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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Merertu Wakuma Rundassa, Daniel Kitaw Azene and Eshetie Berhan

Ethiopia’s economy is primarily based on agriculture, but starting form 2010, the government has been determined to diversify the exports with a priority set for strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethiopia’s economy is primarily based on agriculture, but starting form 2010, the government has been determined to diversify the exports with a priority set for strategic sectors like light manufacturing in which textile and apparel manufacturing industries are included. The purpose of this paper is to measure the comparative advantages of the Ethiopian textile and apparel industry using the revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in the period from 2007 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of the paper, secondary data were collected from the UN comtrade site, and related data sources were cited in the literature review for the purpose of triangulation (cross-checking of the analysis with theoretical background). From the theoretical background, the two indices of RCA (Balassa index and Lafay index) were used for the evaluation of the industries’ competitive advantage and to identify which industry (textiles or apparel) was of more importance in the country.

Findings

The findings of the study showed that Ethiopia was more competitive in the textile sector. However, and with reference to the Lafay index, the country has been focusing on apparel sector, because of the opportunities for job creation.

Research limitations/implications

For the purpose of this study, secondary data were used and the general conclusions are limited to the corresponding sources of data.

Practical implications

Because of the labor-intensive nature, the textile and apparel sector has been one of the areas promoted by the Ethiopian Government in its industrialization policy. The finding of this paper can be used by policy makers to evaluate the competitiveness of the country.

Social implications

The findings can be used to assess social upgrading issues in the textile and apparel sector.

Originality/value

The work is the first of its kind in the sector as well as the country.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Nicholas Bilalis, Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Emmanuel Maravelakis, Andreas Enders, Vassilis Moustakis and Aristomenis Antoniadis

The European Union (EU) clothing and textile industries are characterized by very intense international competition. EU producers face fierce competition from exports of

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2455

Abstract

Purpose

The European Union (EU) clothing and textile industries are characterized by very intense international competition. EU producers face fierce competition from exports of new industrialized countries whose low wages and social charges give them a considerable competitive advantage. This paper seeks to present the results of an analysis of the European textile sector competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on an industrial excellence (IE) model developed by INSEAD. This model has been used for the last ten years in an annual award (IEA), given out in France and Germany. This time the model was used not for giving an award, but for assessing and analyzing the current status of industrial excellence in the textile sector. For this reason a sample of textile companies from three European countries was used and results of the analysis are presented. The textile companies that participated in the analysis were benchmarked against the technologically advanced IEA sample consisting of companies from various industries, which participated in the competition during the last three years.

Findings

Key performance indicators of the textile sector are analyzed, including quality, flexibility, supply chain management, strategy formulation and strategy implementation. Significant improvement potential, especially in the areas of human resource management and knowledge management, is indicated.

Research limitations/implications

Provides a methodology for employing the IE approach in their operation. Also provides a methodology for analyzing sector performance and new areas of differentiation in the European textile sector.

Practical implications

The results of the analysis were used to define customized IE training in order to promote expertise in IE in textiles and improve competitiveness of the sector.

Originality/value

The IEA model is used for the first time, not for giving an award, but as an IE assessment tool which can assist managers both of textile companies and intermediary bodies.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Karan Khurana

One of the oldest civilizations of Africa, Ethiopia is today at the advent of industrialization in various business sectors. Agriculture being a primary source of income…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the oldest civilizations of Africa, Ethiopia is today at the advent of industrialization in various business sectors. Agriculture being a primary source of income (50 per cent of the GDP) is now transforming into more dynamic and new sectors. Textile and apparel is one of the sectors that has received a lot of attention from the government and the objective is to become sourcing destinations of the world. The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the current advances to the stakeholders, academia and industry from concept to the consumer. The aim of the paper is to present a transition of advances made in textile and apparel business that the country has made in the past decade and also to examine the potential of the consumer for this country. The consumer in the country is young and brings a lot of novel opportunities for textile and apparel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis is an empirical journey of the author’s research in academia and textile and apparel industry in Ethiopia.

Findings

This paper establishes a connection between the stakeholders, academia, industry and beneficiaries of this business so that it could become a guideline for future business investors. It also highlights the problems within this sector and provides a clear idea for domestic companies to compete with global competitors in terms of upcoming future business trends.

Originality/value

Presently, in the atmosphere of fashion and textiles, there is air about Ethiopia being the next manufacturing hub of the world in Africa. However, no academic literature is available which summarizes the opportunities and tasks in this industry, and this paper caters to the need of the hour.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Peter Kilduff and Ting Chi

This paper aims to present an exploratory investigation into long‐term patterns of trade specialization among leading textile and apparel exporting nations, assessing…

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1414

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an exploratory investigation into long‐term patterns of trade specialization among leading textile and apparel exporting nations, assessing patterns of comparative advantage across the textile machinery, man‐made fiber, textiles and apparel sectors of the textile complex to determine whether these conform with both trade specialization and industry evolution theories. A model of evolutionary change in intra complex specialization is defined and evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

A revealed comparative advantage index is employed to evaluate international competitiveness for 30‐nations over a 42‐year period. Repeated measures of ANOVA are used to determine the significance of the observed patterns across five income‐defined groups of nations.

Findings

Long‐term patterns of specialization broadly reflect expectations of factor proportions theory and industry evolution models. Product and income group characteristics combine to influence comparative advantage. Higher income nations generally remain stronger in more capital‐intensive sectors, while lower income countries have emerged to dominate labor‐intensive sectors. However, inclusion of a more complex array of variables is necessary to obtain a fuller understanding of international competitiveness.

Practical implications

Established theory remains a useful but limited guide to understanding the dynamics of international competitiveness in the context of the changing business environment. Improved understanding of patterns of change can assist strategic planning.

Originality/value

By embracing a long‐term time frame, a broad array of nations, and a vertical textile complex perspective to identify shifting patterns of competitiveness, this paper highlights key dynamics in the global textile complex over the last four decades.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2010

Louise Curran and Soledad Zignago

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the international financial crisis on key clothing markets and their suppliers.

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3450

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the international financial crisis on key clothing markets and their suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis was undertaken on the basis of trade figures from the International Trade Centre (ITC) and Eurostat over the period 2005‐2009, and in particular over the period July 2007 to July 2009, when the strongest impacts from the crisis can be seen.

Findings

The different markets and suppliers have been impacted rather heterogeneously by the crisis. The key regional suppliers to the EU and the USA – Turkey and Mexico – have seen large falls in their clothing exports, as well as their textiles imports and exports. However, the EU has also seen major reductions in its trade. Others have been less strongly affected in the clothing sector. In textiles, trade fell in both directions everywhere, confirming a general tendency for intermediate product trade to be more affected by the crisis than final trade in goods. The research shows that certain sectors have been less strongly affected than others. However, the impacts have been heterogeneous across countries. The figures for the EU were extracted in euros, but also converted to dollars for comparison. The results vary quite considerably depending on the currency used for analysis.

Originality/value

The paper analyzes, for the first time, the most up to date trade data relating to flows over the period of the crisis. Through analysing the impacts of the economic downturn the potential impacts on the industrial landscape after the crisis can be better seen.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Jatin Goyal, Rajdeep Singh, Harpreet Kaur and Kanwaljeet Singh

The purpose of this study is to comprehend the efficiency levels of the Indian textile industry and also its sub-sectors in the light of changing global and national…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to comprehend the efficiency levels of the Indian textile industry and also its sub-sectors in the light of changing global and national business environment. It is imperative to study the efficiency levels of textile industry for an emerging economy like India, where the industry contributes up to 13 per cent in export earnings, 10 per cent in total industrial production and 2 per cent in gross domestic product (GDP). The study holds an important place in the wake of phasing out of the quota regime existing under the Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) and the rising competition being faced from countries such as Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study attempts to have an in-depth analysis of the efficiency levels in the Indian textile industry using meta-frontier data envelopment analysis, which is a non-parametric linear programming based frontier technique.

Findings

The findings highlight that the Indian textile industry is inefficient and has a huge scope of improvement in terms of efficiency. It also confirms the existence of different production functions among the sub-sectors of the industry. Among the different sub-sectors, the proximity of production frontier of readymade garments is the closest to meta-frontier followed by cotton and blended yarn, man-made fibre, cloth and others.

Practical implications

The findings bear strong implications for the policymakers in their attempt to regain the lost competitive position of the Indian textile industry and to enhance its contribution in the economy. As per the findings, policymakers should target the relatively inefficient sub-sectors of textile industry (cloth, man-made fibre, cotton and blended yarn) to infuse more efficiency in these sectors to enhance the market share of the Indian textile industry in the global textiles market.

Originality/value

The current study is a unique addition to the sparse literature on managing efficiencies in the textile industry, particularly of emerging economy like India. Looking at the methodological and geographical coverage of the previous work, it was found that no study has explored and analysed the efficiencies of the sub-sectors in the Indian textile industry using meta-frontier analysis. Therefore, this study will be the first of its kind which seeks to fill such gaps and intends to enrich the available literature.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 60 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2007

Peter Kilduff and Ting Chi

This paper aims to present an exploratory investigation into ten‐year (1995‐2004) patterns of trade specialization among Eastern European and former Soviet Union Nations…

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2217

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an exploratory investigation into ten‐year (1995‐2004) patterns of trade specialization among Eastern European and former Soviet Union Nations, assessing patterns of comparative advantage across the textile machinery, man‐made fiber, textile, and apparel sectors of the textile complex to determine whether these conform with both trade specialization and industry evolution theories.

Design/methodology/approach

A revealed symmetric comparative advantage index is employed to evaluate international competitiveness for 27 Eastern European and former Soviet Union Nations over a ten‐year period. Repeated measures ANOVA is used to determine the significance of the observed patterns across four income‐defined groups of nations.

Findings

Overall, the pattern of export development and RSCA generally reflects expectations regarding factor proportions theory and industry evolution models. The RMANOVA partially confirms the observations. The analysis indicates that income group does not independently affect comparative advantage; however, the nature of products is the significant factor influencing national comparative advantage.

Practical implications

The established models may be better at understanding those nations which have established relatively stable politic and economic environment, and been experiencing earlier stages of industry development, but appear less useful in predicting development patterns for those nations experiencing dramatic transitions from regulated to de‐regulated markets.

Originality/value

The patterns of national comparative advantage in a vertical textile complex are identified for Eastern European and former Soviet Union Nations. The dynamics of change over a ten‐year period following economic reforms are revealed.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Nancy Nelson Hodges and Holly M. Lentz

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of displaced female textile sector workers.

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1126

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of displaced female textile sector workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach to data collection and interpretation forms the methodological basis of the study. In‐depth interviews were conducted with 14 female employees who were laid off from a large textile manufacturing facility in a southeastern state. Participants were selected through the local community college where they returned to school after losing their jobs.

Findings

A phenomenological interpretation of the responses led to the development of three emergent thematic areas connecting similarities and differences that surfaced across the participants' narratives. Key issues within the thematic areas point to the need for each participant to come to terms with the job loss, both emotionally and financially, and to decide where she would go from there.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on women employed at a single manufacturing facility and within a single state in the southeastern USA. Implications of the meanings of participants' experiences for their community and for the future of employment in the US textile sector are considered.

Practical implications

The study provides an interpretation of the impact of textile sector dynamics on the lives of displaced workers and the local community.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into the human side of industry dynamics and declining manufacturing employment figures. It also sheds light on the extent to which some displaced textile sector workers have pursued the educational options made available through government programs designed to provide assistance with education and retraining.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Saadia Pekkanen and Mireya Solis

This analysis of the Japanese textile sector illustrates how intra-industry cleavages are becoming an integral feature of Japanese trade policymaking. In the past, a…

Abstract

This analysis of the Japanese textile sector illustrates how intra-industry cleavages are becoming an integral feature of Japanese trade policymaking. In the past, a pattern of cross-sectoral variation in trade policy could be observed, as the government protected declining industries at home and sought to open foreign markets for the competitive export sector. The internationalization of Japanese firms, however, has radically affected the articulation of corporate trade policy preferences. There is an ongoing breakdown in solidarity among industry members based on their degree of multinationality and/or their reverse importing strategies. These clashes put contradictory pressures on the Japanese government, making it more difficult to predict the course of trade liberalization in Japan.

Details

Japanese Firms in Transition: Responding to the Globalization Challenge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-157-6

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