explain the pattern of strategic responses by the US textile and apparel industries to changes in their business environment since 1979.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a literature review and interviews with officers from leading US corporations, government agencies and trade associations. The approach examines strategic responses to environmental change. The study takes a macro perspective to permit an understanding of the forces operating at the industry level.

Findings

Shifting market requirements, intensifying international competition, powerful retailers, and rapid technological change have confronted the US textile and apparel sectors. In responding to these, companies have developed more creative, change‐seeking business cultures, and more flexible operational arrangements. However, both industries have exhibited change‐resisting characteristics in their responses. Many companies have been forced into bankruptcy. Today both industries are radically different, in terms of their strategies, business scope, technological intensity, organizational structure, and supply chain relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a generalized perspective on the broad thrusts of strategic changes across the two sectors. Further work could develop this analysis at a micro level.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the need for US companies to develop more change‐seeking business cultures, more flexible operational arrangements, an international orientation and a sharper business focus.

Originality/value

The paper provides a long‐term, systemic perspective on strategic responses to environmental change at the industry level. It has policy‐making value to practitioners and government agencies, and instructional value to teachers and students.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article

Jin Su and Vidyaranya B. Gargeya

With the intense competition in the global textile and apparel industry and the uncertainty of the global textile and apparel business environment, sourcing has…

Abstract

Purpose

With the intense competition in the global textile and apparel industry and the uncertainty of the global textile and apparel business environment, sourcing has increasingly assumed a pivotal strategic role in textile and apparel supply chain management. Strategic sourcing is crucial for firms to obtain or sustain competitiveness in world marketplace. The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically how strategic sourcing and sourcing capability impact firm performance in the US textile and apparel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical survey‐based research methodology was implemented to examine the research questions and model. Data were collected from the 152 firms in the US textile and apparel industry.

Findings

The findings show that strategic sourcing leads to greater emphasis on sourcing capability and positively impacts firm performance.

Originality/value

The study contributes to understanding of supply chain management using data from the US textile and apparel industry to investigate the relationships between strategic sourcing, sourcing capability, and firm performance and to test the research hypotheses by quantitative survey‐based research method. The textile and apparel industry is dynamic, global, diverse, and complex, and is a prime exemplifier of globalization. The study clearly demonstrates that strategic sourcing plays a vital role in a firm's business operations and puts greater emphasis on developing the sourcing manager's business capability.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

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Article

Sheng Lu

This study aims to empirically investigate the potential impact of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on US textile and apparel manufacturing.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically investigate the potential impact of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on US textile and apparel manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) computable general equilibrium model based on the latest GTAP9 database.

Findings

The findings of the study suggest that: the “yarn-forward” rule will not work effectively in the context of TPP; and the development of Vietnam’s local textile industry is a critical threat to the survival of US textile and apparel (T&A) manufacturing in the long run.

Originality/value

The findings of the study augment the understanding of the T&A-specific sectoral impact of TPP and address the particular concerns of the US T&A manufacturers with regard to the new business environment and the possible scenarios after the implementation of the agreement.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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